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among the nations speaking the Latin tongue,—in short, most of the other large cities of the empire,supported each its own institution; in which the study of medicine was systematically pursued in connection with other liberal arts and sciences.* Each of these schools enjoyed a degree of local reputation; and, with regard to medicine, held by custom, if not by rescript, somewhat the same relation to that of Alexandria, as the gymnasia and provincial medical schools of Prussia, Denmark, and Holland at present hold, to the more celebrated universities of these countries.†
Though many of these institutions may have been of spontaneous growth, yet by degrees most of them fell under the immediate patronage and supervision of government. The number of professorial chairs. in each of them was regulated by law. The 'professors, in common with the Archiatri or state physicians, received a fixed salary out of the public treasury; and after a faithful performance of their duties for twenty years they had the privilege of retiring with honor in the enjoyment of a pension. Teaching, however, was not wholly restricted to the state and salaried professors, but was open to other able and educated men.T
* Guizot, Cours d'Histoire Moderne, Leçon 4m, p, 160, and Leçon 16m, p. 261.
+ De Medicis et Studio Medicinæ in urbe Alexandriña; hoc scitu dignum refert, Ammian. [22 in fin.]; ad commendandam, inquit, artis peritiam, medico pro omni experimento sufficit si Alexandriæ dixerit se eruditum. [Notes to the Codex Justiniani, lib. i., tit. iii. cap. 18.]
Digest, lib. xxvii., tit. i., cap. vi., § ́2.
§ Codex lib. x., tit. lii., § 6.
| Lib. xii., tit. xv.
Digest, lib. xxvii., tit. i. cap. vi., §'11.
The attention bestowed upon the schools by some of the emperors after the time of Constantine, appears to have been extremely inquisitorial.* The edict of Valentinian, Valens, and Gratian, addressed to Olybius, the prefect of Rome, A. D. 370, though probably intended solely for the advancement of learning, is sufficient to show the jealous care with which the government officials watched over all men of liberal education; and that real liberty, even in the pursuit of knowledge, had long since given place to arbitrary power.
In compliance with this edict, the youth coming to Rome for completing their literary education, were required to furnish the city magistrate with a passport from the governors of their respective provinces, stating their name, age, and rank in life; to declare, on arrival, the course of studies fo which they intended to devote themselves; and to acquaint the magistrate with their place of abode in the city, in order that he might place them under massters in charge of such branches of education as they had selected. They were held under the most rigid supervision by the city authorities, with reference to their conduct in the public assemblies of students, but more particularly in their private associations or clubs; which were discountenanced as vicious, if not dangerous to the state. They were prohibited from frequent attendance upon the public spectacles, and from riotous feasting at irregular hours. The student conducting himself unbecomingly, was subject to be publicly scourged,
* Codex, lib. x., tit. lii. §§ 7 and 8.
expelled from the city, or sent home to his own province. Those who devoted themselves assiduously to their studies, were allowed to remain to the close of their twentieth year; after which, failing to return home, the magistrate was instructed to force them to do so. That these injunctions might not be disregarded, he was also required to prepare a monthly statement of the condition of each student; who he was, and whence he came; to be transmitted at the close of the student's course of education, to the province to which he belonged. A similar table was also to be furnished annually to the central bureau of the government, in order that the emperor might select from among those who had completed their education, such as might be wanted for the public service.*
By an edict of Alexander Severus, who reigned from A. D. .222 to 235, students in attendance upon schools not of their own municipality, as well as their parents who accompanied them, were to be considered as temporary residents without the privileges of citizens, unless remaining at the seat of the literary institution beyond the term of ten years.†
We have already seen that princes, the populous cities, and the thickly-settled districts of Greece, were in the habit of stipulating annually for the public services of physicians. This custom was in course of time, under certain modifications, adopted
* Guizot, leçon 4m, p. 166, from Cod. Theod., 1. xiv., t. ix., 1. 1. + Codex, lib. x., tit, xxix., § 2.
by the Romans, and established by law throughout the empire. By a decree of Antoninus Pius,* the number of Archiatri, or state physicians, was limited in the metropolitan cities to ten; in cities of the second class, or those provided with a forum ór hall of justice, to seven; and in the smaller cities, to five. At Rome their number was equal to the wards of the city. They were chosen by the people of the municipalities in which they officiated, and they ranked among themselves according to seniority of appointment.§ By an edict of Severus, they drew their salary from the public treasury of their respective municipalities; and in return for this, they were required to attend diligently to the business of education, and to prescribe for the poor gratuitously. But such citizens as were able to pay for their services, and stipulated to do So, could be obliged to pay, at the close of the attendance, provided the stipulation had not been exacted from the patient while insane, or under unreasonable alarm.T
In most of the Roman laws relating to the Archiatri, they are associated with the professors of rhetoric, philosophy, and the liberal arts; and in common with these, they and their families enjoyed certain privileges and immunities, not usually conferred on other citizens. They were exempt from
* Digest, lib. xxvii., tit. i.,
§ Codex, lib., x., tit. lii., § 10.
vi., § 2.
l. 8., as cited by Sprengel, vol. ii., p. 164.
all painful and disagreeable employments; their property was not subject to taxation; they were not required to provide accommodation for the soldiery or officers of justice; they could not be summarily brought before a magistrate; and if insulted or aggrieved, they enjoyed ready and efficient means of redress in the courts of law.* Such of them as were engaged in teaching, were more liberally paid than those who devoted their whole time to practice. The term of their election and appointment to office, was limited only by their ability or disposition to perform their duties. If negligent of these, their salary was withheld, and they were subject to deposition from office.
In the larger cities the Archiatri were associated together as a college.§ They were intrusted not only with the business of teaching, but also with that of inquiring into the merits of all applicants for occupation in the profession, and of certifying to the qualifications of each applicant before the Decuriones or magistrates, by whom the license was conferred. The private practitioner, applying for a vacant seat among the Archiatri, was required to have studied and practiced under some reputable member of their order, and to have been regularly examined and licensed. And after having first obtained the suffrages of the public to the vacant seat, he had, by a decree of Valens and Valentinian,
* Codex, lib x., tit., lii. § 11. Digest, lib. xxvii., tit. i., cap. vi., §§ 1, 5, 8, and tit. xiii. 1. 1.
Digest, lib. 1., tit. xiii., § 1.
Ibid. lib. xxvii., tit. i. cap. vi., §§ 4 and 6.
§ Ibid. § 2.
Ibid. lib. 1., tit. ix.