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an are worn deep and straight and smooth. The poorest stuff CHAP. I s that which migrates in response to a ticket-selling campaign by steamship agents who go about and excite the ignorant and gul1:3:e with fairy tales. Woe to the land which serves as dumping gtuurd for a commercialized immigration ! Eringing his own inherited low standard of living, the foreign- The Low

standard burn outbreeds his native competitor, whose standard of living Immigrant

Outbreeds tetects the better prospects of the newer country. The former and Sopwill be ready to marry before the latter feels justified in doing so. "High

plants tho The former will beget eight children while the latter does not see standard

Native bw he can do right by more than four. The higher standards of Stock cleanliness, decency and education cherished by the native eleeat act on it like a slow poison. William does not leave so many children as 'Tonio because he will not huddle his family :O one room, eat macaroni off a bare board, work his wife bareint in the field, and keep his children weeding onions instead of at school. Subjection to competition with low-standard immigrants appears to be the root cause of the mysterious “ sterility" which has stricken in turn the Americans and each of the AmerKarized immigrant elements. Down to 1830 the Americans were 23 ferile a race as ever lived and their decline in fertility coinCales in time and locality with the arrival of the immigrant

'In 1&p in American cities a thousand foreign-born women could cou 65 children under five years of age to 309 children shown by a to cuand native women. By 1900 the contribution of the foreign women mai risen to 012, while that of the native women had declined to 296.

*F S. Crum in the Bulletin of the American Statistical Association for Serie 1914, p. 216, offers the following significant table:

AVERAGE NUMBER OF CHILDREN PER WIFE (Statistics Based upon Twenty-two Genealogical Records of American Families.)

Average Number Number of Number of of Children per Marriage Periods. Wives. Children. Wife. Persicas to 1700..

276
2,034

7.37 0-1749

802
5,478

6.83
1.966

12,649 SO

5,530
27,320

4.94 10-NO

3,002
10,630

3.47 1879

3,004

2.77

6.43

1,086

Totals

12,722

61,115

4.80

CHAP. I

A Mixed
Immigra-

tegrates

Mind

In a society governed from outside or above — Egypt, for ex

ample — the introduction of strangers, provided they are lawtion Disin- abiding and industrious, may do no harm. But a democratic the social society, in which government, laws, and moral standards are the

outcome of common understanding, suffers as it becomes more heterogeneous in composition. The unworthy are able to slip into power because groups of worthy citizens are pulling different ways. When a people is so like-minded politically that fun

. damentals are taken for granted, it is ready to tackle new questions as they come up. But if it admits to citizenship myriads of strangers who insist on threshing over again old straw — the relation of church to state, of church to school, of state to parent, of law to the liquor trade — ripe sheaves ready to yield the wheat of wisdom under the flails of discussion lie untouched. Pressing questions — public hygiene, conservation, the control of monopoly, the protection of labor - go to the foot of the docket and public interests are not looked after.

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MARITAL CONDITION

American

Contrary to the prevalent impression, the Americans are one of Matrimoni ality very the most married peoples on the face of the earth. A greater High

proportion of them are, or have been, married than of the British, French, Belgians, Scandinavians, Germans, Austrians, Swiss, Italians, Greeks or Japanese. Their only superiors in Europe are the Magyars and the Slavs. This high marriedness reflects, no doubt, rural life, relative ease of economic conditions among the common people, and a social position of woman which prompts her to scorn the irregular relations which a certain male element prefers. Moreover, servants are much hampered in marrying and in the

United States the proportion of servants is singularly small. Low II. The usual American proportion of illegitimate births is from 3 legitimacy

to 4 per cent. When the rate exceeds this, it is usually owing to the negroes, many of whom have the most primitive ideas as to sex obligation. When one considers that in the European peoples the proportion born out of wedlock runs from 5 to 15 per cent., while in the South American countries the proportion of illegitimate births ranges from 20 per cent. to more than 50 per cent., the fact that, out of a hundred American white children, ninety

1910 than

six or ninety-seven have been born in marriage indicates a fair CHAP. I degree of success in social control of the sex relation.

Not only are Americans much married but their fondness for the conjugal state seems to be increasing. From 1890 (when first the needíul data were gathered) to 1910 the proportion of men 20 to 24 years of age who had married increased a fourth. The proportion of women in this age-class who had taken a husband advanced from 47 per cent. to 50 per cent. Out of a hundred American women in 1890 32 were single; in 1900, 31; in 1910, 30.

Nor is this tendency due to the influx of early-marrying East Americans Europeans. Take the girls of American parentage. In 1890 Earlier in just about half of them were married; in 1910 nearly 52 per cent. in 1890 oi them had stood before the altar. After all we hear about " bachelor maids,” the higher cost of the married state, and the postponement of marriage, it comes as a shock to discover that marriages are earlier than formerly and that all that has happened is that one or two women who twenty years ago would have becume wives now never marry at all. The fact that one man in ten and four women in ten marry Marry

Why Men before the age of 21 and that two-thirds of the women marry Later than under 25 while only two-fifths of the men marry under 25, reflects the very unequal economic incidence of the matrimonial yuke. Since it is the husband who undertakes the legal obligatinn of support, matrimony generally occurs two or three years bter for men than for women. Greater difficulty in getting a start in life results in a later average age of marriage for men, but does not affect the age of brides.

Women

NORMALITY The ability differences within a population are of immense Society'.

Vitality social importance. The super-normal provide society with lead- and Sucers, mi leaders, inspirers, path-finders and directors. Under fair cess Rocompetition the conspicuously successful will be of this type. On Abuity

Composi. the other hand, the sub-normal are largely responsible for such tion of the

People sr.ister phenomena as crime, pauperism, vagrancy and prostitun. There is reason to believe that a third of the prostitutes in America are feeble-minded. It is supposed that from a quarter to a third of the paupers are hereditarily defective. Half or more of chronic inebriates are victims of a bad heredity. The

CHAP. I proportion of criminals who are mentally defective is no

many times larger than that in the population at large. Proportion The number of feeble-minded in the United States is no of Congen. ital Defect oned at less than 375,000, while a much greater host car in the United taint in their germ plasm and, if they mate with their ow States

may transmit it to their descendants. The insane and der are estimated to number at least 350,000. Epileptics are by some at 150,000. Counting in all the well-marked ty congenital defect perhaps one person in a hundred is so I

natural equipment as to present a problem. Much De

The measurement of mental differences is yet in its is pends on the Devel- Its technique is, however, rapidly developing and before 1 opment of a Tech- may be able to ascertain with a fair degree of accuracy t| nique of Mental

ural mental capacity of any individual. When that time c Measure

may be possible to gauge the comparative brain power o mont

and of hybrids, to discriminate at immigration stations b the desirables and the undesirables, to discover what you worthy of being aided to a higher education, to find fd profession the grade of capacity requisite for success in i sort out of a body of employees the ones available for re bility and direction. Society will then be able to locate it of superior ability, to discover whether much of it is run waste, to see whether it is reproducing itself, to find wh why a community becomes impoverished in respect to abili to trace the routes and causes of the migrations of the cap

CHAPTER II

CITY AND COUNTRY

A

years ago, its largest city had but forty-two thousand inhab- Swift Ur

banization tants, while only one person in thirty lived in the six towns of of the

American more than eight thousand population each. Now there cannot

Population be fewer than eight hundred such places in which dwell at least two-fifths of all Americans. Nearly one-half of us live in places oi over 2,500 inhabitants, a tenth in villages, and hardly more than two-fifths in the open country. So many of the coming genera

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POPULATION EN PLACES OF 8,000 INHABITANTS OR MORE AT EACH

CENSUS: 1790–1910.

in are growing up in cities that it will not be long ere the nati al soul is urban. l'p to thirty years ago there was an agricultural frontier which The End

ing of the aced as a brake on the forces of urbanization. The overflow Frontier

Acceler1:m the long-settled regions split into two streams, one flowing ates the :n the rising cities, while the other spread out upon free land. Process The opportunity to create farm homes in the public domain saved hendreds of thousands every decade from the reaching tentacles

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