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seu pluris calor ille vias et caeca relaxat
Multum adeo, rastris glaebas qui frangit inertes
rursus in oblicum verso perrumpit aratro, 90. “Spiramenta,'iv 39. Soʻspiracula' and then, to pulverize it, the men, or perLucr. Vi 493, 'spiramina' Lucan x 247. haps oxen, drew over it bush-harrows *Qua' follows 'viis ' similarly A. V 590. (crates), nearly the same as now in use,
91. The object of 'durat’seems to be Keightley, who explains 'rastrum’ to be the land itself rather than the pores, a heavy rake, with iron teeth, probably 'venas hiantis.' The explanations given four in number (Cato x). are apparently intended to vary according • Inertes,' helpless, denotes the state of to the different kinds of soil.
the clods when left to themselves, not 92. “Tenues,' subtle, penetrating. unlike · segnem campum,' v. 72. *Tenuisque subibit Halitus,' 11 349.
95. 'Crates,' y. 166. Pluviae’ is grammatically constructed 96. 'Flava Ceres,' 'rubicunda Ceres, with 'adurant, supplied from 'adurat,' v. 316, Hom.'s avar Anuntnp, the which however belongs to it in sense only so epithet here seemingly indicating the far as it contains the general notion of injur. nature of the reward. ing. See on A. 11 780.‘Rapidi,' E. 11 10. 'Neque-nequiquam,’A. VI 117. Ceres
93. “Penetrabile :' 'penetrale frigus,' does not regard him vainly, as if she were Lucr. I 494. [* Penetrabilis' = penetrat. an idle spectator, or unable to help. So ing. Adjectives in '-bilis' are properly “respicere' of divine aid E. 1 27. Virg. passive, but instances occur with active may have thought of Hes. Works 299. meaning (as here) throughout literary Latin 97. Virg. means merely to distinguish from Lucr. onwards: a few exx. from the processes of harrowing and crossPlautus, etc., are disputed (Munro Lucr. ploughing, though he expresses himself 111; Hanssen, Philologus, 1889, 274). as if both were not carried on by the same This use of penetrabilis' recurs A. X 48, individual, or applied to the same land. and is imitated by Ovid, Martial, Silius, He seems to be enumerating the different etc.)
parts of cultivation without regard to Adurat :' cold is said to burn both by order, forgetting that he has already repoets (e.g. Ov. M. XIV 763,"frigus commended cross-ploughing, v. 48. Proadurat Poma') and by prose writers, as scindere' is the technical term for the first Tac. A. XIII 35, 'ambusti multorum artus ploughing, the second being expressed by vi frigoris.' Cerda quotes Aristot. Meteor. offringere,' the third by “lirare.' IV 5, κάσινλέγεται και θερμαίνειν το ψυχρόν, Suscitat' is illustrated by inertes,' v. o'x ws TÒ Depuov, állà ru ovváyelv 94, and also by 'suspendere,' v. 68. αντιπεριστάναι το θερμόν. So αποκαίεσθαι Though in the present tense, it must not is used in Theophr. and the Geoponica. be understood as implying that ploughing
94-99. Harrowing is useful, and so is was to be immediately followed by crosscross-ploughing.'
ploughing, as the two took place at 94. Our way, after breaking a field, is different times ; it merely denotes the to tear it up with a heavy harrow with husbandman's practice. The 'clods iron teeth, drawn by two or more horses. which he turns up he afterwards breaks The ancients, who were unacquainted across.' “Terga,' of the surface presented with this harrow ... used to break the by the clods, il 236. clods by manual labour with an imple- 98. ['Oblicum' Pal., 'obliquom' Med. ment called a "rastrum,"or a “sarculum :” Gud.-H. N.]
exercetque frequens tellurem, atque imperat arvis.
Umida solstitia atque hiemes orate serenas,
99. “Exercet :' 'paterna rura bobus when used alone, restricted to the sumexercet suis,' Hor. Epod. II 3.
* Sic multas hiemes atque octo[* Frequens,' at his post, a military ex- gesima vidit Solstitia,' Juv. IV 92. pression, like 'exercet' and 'imperat.' 102. Moesia' (Pal. corr.) is the readCp. Donatus on Ter. Andr. (1 i 80) “fre. ing of the older editions : ‘Mysia ’ (Med., quens: ut miles apud signa,' Cic. Verr. Rom., Pal.) is required by the context, v. 33 ; Sall. Cat. 18; Paul ex Fest. p. 112 being the region of which Gargarus, the
infrequens: miles qui abest afuitve a highest summit of the range of Ida, forms signis.'-H. N.]
a part. Both readings are mentioned by * Imperat arvis : ' 'ut fertilibus agris Serv. [and the Berne scholia.] non est imperandum, cito enim exhauriet The fertility of Gargarus (or of the lands illos non intermissa fecunditas, ita animo- about it) was proverbial. Gargara quot rum inpetus adsiduus labor frangit,' Sen. segetes, quot habet Methymna racemos, de Tranq. 15, which however refers to
Ov. A. A. I 57.
The sense then seems constant sowing (comp. imperare viti- to be, as Heyne takes it, “Mysia is never bus,' to task vines by making them bear, so much in its pride, and Gargarus never
imperare voci,'to task the voice by exert. so marvellously fertile, as in a dry winter,' ing it), rather than as here to constant as if he had said 'Mysia et Gargara se breaking up the ground. Cic. De Sen. XV iactant.' •Cultu’then is not to be pressed, 51 says of the earth 'quae nunquam recusat the meaning being merely ‘Mysian farmimperium,' and so the author of the lines ing is never so successful,' etc. Wagn. prefixed to the Aeneid, ut quamvis avido and others adopt another interpretation parerent arva colono. Comp. the use of suggested by Macrobius, ‘No Mysian cul- subigere' (11 50 note).
tivation can equal an ordinary field in a dry 100-117. ‘Dry winters and wet sum- winter :' but then 'ipsa suas mirantur mers are best for the land. It is well to Gargara messis' would be very awkwardly irrigate the field after sowing; well, too, expressed. A third way, as Mr. Blackto let the cattle eat down the young corn, burn suggests, would be to press 'cultu; ' if too luxuriant, and to drain off water Mysia and Gargarus owe their fertility to when the land is too moist.'
such seasons far more than to cultivation. 100, 101, Macrobius (Sat. V 20) says 103. Comp. II 82. Probus reacls that Virg. has followed an old 'rusticum iactet-mirentur; '(so Serv. A. I 140,canticum,' "hiberno pulvere, verno luto, H. N.] grandia farra, Camille, metes.' Ribbeck 104. Quid dicam,'a form of enumeraimagines that this and the three following tion, v. 311. 'Qui,' antecedent omitted, lines contain an after-thought of Virg., as in E. II 71, etc. not harmonized with the context. But it 'Iacto,' II 317. The metaphor, as is obvious that the poet, wishing to speak Keightley has seen, is from a soldier throwof irrigation and drainage, might naturallying his lance, and then coming to close begin by speaking of the amount of wet quarters sword in hand. and dry desirable at different seasons : 105. *Ruit,' levels, whereas ruam and the form into which he has thrown acervos,' Hor. S. II v 22, means to heap his remarks is simply due to the liveliness up. So 'Sol ruit,' A. III 508, means of his fancy. [Plin. xvii 13 refers to the goes down; ‘ruebat dies,' A. X 256, lines without giving Virgil's name, but was coming up. The notion of the word this hardly proves, as has been suggested, seems to be that of violent movement : that they are interpolated.]
the direction of the movement depends on ‘Solstitium,' properly of either solstice; the context. [Ruere harenam seems to
deinde satis fluvium inducit rivosque recentis, LOG
have been the ordinary phrase for ‘to level the smooth stones, and allaying the sunor "scatter' sand : Fest. p. 262 Müller struck ground as it bubbles on. rutrum tenentis iuvenis est effigies in 10g. Elices 'is the technical word for Capitolio ephebi more Graecorum harenam drains, and ‘aquilices' for men employed ruentis.'-H. N.]
to discover water (Serv. and Festus). 'Cumulos' seems rightly understood by [Both words are perhaps derived from Dickson (i 518) of the earth at the tops of * lacio :' Stolz Hist. Gramm. 414-416.] the ridges, which is brought down by “Illa cadens :' του μέυ τε προμέοντος rakes or hurdles on the seed, comparing υπό ψηφίδες άπασαι 'Οχλεύνται το δε τ' Col. 11 4, $ 8, “inter duos latius distantis ka karatuBóuevov kelapúčet, Il. XXI 260. sulcos medius cumulus siccam sedem fru- 110. “Temperat: frigidus aëra vesmentis praebeat.' Med. corr. has “tumulos.' per Temperat, '111 337. Contrast Hor. Od.
* Male pinguis,'.'non pinguis,' like III xix 6, •quis aquam temperet ignibus?' male sanus' for insanus, Serv. This where it is the cold that is mitigated. interpretation gives' harenae 'its ordinary 111. 'Quid, qui' is explained by 'disense, and agrees better, as Wagn. re- cam,' v. 104 ; otherwise the construction marks, with what follows, where dry might be the same as E. 1x 44 (note). ground requiring irrigation is spoken of. Gravidis ---aristis :' Cerda comp. Hes. Mr. Long however rendered ‘male pin- Works 473, údé kav åòpoouvy orazúes guis' tvo stiff (comp. II 248), remarking vevolev i pače. that a very light soil would not have 112. [Cic. De Or. II 23, ‘ut in herbis . cumuli.'
rustici solent dicere, in summa ubertate 106. "“Satis," segetibus, agris satis, id inest luxuries quaedem, quae stilo de. est, seminatis : nam participium est,' Serv. pascenda est.' –H. N.] Heyne comp.
[Recentis.' The MSS. have sequentis' Pliny XVII 161, ‘Luxuria segetum casti(and so Serv.), except Rom. 'fluentes.' gatur dente pecoris in herba dumtaxat : Probably, 'sequentis ’ is a misreading of et depastae quidem vel saepius nullam in
recentis' and 'fluentes’a gloss upon that spica iniuriam sentiunt. This luxuriance word : Serv. A. VI 635 “recens : semper was occasionally corrected by harrowing, Auens.'-H. N.]
'pectinatio,' Id. ib. 186. 107. “Herbis ' must mean the blades of 113. .Sulcos' here are the ridges becorn, not the grass, which would not be tween the furrows (Dickson i 517 note). growing in a corn-field. With the lan- - Pal. has or had “palude.' guage comp. E. Vil 57, . Aret ager: vitio 114. •Deducere,'draw off water, v. 269. moriens sitit aëris herba.'
Bibula harena' might be referred with 108. *Clivosi tramitis,' i.e. clivi per Keightley (and most editors), to the soil quem unda tramitem facit,' 'trames' from which (local abl.) the water is drawn, being used proleptically.
called “harena' with reference to the * Ecce' at once gives the picture and water. But the scope of the passage expresses the unexpected relief to the seems to require that it should be taken soil. “And when the scorched land is in instrumentally, so that it would refer to a glow, and the corn-blades dying-0 the drains, which Col. II 2 and others joy! from the brow of the channelled recommend to have half filled with smail slope he entices the food: see ! down it stones or gravel. Heyne refers to Dicktumbles, waking hoarse murmurs among to show that sand is sometimes
praesertim incertis si mensibus amnis abundans 115
movit agros, curis acuens mortalia corda, mixed with soil in order to absorb mois. animals, III 431, A. II 356, etc., and even ture, but he does not give the page, and I to things which are exacting and exceshave not found it. Mr. Blackburn, agree. sive, v. 146 “labor,' A. XII 687 'mons.' ing generally with Keightley, takes Here the goose is characterized as un
harena’ in its strict sense, considering conscionable, regardless of its own and "bibula harena' as an oxymoron, and the farmer's dues. Comp. the use of remarking that he has found it the worst ávawns, e.g. of Sisyphus' stone. Of the soil to drain. • Bibulam pavit aequor goose Palladius (1 30) says, ' Anser locis harenam,' Lucr. II 376.
consitis inimicus est, quia sata et morsu 115. Incertis mensibus' is explained laedit et stercore,' the latter charge being, of the months when the weather is un- as Martyn observes, a vulgar error. certain, i.e. spring and autumn (comp. 120. Strymoniae :' see on E. I 55. vv. 311 foll., Lucr. Vi 357-378); here the No other writer seems to speak of cranes spring. Forb. comp. Lucan IV 49, “in- as enemies to the farmer. certus aër. The words themselves would Intiba' chicory or succory would be naturally
'at uncertain injurious, as Turnebus (Advers. XXVII 25) seasons.'— Probus, Inst. I x 4, mentions explains, both directly, as a weed, and a reading 'certis.'
indirectly, as attracting geese, which are 116. *Exit' of a river, A. II 496. fond of it (Col. VIII 14), Amaris fibris'
117. “Sudant umore, Lucr. VI 943. would point to the direct effect; but the “Whence if the water is not drawn off words may be ornamental. before the sun begins to act on it, it 121. “Umbra,' v. 157. E. x 76,‘nocent might rot the plants' (Keightley). et frugibus umbrae.'
118-146. “Besides all this, the farmer Pater ipse :' comp. generally Hes. has many enemies to fight with, birds, Works 42 foll., where the difticulties weeds, and shade. Such is Jove's ordi- introduced by Zeus are attributed to renance ; it was he that introduced labour.
sentment against Prometheus. Before him men had every thing to their 'Ipse' added to the name of a god hands, and property was not : he brought seems to express dignity, as Wagn. rein dangers and difficulties, to sharpen marks, 'the great Father himself,' though human wit : and so inventions and disco- this does not always exhaust its meaning. veries multiplied, under pressure of want.' See on v. 328.
118. • Boumque labores,' v. 325, ‘ho- 122. “Per artem,' A. X 135. minumque urbisque labores,' A. II 284. 123. Movit,'11 316. Comp. the use of
119. Versare' like 'vertere,' v. 2, 'suscito'(v. 97), 'agito,' and note on v. 72. with a further notion of frequency.
Corda,' in older Latin, the intellect. "Improbus :' 'probus' is frequently • Aliis cor ipsum animus videtur, ex quo coupled with 'pudicus' (note on v. 80), excordes, vecordes, concordesque dicuntur, expressing the civic virtue of moderation et Nasica ille prudens, bis consul, corcuand respect for the rights of others. lum, et Egregie cordatus homo catus Æliu' 'Improbus ' denotes the absence of such Sextus,' Cic. Tusc. 1 9; 'hebeti cognomoderation, and is applied to the wanton scere corde,' Lucr. IV 53 (44). [So‘mens,' malice of a persecuting power, E. VIII 51, the intellect, sometimes denotes the to the unscrupulous rapacity of noxious emotions, in early and in Augustan Latin.]
nec torpere gravi passus sua regna veterno.
124. This and the last line give the good 129. The extinction of the serpent side of the changes of the silver age ; labour and pacification of the wolf signalize was necessary for the development of man. the return of the golden age. E. IV 24, The old mythology, however, taught that у бо. man first deteriorated, and that the need Malum’ may be used, as Serv. thinks, to labour was intended as his punish- because 'virus' is a neutral word for ment.
animal fluid: but it seems more obvious 125. “Subigebant,' tilled : see ii 50 to take 'virus’ in its ordinary sense, and note.
regard 'malun' as a piece of descriptive 126. “Ne' is the reading of nearly all simplicity, like 'malos fures,' Hor. S. ii MSS. ; one cursive has 'nec,'the reading of the old editions and originally of Heyne; Ater' frequently occurs as an epithet comp: III 561. Madvig, Excursus 3 on of serpents, when it would not be easy to Cic. de Finibus, decides against the possi- say whether it is to be construed in its bility of 'nec . . quidem.'
primitive sense of black, or its derivative The sense seems to be : the ground was meaning of deadly. In IV 407, where it free not only from breaking up by the is applied to a tiger, it means the latter. plough, but from division by the landmark. 130. “Moveri,' deponent, to swell. To The thought will hardly bear to be put understand it of sailing would anticipate into more prosaic shape ; for, though agri- v. 136, as Heyne remarks. culture and property are doubtless con- Lucr. v 999 foll., where the sea is de. nected, Virg. would scarcely speak of scribed as rising and falling idly so long the latter as necessarily preceding the as there were no ships for it to threaten. former. Ov. M. I 136 postpones the But the two passages are contrasted as division of the land till the brazen age, well as parallel ; what is the second stage cultivation having begun in the silver. with Virg. answers to the normal state 'Signare' may contain a reference to with Lucr. 'assignatio.'
131. Mella : 'see E. IV 30, note. 127. 'In medium,' iv 157, A. XI 335 “Ignemque removit :' κρύψε δε πύρ, (note), with a view to the common stock. Hes. Works 50, who goes on to tell how This refers to 'ne signare quidem,' and Prometheus defeated the purposes of Zeus ‘ipsaque tellus' to 'ante lovem.'
by stealing fire. “Ipsaque tellus:’ καρπόν δ' έφερε ζείδωρος 132. “Flumina iam lactis, iam flumina άψουρα Αυτομάτη πολλών τε και άφθονον, nectaris ibant,' Ov. M. I III. * Passim' Hes. Works 118. So even Lucr. 11 1159,
goes with currentia.' 'Ipsa dedit dulcis fetus et pabula laeta, 133. “Usus :' see 11 22. It is virtually Quae nunc vix nostro grandescunt aucta personified, whence 'meditando.' labore," and v 942.
' Extunderet artis,' IV 315, where 128. Liberius' seems to include both perientia,' v. 316, answers to usus ' here. generosity and freedom from constraint. Cerda comp: Hom. Hymn to Hermes, *Inmetata quibus iugera liberas Fruges 5ο8, σοφίης εκμάσσατο τέχνην. Ρal. corr. et Cererem ferunt,' Hor. Od. Il xxiv has 'extruderet,' [and Gud. “extuderet,' 12. Heyne.
i.e. 'excuderet.' - H. N.]