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The State

Over Its

CHAP. I nition which was never after forgotten. Since India came under

the Crown in 1858 the British domination has taken into account the welfare altho not (until lately) the will of the subjects.

9. The masters of the State over the subjects of the State. Lords It

Only in highly democratic societies like Switzerland, Oregon, Subjects

Kansas and New Zealand is government really an instrument for promoting the general welfare as conceived in the reigning ideas of the time. In many parts of the world government is a means of domination either by the actual holders of office (rulers or bureaucracy), or by a class whose creatures and servants they

are.

For example, altho the governments of South America are republican, the needs of the common people receive from them but scant consideration. The hand workers do not understand their true interests and have therefore slight political importance. The large proprietors use their control of government to draw to themselves the lion's share of the advantages of the social union. In tropical South America the conversion of political power to personal advantage is the shortest road to fortune. Like gold-mining or rubber-gathering with enslaved forest Indians, the capture of the proceeds of taxation is a splendid getrich-quick enterprise appealing strongly to the conquistador imagination. Government is a mode of acquisition sufficiently predatory, profitable and perilous to appeal to the taste of the born gentleman. There is nothing in politics for the common people save the excitement of participating in a dangerous sport.

MEANS OF DOMINATION

Fraud
Are the
Earliest
Means of
Domina-
tion

The means of maintaining ascendency constitute a graduated scale reaching from pure coercion to something like partnership.

1. Physical force. Assyrians, Huns, Goths, Tartars, Mongols, Moguls, Manchus, Mahdists, and Turks have ruled by the naked sword. Under the old regime in Russia and in certain contemporary states of tropical America government is sustained by soldiers and by little else.

2. Political inequalities originating in the exercise of force. Under the Hapsburgs and Hohenzollerns the cards were very skillfully stacked against the dominated peoples and classes, Ву property qualifications for the suffrage, by unequal representation of tax-paying classes, by special political privileges accorded

to dominant races or nationalities, and to the propertied classes, CHAP. XI and by political discrimination against subject races or nationalities and against toilers, governments were constituted which would respond to the will of dominant elements rather than to public opinion.

3. Corruption. For cash or other immediate personal advantage poor and ignorant voters will often turn over their votes to the political party of the very element which oppresses and exploits them. At times in some of our commonwealths a party representing only selfish interests has been able to keep itself in power by the aid of votes purchased with money or favors. The naturalized foreign-born have been very susceptible to timely attentions and kindnesses shown them during their early difficult years in this country and hence social work on a large scale originated with Tammany Hall in New York and kindred political organizations. In Chile, despite a democratic suffrage, the large landed proprietors preserve their control of the state by systematic corruption. Vote buying is open and general. The democratic or workingmen's party makes no small noise in the campaign, but on election day many who have shouted, paraded and worked for it sell their votes to the Conservatives for the wages of a week's work. This is why a deputy will have to spend from $3000 to $6000 on his election, while a senator, having a larger district to handle, spends from $10,000 to $16,000. As such an outlay is prohibitive for the individual, no one aspires to a Conservative seat in Congress unless the rich landowners. about Santiago will stake him with a corruption fund. Hence,

is the Santiago oligarchy that determines who shall stand for a given province on the Conservative ticket and finds the money needed to elect him. Small wonder that the Chilean Congress doggedly refuses to enact a corrupt practices act!

4 Patronage. The English in India and the Dutch in the Far East have dominated the natives largely by recognizing and patronizing the native princes and sultans. The potentate retains his title and dignities, has his former income assured him. and is made secure on his throne by European machine-guns. In return he becomes a puppet of the European resident adviser, who is often known as the "Elder Brother" of the native sutan or regent and has the elder brother's privilege of giving advice which the younger brother is expected to follow. Thus

The Pur-
Political

chase of

Power with

Money

Patronage erage for

Gives Lev

Domina

tion

Used to

CHAP. II the real masters keep in the background while the dominated

people imagine that they are still governed by hereditary rulers of their own race.

In eighteen-century England George III built up in Parliament by the lavish distribution of offices, sinecures and pensions a party known as "the King's Friends,” which could be relied on to stand by the king's ministry thru thick and thin. The system, of course, could not have been maintained without a large number of “rotten boroughs," whose representatives in Parliament had no constituents to answer to. When organized labor began to be a force in the United States it was long kept politically null by the device of giving certain Federal offices to its leaders. For instance, the post of U. S. Commissioner of Immigration went to "labor," no matter which party was in power. By this cheap device the labor vote was kept subservient. It is fear of thus being put off with a sop that has made the Socialist party in many countries refuse to allow any of their

leaders to accept office under another party. Spiritual Power Is

5. The political use of spiritual power. The early sultans at

Constantinople perceived that the keen wit of the Greeks might Hold People in be made an instrument of their designs, so they contrived to turn Subjection

the Eastern Church into an instrument of Turkish dominion. The lower clergy, throughout the Christian lands conquered by the Turk, generally remained patriotic leaders, but the bishops and other higher clergy became slaves and tools of the Turk. Greek bishops ruled Slavonic churches and so formed another fetter in the chain by which the conquered were held down.

In a Briton's description of a Greek archbishop in Cyprus we see what arrows fill the ecclesiastical quiver.

“Geronymo held many weapons in his hands. First, as head of the church, he was the chief owner of land in this island, and could therefore raise the rent on hundreds of farms at any moment and on any pretext. Second, as head of the church, he was the biggest trader in the island, and could therefore raise the price of articles in the bazaars of every market-town. Third, as head of the church, he was one of the chief exporters of wine, salt, and brandy, and could therefore easily derange the shipping trade and annoy the ports. These temporal means of mischief could be strengthened and inflamed by spiritual allies. He could stop the Sacrament and suspend the rites of marriage and sepul

ture. He could shut up church and cloister, put the altars un- CHAP. XI der mourning, and deny a suffering people all the solaces of religion, from the act of baptism to the final offices of grace."

Under the old regime in Russia, the Tsar through the Oberprocuror of the Holy Synod held the Church captive and by means of twenty thousand village priests was able to disseminate among his credulous subjects any lie which suited his purpose as, e.g., that the massacre of 1500 on "Red Sunday" in 1905 was caused by English and Japanese spies who incited the Petrograd workmen to march upon the palace simply in order to have them. killed!

It is sacrcely necessary to recall how characteristic has been alliance between throne and altar during the struggle of the European peoples against absolutism, how centralized churches have preached the Divine Right of kings, urged unquestioning obedience to constituted authorities as God's will, and opened their bosoms to the greatest dynastic tyrants and mass murderers, while hurling their heaviest thunders upon nearly all the heroic self-sacrificing lovers of their fellowmen, who have contributed to bring in the new day.

6. Ignorance. The spread of secular knowledge unsettles dominion in so far as it rests on ideas. The Romanoffs generally cherished the brutish ignorance of their subjects as the brightest jewel of their crown. They did what they could to make difficultres for the zemstvos in their policy of planting schools among the common people. Tsarism feared all teaching it did not control and no association or individual might open a school without express authorization. Gymnasium and university were subject to the most high-handed interferences in order that the young scholars they turned out might be "reliable" and "safe."

and the

Church

Lamp

In South America neither the ruling proprietary class nor the Church desire to dispel the darkness which reigns in the minds Absolutist of the masses. The hacendados fear lest schooling make the chil- Keep the dren of the agricultural laborer- the peon or inquilino-grow Turned up demanding, or restless, and migrant. They want the son to stay on in his father's mud hut content with the old hard rough life, attached to the hacienda and its master and deaf to the call of opportunity elsewhere. As one put it to me, "We don't want the children of our inquilinos disturbed in their minds."

* Hepworth Dixon, "British Cyprus," p. 47.

Both the

Absolutist

State

OHAP. XI The Church loves popular enlightenment as little as the master,

but for reasons of her own. The priest wants the peons ignorant in order that he may hold them submissive to his authority, keep their feet from straying from the path of eternal salvation, and be relieved from the necessity of defending his doctrines, combating heresies and meeting the competition of the Protestant missionary. If, however, popular education must come, by all means keep it out of the hands of secular authorities, let the Church provide it herself in her own parish school where,

as I was assured, “ Religion saturates the entire course of study." Tho Dominated

7. The sharing of the benefits from domination. When an Admitted empire has a superior culture to impart, its domination may be to Partner ship with profitable to both parties. To the peoples she brought under her Their Masters sway Rome offered peace, internal order, security of industry

and property, Roman law, public works and the classical culture. Her rule was iron but broadly just and provinces like Spain and Gaul, which had resisted her yoke with desperation, later flourished wonderfully and became intensely loyal. Spain brought into the Americas many elements of advancement and might have retained her colonies had she been less avaricious and cruel in her policy respecting them. The British raj in India and still more in the Malay States has brought great benefits to the subject peoples. The American rule in the Philippines still more resembles a partnership between dominators and dominated.

RESULTS OF DOMINATION
Continued
Domina-

Subjection to a foreign yoke is one of the most potent causes tion Spoils of the decay of national character. Take; for example, the Hinthe Char. acter of doos. A Greek writer, Arrian, declares that "they are remarkthe Domi. Dated

ably brave, superior in war to all Asiatics; they are remarkable for simplicity and integrity; so reasonable as never to have recourse to law suit and so honest as neither to require locks to their doors nor writings to bind their agreements. No Indian was ever known to tell an untruth.” This portrays the precise opposite of modern Hindoo character and the change can be accounted for only by the long subjection of the race to the rule of the foreigner.

The character of the Greeks a century ago at the time of their struggle of liberation from the Turks was in glaring contrast to that of the classical Greeks. The generations which have come

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