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her offspring should belong to her clan. The husband being an CHAP. XI out-ider was in a weak position. Unless he succeeded as hunter The and provider of animal food for his wife's family he might be Dominates told to leave. Wife domination appears, however, as a rare and passing phenomenon. The customs of wife purchase and of wife capture, as well as the enforced separation of the family from the wife's clan, gave the husband the upper hand, which he has kept through nearly all the stages of social history. Generally law and custom have merged the wife's property with his, given him control of her earnings, her occupation, and her place of residence, denied her freedom of contract, made him responsible for and therefore master over her conduct, tolerated in him more sex liberty than she might claim, and given him control over the children. According to the Hispano-American law codes to-day the husband owes his wife protection, while she owes him obedience. She has no voice as to place of residence but is bound. to follow him whatever may be the peril to her health or life. Without her husband's consent she may not sue, make or dissolve a contract, forgive a debt, take or reject a gift, inheritance or legacy, buy, alienate or mortgage productive property. Should the husband object, the deserted wife may not pawn her jewels to buy herself bread nor may she hire herself as servant, needlewoman, mill operative or stenographer. Divorce granted for unfaithfulness costs the erring wife all right to profits from their junt property, but it is not so in the case of the erring husband. The husband may with impunity kill his wife surprised in flagrante delicto but the wife has no such right against her unfaithful husband
4 Men over women. In Old Japan the woman's lot was summed up in the "three obediences," viz., unmarried, to the father; married, to the husband; widowed, to a son.
In China woman's lot is in no wise of her own fashioning, but has been shaped by male tastes without the least regard to what the women themselves think about it. The ancient sages — all men-moulded the institutions which bear on woman and it is male comment, not real public opinion, that enforces the conventonalities which crush her. By wit, will, or worth the individual woman may slip from under the thumb of the individual man, but never is the sex free from the collective domination of the male sex. The men have all the artillery the time-hallowed.
CHAP. X institutions and all the small arms current opinion and comMasculin- ment. It is not so much that the individual man selfishly rules Ohina the woman or even that one sex has deliberately brought the other
into subjection. Perfectly certain of their own superiority in wisdom and virtue, men have settled what is fit and proper not only for themselves, but also for woman.
I once held a conversation with a Chinese gentleman who was promoting a revival of Confucianism. “ You 'll admit,” I remarked, “ that we Occidentals have juster ideas as to the treatment of women." “Not at all," he replied. " The place Confucianism assigns to women is more reasonable than that of the Christian West." “But why should women be so subordinated ? "
Because women are very hard to control. You can never tell what they will be up to. At the bottom of every trouble there is a woman."
“Isn't that due to your depriving women of the educational opportunities which they once enjoyed ?”
“No, it was precisely experience of the difficulty of keeping women under control when they are educated that led our forefathers to lessen their schooling."
" Then you would shut girls out of school?”
“No, I would n't go as far as that. Let them be taught to read and write."
“Possible. But it should be very different from the education given to boys."
“Why, teach the girl household arts and ethics so she will know her duties as daughter, wife and mother."
Would you teach her her rights as well as her duties?”
"No, no. That is quite unnecessary." Child Marriage
In ancient India girls might choose their husbands. To-day, in India however, not only are girls disposed of by their parents, but
they are married so young that in British India alone there are nearly ten million wives under sixteen years of age, of whom a third of a million are widows! This pernicious custom of child marriage, which is said to cause one-fourth of the women to die prematurely while another fourth are made invalids for life,
developed out of the hyperbolic notions of the Brahmins regarding CHAP. X purity. Their idea is that no wife is pure who has ever felt love for another man than the one she marries. In order therefore that the man may have a wife whose thoughts have never dwelt even momentarily upon another, the girl must be married before the dawning of her sex consciousness. The prohibition of remarriage, which bears with senseless Self-Immo
lation of cruelty upon some hundreds of thousands of child widows who Widows have not even entered on sex life, reflects male egoism, which cannot endure that the female who has lost her mate should form another union. The custom which obtained in India and China until suppressed by law, that the widow should be consumed on the funeral pyre of her dead husband, likewise sprang from the jealousy of males. The seclusion of women which obtains through most of the Moslem world is another outcome of the man's craving for female sacrifice. In our own society the withholding of stimulants and narcotics from women, the double stardard of sex morality, the insistence that women shall stay in her "sphere," the resistance to the entrance of woman into the better paid occupations (the professions), the obligation of the wronged wife to suffer more and pardon more than the wronged husband, the greater obligation of women to men than of men to “please" women, constitute a considerable residue of male domination. 3. The fighting portion of society over the industrial portion. The
Fighters In the agricultural stage a tribe gains defensive power by telling Dominate of a portion of the strongest and most valiant men to train them- Workers selves in arms, while the women and the less capable males feed and provide for them. While the dedicating of a special group to militant activities is prompted by concern for the general security, the balance between the fighting class and the industrial class cannot be preserved, for the warriors are able to turn against the cultiva:ors the very weapons and skill intended for the enemies of the tribe. Hence, the warriors make themselves masters of society. During the European Dark Ages scholae, or Srotherhoods of fighters, wandered about offering their arms and their knowledge of warfare for the protection of harassed settled populations. It was only too common, however, that a com
* See Ketkar, “ History of Caste in India,” Vol. I, p. 32.
CEAP. O munity which had engaged one of these bands and agreed to feed
it in return for protection became gradually the serfs of these defenders.
In old Japan the military class — nobles and samurai — comprising 4 or 5 per cent of the people absolutely dominated the rest. They went always armed and the slightest offense by one of the swordless was paid for with a stroke. The peasant might be cut down by passing swordmen for no other purpose, than to test the edge of a new blade. The elaborate politeness of the Japanese is reminiscent of the time when an obsequious manner was a matter of life or death. Whenever the higher nobility travelled the common people were expected to fall upon the ground in obeisance. Failure to do so met with instant death at the hands
of feudal retainers. Nomads
6. The well-situated over the ill-situated. In central Arabia Dominate Fellabin the numerous oases are divided from one another by stretches of
waterless steppe. The steppe men are therefore masters of the situation and the fellahin of the oases have to submit to their assumption of greater nobility and accept the rule of a Bedouin sheikly family which leads its life between a fortress in the oasis and the black tents of the desert. From such families spring the sultans or emirs who, owing to their ability to combine oasis with oasis by virtue of their command of the intervening tracts, gather a treasure sufficient to attract and maintain a standing force which may bring under other Bedouins and more distant
7. The strongest among allies over the rest. In the course of Turns Into Empire the Greek resistance to Persia, Athens became the head of a
maritime confederation of city states. Gradually, however, owing to the great lead of Athens in ship building and seafaring, the Athenians come to provide and man the common fleet. Athens began then to dictate the money contribution of each of the allies and presently the confederation became an Athenian military empire in which the former allies became subjects, then victims of exploitation, and finally revolters. In like manner the numerous peoples with which the Romans in their expansion made alliance passed gradually into the position, first of dependents, and then of subjects. The history of the relations between Great Britain and the native states of India illustrates afresh
how inevitably alliance between unequals passes insensibly into CHAP. XI a relation of domination.
8. Conquerors over conquered. Domination of this kind is Conquest the commonest thing in history. The fact is that the historic rent Note state came into existence, replacing the old organization of the elders of the clans, as the instrumentality devised by the conquerors for holding down the beaten and enabling the masters to extract profit from them. In the attractive parts of the earth wave upon wave of wild spearmen has rolled over the settled peoples in Mesopotamia, Babylonians, Amorites, Assyrians, Arabs, Medes, Persians, Macedonians, Parthians, Mongols, Seliuks, Tartars, Turks; on the Nile Hyksos, Nubians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Turks; in Italy Romans, Ostrogoths, Lombards, Franks, Germans. The great cities of the ancient world were by no means founded on commerce and manufactures, as are our great modern cities, but were the fortified seats of tribute-takers, radiant points of dominion, fortresses holding in awe a subject tribute-giving agricultural population. The nucleus of such a city was the court - the monarch together with the warriors, priests, nobles, officials and courtiers, who conmed tribute and held down the tribute-payers.
The earlier empires took tribute and troops from their subjects. No ancient monarch, except, perhaps, some of the Ptolemies, aimed to benefit their subjects generally. Found, however, to be shortsighted and comparatively unproductive, the rapacious pe of domination gives way to a more considerate policy which ams to stimulate the subjugated by leaving them some freedom
1 hope. Rome had large views. She aimed to give the conered good administration and even under the Republic attempts were made to check abuses by provincial governors like Verres, altho certainly a great deal of extortion and malfeasance went on under Roman proconsuls. With the establishment of the Empire administration greatly improved. The Emperor felt tre responsibility for the welfare of the provinces than the xrdid Senate had ever felt.
A ke development occurred in the domination of the British over India. The memorable trial of Warren Hastings so fixed the attention of the English nation upon the administering of India as to secure for wholesome principles of conduct a recog