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Two fragments of a poem on Fowling (Ixeutica or De Aucupio) were printed in a Dialogue on Birds (Cologne, 1544) by Gibertus Longolius, who asserted that they had been transcribed for him from a copy of a work by Nemesianus existing in a library at Bologna. Wernsdorf, in opposition to Ulitius, thinks them not unworthy of their reputed author: but in any case they need not detain us further. [They are probably modern work.]

The elder Pliny, in two passages of his Natural History,' speaks of a poem by Ovid, entitled Halieutica. A fragment on that subject with Ovid's name attached to it is found in a MS. containing part of Grattius' Cynegetica, and has been frequently printed in editions of Grattius and Nemesianus, or as part of Ovid's works. It would perhaps be too much to assign it to such illustrious parentage, though Haupt thinks otherwise : 2 but it would not disgrace either of the two poets whom we have just been considering. Take a specimen.

At contra scopulis crinali corpore segnis
polypus haeret, et hac eludit retia fraude,
et sub lege loci sumit mutatque colorem,
semper ei similis quem contigit: atque ubi praedam
pendentem saetis avidus rapit, hic quoque fallit
elato calamo, cum demum emersus in auras
bracchia dissolvit, populatumque exspuit hamum.
at mugil cauda pendentem everberat escam
excussamque legit. lupus acri concitus ira
discursu fertur vario, fluctusque ferentis
prosequitur, quassatque caput, dum volnere saevus

laxato cadat hamus, et ora patentia linquat.' Another fragment with the same argument was published by Hieronymus Columna in his Commentary on the Fragments of Ennius, having been transcribed from an old MS. by Sertorius Quadrimanus. More ambitious than the former, to which however it is indebted for several lines, it professes in its exordium to be the work of Ovid, who speaks of himself as led to his subject by the scenes of his exile: but though the lines in which the profession is made are not without ability, those who should credit it would be compelled to suppose that Ovid's removal from Rome had made him forget the quantity of the first syllable of 'dirigo,' as he ventures to address Glaucus

• Quare si veteris durant vestigia moris,
si precibus hominum flectuntur numina ponti,

huc adsis, dirigasque pedes, umerosque natantis.' The date of Q. Serenus Sammonicus is at any rate earlier than that

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Book xxxii, chaps. ii and xi.
· [Most modern scholars agree with Haupt : see Teuffel, 250-4.]


of Nemesianus, though it has been questioned whether he is to be identified with a person of that name, 'cuius libri,' says Spartianus, plurimi ad doctrinam exstant,' who was put to death by Caracalla, or with his son, the preceptor of the younger Gordian, and the valued friend of Alexander Severus. His work, however, De Medicina Praecepta, in 1115 hexameters, is not properly a didactic poem at all, but merely a medical treatise in metre. Those who are fond of classical parallels may compare it with Catius' lecture to Horace: but to others it will seem a product of the second childhood of literature, when subjects, which, since prose composition existed, have always been treated in prose, are set to tune again by the perverse ingenuity of grammarians. The only part which appears to have any poetical pretension is the opening

Membrorum series certo deducta tenore
ut stet, nam similis medicinae defluit ordo,
principio celsa de corporis arce loquamur.
Phoebe, salutiferum, quod pangimus, adsere carmen,
inventumque tuum prompto comitare favore.
tuque potens artis, reducem qui tradere vitam
nosti, seu caelo manis revocare sepultos,
qui colis Aegeas, qui Pergama, quique Epidaurum,
qui quondam placidi tectus sub pelle draconis
Tarpeias arcis atque incluta templa petisti
depellens taetros praesenti numine morbos,
huc ades, et quidquid cupide mihi saepe roganti
firmasti, cunctum teneris expone papyris.'

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Now let us listen to a remedy for a stiff neck.


* At si cervices durataque colla rigebunt,
mira loquar, geminus mulcebitur unguine poples;
hinc longum per iter nervos medicina sequetur :
anseris aut pingui torpentia colla fovebis.
inlinitur valido multum lens cocta in aceto,
aut caprae fimus et bulbi, aut cervina medulla :
hoc etiam immotos flectes medicamine nervos.
quos autem vocitant tolles, attingere dextra
debebis, qua gryllus erit pressante peremptus.'

Still more barren and unpoetical is Prisciani Carmen de Ponderibus et Mensuris, a set of 208 hexameters, the authorship of which is involved in some doubt. The first nine lines will show that in spite of a preliminary flourish, it is little better than a memoria technica, a device for fixing facts about weights and measures in the memory.


[The poem is now usually attributed to the son : Teuffel, 383.]

Pondera Paeoniis veterum memorata libellis
nosse iuvat. pondus rebus natura locavit
corporeis ; elementa suum regit omnia pondus.
pendere terra manet: vacuus quoque ponderis aether
indefessa rapit volventis sidera mundi.
ordiar a minimis, post haec maiora sequentur ;
nam maius nihil est aliud quam multa minuta.
semioboli duplum est obolus, quem pondere duplo

gramma vocant, scriplum nostri dixere priores.' Here at length we may stop. The didactic poetry with which we have been dealing, though far enough removed from the spirit of the Georgics, has at any rate preserved their form. Terentianus Maurus may have been as much of a didactic poet as Sammonicus or the supposed Priscian; but as he chose to exemplify in his work the various metres for which he laid down rules, he can hardly come under consideration in an essay which is intended to illustrate by comparison the didactic poetry of Virgil. Other works which the historians of Latin literature have classed among didactic poems seem to be excluded by different reasons. The Phaenomena of Avienus, like the fragments of Cicero and Germanicus, hardly calls for notice independently of Aratus' work. The poem on Aetna has didactic affinities, but its subject is not sufficiently general. The Periegeses of Avienus and Priscian fall rather under the category of descriptive poetry. Columella's Tenth Book has been mentioned in another place (G. IV 148).



A, ab, before consonants, E. viii 41. | Aeneid, composition of, p. xxv; manage-

integro and similar phrases, E. iv 5. ment of story, pp. xxxv foll.

instrumental, G. i 234, torrida ab Aeneidomastix, pp. xxix, xlix, liii.

Aegyptus, G. iv 210, 291.
local, G. iii 2, pastor ab Amphryso. Aequare with ablative, G. iv 132.
Abdere domo, G. iii 96.

Aerius and néploç, G. i 375.
Abiungere, unyoke, G. iii 518.

Aestas, summer sky, G. iv 59.
Ablative. See Cases.

Aestiper and aestifer, G. ii 353.
Abolere, cleanse, G. iii 560.

Aestiva, summer quarters, G. iii 472.
Abydos, famous for oysters, G. i 207. Aestus, summer, G. i 297.
Acacia tree, G. ii 119.

Aethiopes, E. x 68, G. ii 120.
Acalanthis, bird, G. iii 338.

Aetna, G. i 472, iv 173.
Acanthus, garden-plant, E. iv 20, iii 45, Africa, shepherd life in, G. iii 339; siti.
G. iv 123; acacia tree, ii 119.

entes Afri, Sahara, E. i 64.
dcceperat annus, E. viii 40, G. iii 190. Aganippe, fountain, E. X 12.
Accingor dicere, G. ïïi 46.

Agitare for agere, degere, G. ii 527, iv 154.
Accusative. See Cases.

Ahenus, aenus,

G. i 296.
Acer equis, G. iii 8.

Alburnus, mountain, G. iii 147.
Acerrae vacuae, G. ii 225.

Albus and candidus, G. ii 82.
Achelous : Acheloia pocula, G. i 9. Alcides, E. vii 61.
Acheron, G. ii 492, iv 479.

Alcimedon an artist, E. iii 37, 44.
Achilles, E. iv 36; genitive Achilli, G. Alcinous, orchards of, G. ii 87.

Alcippe, E. vii 14.
Aconite in Italy, G. ii 152.

Alcon, uncertain who, E. v II.
Acorns characterize the Golden Age, G. i Alcyon, bird, G. iii 338, iv 511.

Alexandrian school influenced Virgil, p.
Acte, for Attica, E. ii 24, G. iv 463.

Ad prima for apprime, G. ii 134.

Alexis, whether a real person, E. ii Pre-
Addunt in spatio (spatia), G. i 513.

face, E. ii, v 86, vii 55.
Adeo, besides, G. i 287; emphasizes a Alius alius for alius quam, G. i 421.

preceding word, E. iv 11, ix 59, G. i 24, Alps, E. x 47, G. iii 474 ; earthquakes
ii 323, iii 242, iv 197.

in, G. i 475.
Adeo dum, G. iv 84.

Alphesiboeus, E. v 73, viïi 1, 62.
Adfectare viam Olympo, G. iv 562. Altaria, offerings, E. v 66, viii 105.
Adjective for adverb, qualifying verb, G. i Alta petens, in a river, G. i 142 ; altum,

239; qualifying another adjective, mag. deep sea, iii 238.
nus fluens, G. iii 28, saxosus sonans, Alveus, alvus, for alvare, G. ii 453.

Amaror, G. ii 247, p. xxxiv.
Adolere, E. viii 66; adolescere, G. iv 379. Amaryllis, E. i, ii, iii, viii, ix.
Adonis, E. x 18.

Ambages, G. ii 46.
Adstare, stand up, G. iii 545.

Ambarvalia, E. iii 77, v 70, G. i 340.
Advena, contemptuous, E. ix 2.

Ambo or ambos, E vi 18, G. iv 88.
Adversus, aversus, G. i 218.

Ambrosia, G. iv 415.
Aegle, E. vi 20.

Amellus, flower, G. iv 271.
Aegon, E. iii 2, v 72.

Amerina retinacula, G. i 265.

jii 91.

G. iv 370.

See P.


iji 30.

Aminneae vites, G. ii 97. (Possibly a kind | Argutum caput, of form, G. iii 80.

of vine or wine, not named after any Aridus, of sound, G. i 357.

place. See Pauly-Wissowa i 1835-37.] Arion, E. viii 67.
Amomum, E. iii
89, iv 25.

Aristaeus, G. i 14, iv 283 foll.
Amor Martis, E. x 44; amores, love-

songs, E viii 23, x 53 ; amores, a be- , Ariusian wine, E. v 71.
loved, G. iii 227.

Armare, rig a ship, G. i 255.
Amphion Dircaeus, E. ii 24.

Armenia, E. v 29, G. iii 31.
Amphrysus, G. iii 2.

Armenta, of horses, G. ii 195, ji 129,
Amyclaeus, G. iii 89, 345.

Amyntas, E. ii, iii, v, X.

Army, Roman, its battle-order, G. ii
Amythaonius Melampus, G. iii 550.

279; recruiting, E. i 71.
Amurca, G. i 194.

Arx, hill, G. i 240, ii 172, 535, iv 461.
Anethum, E. ii 48.

Ascanius, river, G. iii 270.
Anguis, constellation, G. i 205, 244. Asconius Pedianus, p. xxix.
Aniena fluenta, G. iv 369.

Asia conquered by Octavian, G. ii 171,
Anima Mundi, G. i 415, iv 219.
Animosus Eurus, G. ii 441.

Asia prata Caystri, G. i 383.
Animus, memory, E. ix 51; animos Asia Deiopea, G. iv 342.

tollere, G. ii 350 ; ingentes animi, iv Asilus, gadfly, G. iii 148.
83; animi dubius, G. iii 289; victus Asper, Aemilius, p. lviii.
animi, iv 491.

Aspicere, regard favourably, G. iv 2.
Annus Magnus, E. iv 5.

Assaracus, G. iii 35.
Anser, contemporary poet, E. ix 36. Assyrius, eastern, E. iv 25, G. ii 465.
Ante expectatum, G. îi 348.

At non, elliptical, G. iii 349, iv. 530.
Antes, G. ii 417.

Ater, noxious, G. i 129, ü 130, iii 430 ;
Antigenes, E. v 89.

tigris, iv 407
Antony the Triumvir, G. ii 505, iii 25. Athos (acc. Athon), G. i 332.
Aonius, E. vi 65; of Helicon, x 12, G. Atlantides, Pleiades, G. i 221.
jii il.

Atque-atque for et-et, E. v 23.
Apium, E. vi 68.

Atque, even as, G. ii 402 ; for cum, E.
Apollo Nomius and Pales, E. v 35; vii 7 ; in apodosis, G. i 203.
Grynaeus, vi 72; Thymbraeus, G. iv Auctor, etymology, G. i 27.
323. Apollo, E. iii 104 ; iv 10, 57; Aulaeum tollere, G. iii 25.

x 21; G. iv 7. See Cynthius, Phoebus. Aura, odour, G. iv 417.
Apposition of part and whole, E. iii 3; Auratis cornibus, G. i 217, iv 371.
certamen Corydon cum Thyrside, vii Aures, of plough, G. i 172.

Auritus, G. i 308.
Aptus for aptatus, G. iii 168.

Aurora, G. i 249, 447, iv 543, 551.
Aquarius, constellation, G. iii 304. Ausonii, G. ii 385.
Aquilo, wind, G. i 460, iii 196.

Aut introduces a new question, G. iv
Arabum Eoas domos, G. ii 15.

Aracynthus Actaeus, E. ii 24.

Avernus lake, G. ii 161, iv 493.
Arar, river, E. i 62.

Avertere, make mad, E. viii 67.
Arator, countryman, G. iv 512.

Averti with accusative, G. iii 499.
Aratus, relation to Virgil, p. 145; charac- Aviaria, of woods, G. ii 430.

teristics, p. 146.
Arbor, supporter of the vine, E. v 32, G. Baccar, E. iv 19, vii 27.

ii 89, 267, 290; arbustum, E. ii Bacchatus, passive, G. ii 487.
10, etc.

Bacchus, E. v 30, 79, etc.; connected with
Arbutus, E. iïi 82, G. iii 300.

Ceres, G. i 7; goat sacrificed to, G. ii
Arcadia, Arcades, E. iv 58, vii 26, x 26, 380; Baccheia dona, ii 454 ; whether

31, G. iii 392 ; Arcades ambo, E vii 4; identifiable with the Sun, G. i 6.
A. magistri, G. iv 283.

Bactra, G. ii 138.
Arctinus copied by Virgil, G. iv 477. Balantes, sheep, G. i 272, iii 457.
Arctos, constellation, G. i 138, 245. Balearis funda, G. i 309.
Arcturus, G. i 68, 204.

Balsam, G. ii 119.
Arethusa, fountain, E. x 1, G. iv 343, 350. Barbarus, non-Roman, E. i 71.
Argitis, wine, G. i 99.

Bavius, poet, E. iii 9o.
Argo, mythical ship, E. iv 34.

Beer, G. iii 380.

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