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HE leading purpose in dominating is to exploit, i.e., to use
others as means to one's own ends. Of exploitation we may distinguish various kinds.
KINDS OF EXPLOITATION
1. Serual. This has been one great object of women capture. Pour Chlor
Kinds * Booty and Beauty” have been the two spurs pricking the Exploita young men of the tribe to warlike undertakings. Sometimes a beaten people is bound to deliver to the conquerors not only a tribute of produce but also a tribute of maidens. In certain Malay states the sultan not only exacts taxes of his subjects but requires the subject's daughter to pass thru his harem.
2. Religious. The conquerors may require the beaten to become worshippers of their god, to furnish youths to be sacrificed of maidens to be dedicated to the service of the god. They trink thus to ingratiate themselves with the deity.
3. Egotic. The ego dilates and glories in signs of abasement The Glutand devotion on the part of others. The Roman master exacted Ego of his on-hangers (clientes) that they should attend him when he showed himself in public and thereby greaten his dignity. Later the great senatorial landowner required of his tenants-at*] that they should periodically pay him their obsequium or hamile respects. The feudal king exacted homage of his fiefFlers, Louis XIV of France, the "Sun King," expected his Boyal courtiers to gather at the Ox-Eye window of his palace *o observe his going to bed and his getting up. The rise of the Tonarchy on the ruins of feudalism in the seventeenth century involved the transformation of the lord living on and govtring his fiel into the courtier, who obtained for his son a place in army, state or church, for his daughter a good marriage, only by settling at the royal court and contributing to the pomp and E'ory of the monarch.
Taken together, however, all these species of exploitation
Tho Law of Personal Ex. ploitation
amount to little. The one omnipresent and overshadowing kind is
4. Economic. This means making others work for you or taking for your own use the fruits of their unrequited toil. The temptation to exploit was especially strong before the era of machinery and mechanical power because if a man could not force others to accept the heavy work of grinding, dragging, carrying and delving, he had to do it himself. No doubt the modern sentiment against all forms of forced labor is owing in great part to our success in harnessing the forces of Nature to our service. Men do not like to exploit their fellow-men, but generally they have hated hard work more than they have hated the exploitation of others.
All about us we see one human being making use of another, the wife becoming a barren parasite, the husband becoming a loafer on the earnings of his wife, the grown son hanging about home living on his parents, one brother or sister absorbing the earnings of another, friend taking advantage of friend and such like. The thing is common and its rule is simple. In any sentimental relation the one who cares less can exploit the one who cares more. In the man-woman relation and the motherchild relation we see this very plainly.
Whenever the law perceives in a personal relation a golden opportunity to exploit, it tries to supply safeguards. It scrutinizes suspiciously gifts from ward to guardian and looks into the circumstances surrounding the death-bed willing of property to those about the testator. It limits freedom of contract so that infatuated persons may not divest themselves of their fundamental rights or mortgage their entire future in favor of another. Still, the law with all its benevolent intentions cannot prevent many temporary exploitations arising between individuals from differences in the strength of their mutual love, in the strength of their character and in the strength of their situation.
The exploitation which most calls for examination is not that which exists despite the law, but that which being established in custom and law, has become institutionalized. It may be defined as any profiting of one element in society at the expense of other elements, which would disappear if the elements came to be equal in power. Under this definition the fact that many thoughtful persons regard the taking of rent for land or profits for capital
Exploitar tion by means of Institutions
25 exploitation does not make it so. We should have to know whether the workers would abolish all return to the property owners in case they were in no wise dominated by this class.
LINES OF EXPLOITATION Exploitation appears between a great variety of elements. The principal forms are:
1. Offspring by parents. Surviving patriarchal ideas as to the prerogatives of the parent coupled with the money value which machine production confers on the labor of the weak has led to an extensive exploitation of young children which in the United States shows least restraint in the mountain population of our South and in our immigrants from the more backward Farts of Europe. Happily the law has interposed to shield the child from selfish exploitation by its natural guardians. 2. Women by men. In the words of a native Australian “A In Primi.
tive Soci. ran hunts, spears fish, fights and sits about." He does little oty the
Men Havo eise in primitive society, for practically all the work devolves all the
Exploit, urn the women, It is they who dress the skins, pitch the tent, tho
Women make the garments, prepare the food and manufacture pottery,
All tho baskets, and mats. The Indian never touches the game he has Drudgery bonught in after he has dropped it at the tent door. The Eskamo man will not even draw the seal from the water after he kas speared it. The division of function between the sexes is starp – everything in the nature of exploit going to man, all mere drudgery going to woman. In the hunting stage, this ad-"ment is not so unfair. But as game becomes scarcer and core and more the food supply comes from the little patches of Cor yams or manioc cultivated by the women, the men betime parasites upon their wives. Hence, innumerable peoples in the lower agriculture show women exploited by men. “The Wallach," says Palmer, " has an inveterate horror of any labor tha: can be avoided - as for the unavoidable, he has a very high gral of the 'dignity of man' and considers that it is only right 2. String that he should spend the long summer days in a deYmis siesta while his wife does all the work upon his little balding!
Hogarth observes women in Turkey “carrying and laying the Exis of a rising house watched by a ring of squatting men" 1* Austro-Hangarian Lise in Town and Country,” p. 105.
and adds "I have seen a mother pass and repass a rapid rocky stream, carrying in succession a husband and two grown sons; and on the bare stones of Taurus all the women of a migrating horde trailing their bleeding feet after the camels, horses and asses which bore their fathers, husbands and brothers.” ?
Among the Hakkas of southern China as among the Dyaks of Borneo the idleness of the men arises from the power of tradition over the division of labor between the sexes. Formerly the men hunted and fought but, now that there is no hunting and no fighting, they have become little better than loafers. Inherited ideas as to what is “woman's work” keep the men from “ buckling to.” In Turkey, no doubt, woman's lot has been made worse
by the influence of Mohammedan theology. Machine Industry
The migration of industrial processes from the home has of
late worked to the advantage of the home-staying woman and Female Parasitism even called into being a new type, the parasite wife, who neither
works nor bears children, and imagines that she is conferring an inexpressible boon when she allows a man to support her. Her "society” compensates him for everything, while his “society" is not deemed of any value to her.
3. Poor by rich. Wealth above present necessities is potential social power, inasmuch as it may be the means of establishing an exploitive control over other men. The wily Jacob acquiring the famishing Esau's birthright for a mess of pottage is a symbol of how a temporary surplus may be converted into a perma
nent advantage. Wealth
Wealth, which is economic power may be converted into many Inter-con
other kinds of power — political, legal, social, ecclesiastical, reKinds of ligious, etc.; but these in turn can be converted into wealth. Power
Rich men may use their money to get into politics, but once there they may use their political power to gain more money. They may use their money to acquire for themselves more legal rights and then use their legal rights to gain more money. They may use their money to win a control over needy men and use this control to gain more money. Thus the formula for the exploit
ive utilization of riches is Wealth - Power - More Wealth. Wealth
By bribery the wealthy shift the main burden of taxation upon quisitive
those too poor to bribe. Thus the great landowners of the RoInstrument
man Empire bought or wheedled for themselves individual or
2"A Wandering Scholar in the Orient,” pp. 67-8.
vertible with Other
as an Ac
collective immunities from visitation by the tax gatherers. From their tenants they raised small armies and drove away the revenue officers. They bribed the officials until the tax registers became a tissue of frauds. If fresh taxes were imposed they saw to it that the burden fell on others. If the emperor granted a remi-sion of taxes they saw to it that the lion's share of the benefit fell to them. In the same way a few years ago American multimillionaires residing in New York City were paying taxes on from a twentieth up to a tenth of what their fortunes proved to be when probated. The attorney most conspicuous in the formation of “trusts” in industry admits that by means of a present he induced the assessment official to let him write in the figures on which the numerous combinations he represented paid taxes.
The rich may harass the small proprietor until he sells out cheap. In the Roman Empire the law was unable to protect the srall landowner against the aggressions and encroachments of bis senatorial neighbor. Consequently he abandoned his holding, scid it at a nominal price, or donated it to the great man with the understanding that he might remain on it at the pleasure of his master. This tenure was known as precarium.
The same technique contributed to the extraordinary concen- Weak Law tration of wealth in the United States. The numerous owners of Makes
Rich Men ar:hracite coal lands in eastern Pennsylvania were forced to sell Strong to the big coal companies because the latter by controlling the cal-carrying railroads were able to levy upon their competitors erorbitant charges for carriage. In the end the little holders let their coal lands go for a pitiful price. A like control over the carriers enabled the dominant petroleum concern to acquire our Eastern oil lands at fraction of their value. Often in the American West the big rancher used his numerous cowboys and gunDied to ruin the "homesteader" and chase away the small catt-man in order that he might himself grow rich on grazing Stolea from the public lands.
In the grazing country north of Lake Titicaca the large landowner uses his hirelings to terrorize the neighboring native proprietors into the payment of quasi-feudal dues. The Indian who igs farms" with a white man must annually deliver his neighop a quintal of alpaca wool (worth $22.50) at the customary price of $800. He must also furnish one sheep worth sixty