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appeals to them to send their sons to "dear old Bokhara." Conversely, an institution like the West Point Military Academy is held to an antiquated type of military education because the lege Fear"West Pointers" who send their sons there want the school to remain as they knew it.

ful of Competi

tion Cultivates Its

Oxford University, in Adam Smith's day, was careful to curb Alumni competition lest it disclose weaknesses. Students enrolled in a college might not leave it for another without first securing permission of the college they sought to abandon. Academic discipline appeared to have the purpose of making the students attend worthless, distasteful lectures and behave toward the professor, whether he performed or neglected his duty, as if he had performed it with the greatest diligence and ability."

In the face of the growing interest in new studies, such as natural science and social science, the classics intrench themselves in the college curriculum as "required subjects," while the new attractions are kept in the inferior status of "elective subjects." A party menaced by a new political movement it dares not meet in the open gets the weather gage by a law excluding from the official ballot a party which has not received a specified percentage of the ballots cast at the last election.

In business a means of holding competitors at bay is the "factors' agreement" which binds the dealer to handle only the goods of a certain producer. Again, an organization may require of the dealer the handling of articles upon which the patents have expired, as a condition of obtaining other articles, or the handling of a certain article or line of articles as a condition of the handling another article or line of articles.


A third means of surviving competition may be called constrained adaptation.

The government-led Westernization of Japan was not essentially a conversion to Occidental thought but the reluctant taking over of certain Western institutions and policies in order to save Japan from absorption by some Western power.

It can hardly be doubted that the Counter-Reformation within the church at the Council of Trent was an adaptation forced by competition.

* See Smith's "Wealth of Nations," Vol. II, pp. 348-49.


The Class

ics In




Keeping ties off the

New Par


In China the activity of the Christian missionaries is forcing the native faiths to assume higher forms in order to survive. Chinese scholars are reading into the Confucian classics elevated moral ideas which they have unconsciously imbibed from Christian literature. There is, indeed, a movement which frankly calls in Order to itself "Confucio-Christianity." In some parts, under the spur



Are Bor-




of missionary competition, the Confucians band together and send out wandering gospellers of their own to spread the doctrines of the sage at fairs and festivals. Chinese Mohammedans, Buddhists and Taoists form "national associations," found schools (even girls' schools) and maintain funds to relieve the distress of the poor, help needy children to go to school and attend to the birth, marriage and death ceremonies of the destitute.

The Ceylonese Buddhists speak of the "incarnation" and the "immaculate conception" of Buddha and comfort the dying by assuring them that the Lord Buddha will presently receive them into his arms. The Buddhists of Japan besides sending out missionaries of their own have adopted various methods of their Christian competitors. They have stated times for preaching. They have pastoral visitation, street preaching, Sunday schools, prison and army chaplains, and special organizations for young men, women, and children. They maintain charities, push temperance, and set up schools.

Partly from the soaking in of Christian ideas and partly as tactics for surviving missionary competition Hinduism is honeycombed with reform movements and crude doctrines and rites are rapidly being sloughed off.



Changes upon Religious



Owing to competition among themselves American religious Forces Un- denominations have had forced upon them changes distasteful to the ruling element. The "amusement" clause of the Methodist Book of Discipline has in many places become a dead letter because its enforcement would be a serious handicap in competition with less strict churches. The success of the undenominational Young People's Christian Endeavor Society caused large denominations to organize young people's societies of their own. In like manner the churches develop "institutional" or social, or recreative, features, not because their members want them, but in order to attract or hold the young people, the men, or the unchurched. President Vincent says:

• See Ross, "The Changing Chinese," pp. 256–57, 279.

The prevalent manifestations of good feeling, brotherliness, and co- CHAP.

XX operation between ministers and churches are in large measure unconscious forms under which they compete for the approval of a public opinion which demands tolerance, friendliness, and unity. The minister and the church who hold aloof quickly feel the displeasure of the community and distinctly lose caste. Competition may constrain an institution to adopt a line which competi

tion May lies quite outside its proper sphere. Early in the nineteenth cen- Compel an

Institution tury English Nonconformists founded the British Schools Society. Lo statu lot to be outdone the Established Church, which hitherto had Against

Its Own utterly ignored elementary education, entered upon the work of Nature promoting schools. But it was natural enough for the Nonconformists to make a special effort in the direction of education because their adherents were largely of the English lower orders, which were at that time very illiterate. The Established Church, however, was in no such case and took upon herself altogether too heavy a burden of education. In the end a situatron developed which led to the state taking over all the church schools. The modern socialist movement has forced conservative in- Conserva

tive Instistitutions to concern themselves with the material welfare of the tutions

Forced to masses. In the 70's of the last century in order to check

do SomeLassalle's movement, Bishop Kettler of Mayence organized in thing on

of Rhenish Prussia Christian trade unions which spread to Ger- the Work

ing Class many and Austria. In Belgium the socialists, in accordance with their principles, organized cooperative banks among the poor. In order not to lose influence over them the church Karied cooperative banks of her own. In the same way cooperative credit associations have been organized in Quebec in connection with the church.

No doubt the advanced social program of the Federal Council of Churches in Christ was adopted by most of the Protestant churches reluctantly and only because it was realized that "something must be done to win back the workingmen."

The whole German system of social insurance was in the first place urged by the Socialist party. Bismarck and his Junkers based the socialists and cared little for the welfare of the working class, but they took over these alien policies in order to make German wage-earners proof against socialism.

* Blethodist Review, January, 1906, p. 75.


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When wage-earners are enfranchised or organize themselves,

political parties officered and run by the propertied class vie Competition

with each other in wooing them. Whether they shall gain anyObliges

thing from this competition depends upon their intelligence. Bour. geois Par. The politicians run their man as the “log cabin" candidate,

court labor with genial handshaking and barbecue, appease labor ThemSelves with leaders with political jobs, scatter promises they do not intend a Thin Pro-labor

to fulfil, give their policies a labor flavor (high tariff urged as Veneering the “protection of American workingmen "), pass measures which

they know the courts will annul as unconstitutional, throw labor a few sops, or offer substantial benefits while at the same time providing capitalists with new benefits along other lines. Only in case all this does not avail is it necessary for the party to lend

itself seriously to realizing a working-class program. Con

The competition of young American commonwealths for imstrained Adaptation migrants contributed to the spread of democracy in the United Cities States by promoting the extension of the suffrage and the early

adoption of a system of public education. The competition of ambitious cities for residents or factories obliges them to adopt policies respecting saloons, prostitution, parks, boulevards, schools, police, handling of labor troubles, etc., which may be wormwood to the majority.

Universities are loath to change, so that their adaptation to new Rivalry conditions is usually forced by competition. The universities of Liberalizes Univer. the seventeenth century, incrusted still in scholasticism, adopted sities

the principle of freedom of inquiry which prevailed in the newly founded scientific academies -- only because in no other way could they attract the best scholars of their day. Americans are fortunate in having two types of university - endowed and state. Their competition for professors broadens academic freedom while their competition for students tends to modernize the curriculum by introducing such new subjects as economics, sociology, business administration, and journalism. The catering of corporate universities to the prejudices of possible donors would hamper gravely the teaching of the social sciences, were it not that they have to meet the competition of the liberal state universities.

In public institutions and in private institutions there are elements of strength and elements of weakness, but they are not identical in the two types. Accordingly if the two types are

Inter-uni. versity

brought into honorable competition within the same field each is stimulated to develop the kind of strength the other has, along with its own kind of strength, and to rid itself of the weaknesses tages of peculiar to it. Fortunate therefore is the society which has both public and private high schools, both state and corporate universities, both state and private forestry, both state and commercial insurance service, both parcel post and express companies, both community and private agencies of poor relief, and both state and philanthropic institutions for dependents. In order that there may be true competition there should be no alliance of any sort between private societies or foundations and the government. The government should neither subsidize them nor be subsidized by them, but each should go ahead on its own resources and show the best it can do for the people.




Of course under constraint an institution adapts its manners and methods to the situation rather than its principles or policies. Instance the suppleness of the Jesuits who become "all things to all men," winning men of the world with their polish and lovers of truth with their zeal for science. Instance a Tory university. reeking with oil-trust money which builds a huge stadium and dazzles young people with the splendor of its athletics. A political party camouflages its aristocratic principles with leaders or candidates who are extra-approachable and democratic in manner. The Russian bureaucracy tried to hold in check the radical labor movement by sending out its own secret agents to organize labor unions.


Competition Be


Public and stitutions

Private In

ods of a

The MethRival Are but Not



Finally an institution eludes competitors by specializing. This is like the ingenious business man who keeps ahead of his imitative competitors by continually differentiating his product so as to meet a special demand. As people get used to it and more and more demand it, it passes from specialty into staple. But he has a fresh differentiation ready, slight, perhaps, but significart enough to awaken a new demand or a modification of the original demand another specialty.

Thus a college may snap its fingers at rivals offering courses in commerce and journalism and keep its halls filled by offering the best-framed and best-taught classical course of study. When yellow journalism seems to be carrying all before it, some jour-s Own

Field of

An Institu

tion Eludes


tors by Finding a

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