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U PON the appearance of a serious competitor the first policy
The Established Tries to Destroy Its Com petitor
petitor. The “trust" regularly cuts the price of its products to a point below cost of production in localities in which an
independent” seeks to sell. A shipping combine will have “fighting ships " which are called into play when a new steamship line enters their trade. As soon as the competitor announces a sailing date the combine advertises a steamer to sail on or near this date and offers a freight rate below the actual cost of carriage. In this way the competitor is prevented from securing a
cargo. The Real The highest social class hobbles by minute sumptuary regulaSumptuary tions the classes which aspire to come up abreast of it. In feudal
Japan, for example, a man might not use his money as he would. The farmer, craftsman, or shopkeeper could not build a house as he liked or procure himself such articles of luxury as his taste might incline him to buy. The richest commoner might not order certain things to be made for him, might not imitate the habits or assume the privileges of his betters. Although urged on economic grounds, sumptuary restrictions are doubtless intended to protect
the monopoly of prestige by the higher social orders. Slavery The spread of anti-slavery feeling among the producing people as a Men of the North during the generation before the American Civil ace to the War was due to their perception that slavery is a menace to the
free-labor system. In accounting for the early abolition of slavery in Massachusetts John Adams remarks: “ Argument might have had some weight ... but the real cause was the multiplication of laboring white people who would not longer suffer the rich to employ these sable rivals so much to their injury.”
Monogamic marriage, tolerant enough toward monastic and Shaker celibacy, which put yet greater strain on human nature,
suppresses as a dangerous rival every laxer form of sex relation
litical Parties Will Not
After representative government with its inevitable strife of tion parties has been established, the parties controlled by the propertied strive to crush the rising party which asserts working-class geois Pointerests. To avoid meeting it in the arena of public discussion they hypocritically denounce it as anti-patriotic and subversive, a movement with criminal aims led by scoundrels and assassins, which is not entitled to the belligerent rights of a legitimate political party but deserves only to be stamped out by suppressing its propaganda and hounding its leaders. Thus was outlawed the socialist party in Germany during Bismarck's ascendancy. On the other hand, labor organizations oppose all proposals looking to state health-insurance, because many of them have developed insurance schemes of their own and they fear lest their power to hold their members will be weakened under compulsory state insurance.
What Darwin took at first for a smooth unbroken grass land proved, on nearer examination, to be thick-set with tiny self-sown firs, which the cattle regularly cropped as they grew. Similarly, that which some love to picture as the harmonious growth of one great body through the Middle Ages is really a history of many divergent opinions violently strangled at birth; while hundreds more, too vigorous to be killed by the adverse surroundings, and elastic enough to take something of the outward colour of their environment, grew in spite of the hierarchy into organisms which, in their turns, profoundly modified the whole constitution of the Church. If the mediaeval theory and practice of persecution had still been in
The whole history of religious persecution is the history of an organization trying to establish itself as a monopoly by ruthless destruction of the spokesmen of competing doctrines and movements. In Diocletian's time Roman religious beliefs were weak Rival if It while the Christian beliefs were vigorous and spreading. In desperation the old system made a ferocious attempt to exterminate all Christians. A thousand years later the church stamped certain sects out of existence and strangled heresies in the cradle. Says Coulton:
full force in the eighteenth century in England, nearly all the best Wesleyans would have chosen to remain within the Church rather than to shed blood in revolt; and the rest would have been killed off like wild beasts. The present unity of Romanism so far as it exists, is due less to tact than to naked force.1
tude TOward tho Francis cans
Instructive is the change of front of the church with respect to the Franciscans. The religion of poverty and love propagated by Francis of Assisi took possession of the whole church. The most beautiful chants of the Middle Ages and the greatest sermons originated among the Franciscans and the Dominicans closely related to them. New life was given to art and scholarship. All the great scholars of the thirteenth century — Thomas
of Aquinas, Bonaventura, Albertus — were of the begging orders. Why tho
But the church which had granted authority to St. Francis
and established the Little Brothers of the Poor as a monastic orHer Atti
der turned against it when the ideal of poverty spread so far as to menace her power and riches. She declared what the Franciscans were preaching about the poverty of Christ and the Apostles to be heresy and demanded submission. All the “spiritual” Franciscans were condemned as heretics. Cardinals who still defended the ideal of poverty, a few years before so popular, fell into disgrace. There was a bitter struggle, but at the end of the fourteenth century the worldly church had crushed the propaganda of the poverty ideal. As a result the monastic orders lost in inspiration and influence and by the time of the Renaissance monasticism had fallen into “ laziness and worthlessness.
In 1660 the English Episcopal church became established and entered upon the same policy of persecution of which formerly it had been the victim. In 1662 the Act of Uniformity was passed enforcing the use of the amended Book of Common Prayer. In 1664 the Conventicle Act made illegal all meetings for worship except according to the church. In 1665 an act was passed forbidding Nonconformist ministers to approach a borough. Not until 1689 was the endeavor to crush the sects abandoned.
The Puritan theocracy in New England in its persecution of Puritan Theocracy Antinomians, Baptists, and Quakers showed a like ruthless deSought Every
1 “From St. Francis to Dante, p. 40. Rival
2 See Harnack, “The Evolution of the Monastic Ideal."
termination to crush every movement which might bring about its overthrow.
WITHDRAWAL FROM COMPETITION
In case the rival cannot be destroyed one seeks to withdraw The Mofrom competition, just as an army which cannot whip the enemy Japan's retires behind fortifications. The rulers of Japan, discovering ton early in the seventeenth century that the Jesuit missions were disintegrating a society founded on communal custom and filial piety, slew the native Christians, expelled all foreigners save the Dutch traders, who were confined to a 3-acre isle, made it a capital offense for any Japanese to leave Japan, destroyed all vessels capable of long voyages, and attacked any European ships entering a Japanese port, excepting the vessels of the Dutch company. In like manner China in the sixteenth century sought to isolate itself from foreign influences.
In the third quarter of the last century, it became clear that the common American standard of living could not possibly survive the competition of the Chinese coolies' standard of living. The friends of the American standard finally erected a barrier against the Oriental standard in the form of the Chinese Exclusion Act. The wide support of this policy outside the manual laboring class shows that it was the reaction of a threatened standard rather than of interested American wage-earners.
The endeavor of Chinese officials to restrain the Christian mis- Why sionaries from going about preaching and teaching in China, as well as the violences which from time to time they have de- the Misliberately stirred up against them, sprang from the fear of the literary and official class lest the ideas the missionaries introduce should make it harder to maintain their system of governing and exploiting the masses.
A state with few economic opportunities open cannot hope to attract immigrants and therefore by every means in its power it rds its citizens to it. It argues "Once a Batavian always a Travian," limits emigration or expatriation, cultivates the goodw of its nationals withersoever they may wander and frowns upon their naturalization in another state.
A church that cannot crush its competitors claims special protection from the state. In South America until recently the state has been used to protect the religious monopoly of the Roman
with the Children of Its
Catholic Church. Only since 1865 in Chile have non-Catholics
been permitted to practice their religion inside private buildings State-protected Re- belonging to them.” Until 1907 the law decreed that any person ligious Mo nopolies
conspiring “to establish. in Bolivia any other religion than that which the Republic professes, namely, that of the Roman Catholic Apostolic Church," is a traitor. The constitution of Peru declared “The Nation professes the Roman Catholic Apostolic religion; the State protects it and does not permit the exercise of any other.” Not until 1915 was the last clause abrogated.
Throughout Spanish and French America the church secured and kept in her hands the control of 'schools, burial grounds, marriage, and poor relief. Until lately Russian Orthodoxy, unable by ferocious persecution to uproot the dissenting sects, had the state punish with great severity any proselyting among the Orthodox, whereas the latter might proselyte as they pleased.
If the state will not shield her, the church that shrinks from of Weak- meeting competition builds for herself a citadel within which she no chances can continue her life untroubled by the assaults from the outside
world. The early church permitted mixed marriages in the
serene confidence that the Christian would convert, rather than Members;
be converted by, the pagan mate. But an edict of Louis XIV forbade marriage with heretics, because of the "continual temptation of perversion.” An expanding church does not admit very young members and is willing that the children of its members should freely choose their religion; but a church hard pressed hopes to forestall the judgment of its young people by incorporating them at an early age and requires its members to rear their children straitly in the faith. It conducts its young through a tunnel of church schools and societies, lit by church lamps, instead of letting them into the broad daylight of the public school, the social settlement, the social center, and the public playground.
Great attention, 'too, is given to hedging the minds of the adult Minds
faithful. The church forbids them to read certain periodicals, patronize certain libraries, see certain plays, or follow certain university courses. Such maternal nervousness is a sure sign that the church, feeling the Zeitgeist to be alien, counts on surviving by holding on to her people rather than by winning new converts.
The college loath to modernize its curriculum and methods follows the same tactics. It cultivates assiduously its alumni and