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Other distributions of these works have since been made, by Haller, Gruner, Schulze, Ackermann, Grimm, Sprengel, Link, Peterson, and other writers.

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M. Littré, after a most careful and searching examination of the whole collection, distributes the various works composing it into eleven classes, placing in class first the thirteen treatises which are believed to be from the pep of Hippocrates. These are, 1st, the book on Ancient Medicine; 2d, the Prognostics; 3d, the Aphorisms; 4th, the Epidemics, first and third books; 5th, Regimen in Acute Diseases; 6th, on Air, Water, and Places; 7th, on Articulations; 8th, on Fractures; 9th, the Mochlicus, or Instrument for reducing Luxations, &c.; 10th, the Physician's Office; 11th, Injuries of the Head; 12th, the Oath; 13th, the Law.

The works of the second class he attributes to Polybius. These are, the book on the Nature of Man, and that on Regimen for Persons in Health. In the third class he includes two books which he believes to be more ancient than the genuine writings. These are the Coan Prænotions and the first book of Prorrhetics. In class fourth, he places certain works which he cannot on undisputed authority assign to Hippocrates, but which may have emanated from his school. These are the treatises on Ulcers, on Fistulæ and Hæmorrhoids, on Pneuma, on the Sacred Disease, on the Places in Man, on Art, on Regimen and Dreams, on Affections, on Internal Affections; on Diseases, first, second, and third:

*Loco citato, chap. xii.

books; on the Seventh Month Foetus, on the Eighth Month Foetus. In the fifth class he includes such, works as appear to be merely collections of notes, or extracts from other of the genuine writings: these are the second, fourth, fifth; sixth, and seventh. books on Epidemics; the book on Humors, that on the use of Liquids, and perhaps the Physician's Office, which is also mentioned in the first class.

In class sixth he places several books by some unknown author, who must have written earlier than Aristotle, and whose writings form a special series in the collection. These are the treatises on Generation, on the Nature of the Infant, Diseases-fourth book, the Diseases of Women, the Diseases of Young Women, on Unfruitful Women. In class seventh he places the treatise on Superfotation which,' on the authority of Aristotle, he is disposed to ascribe to Leophantes. His eighth class is made up of works which appear to have been written about the time of Aristotle and Praxagoras; and which he considers to have been of this epoch, either because they make allusion to the pulse; or because, in accordance with the teaching of Aristotle, they refer the origin of the blood-vessels to the heart; or because, by Erotian, Galen, or other of the ancient critics, they have been pronounced to be more recent. than the time of Hippocrates. These are treatises or fragments on the Heart, on Aliment, on Fleshes, on the Weeks, the second book on Prorrhetics, on the Glands, and an extract from the compilation on the Nature of Bone.

In class ninth he places several small treatises,

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fragments, or compilations, which do not appear to have been mentioned by the ancient critics or commentators. These are, on the Physician, on Honorable Conduct, the Precepts, on Anatomy, on Dentition, on the Nature of Woman, on Excision of the Foetus, the eighth section of Aphorisms, on the Nature of Bone, on Crises, on Critical Days, on Purgative Medicines, on Vision. In class tenth he introduces a notice of such works as formerly belonged to the collection, but which are now lost. These were, the book on Dangerous Wounds, that on Missiles and Wounds, and the first book on Diseases the less. In the last class he places the Letters, Decree, and Discourse; which, though very ancient, are not the less apocryphal. These are, the Letter and Decree concerning the Plague, the Letters relating to the Madness of Democritus, the Letter from Hippocrates to his son Thessalus, and the Discourse relative to the war between the Athenians and the people of Cos.


The classification adopted by Dr. Greenhill, of Oxford, and Mr. Francis Adams,* the English translator of Hippocrates, does not materially differ from the foregoing so far as relates to the writings of Hippocrates and of his immediate family and disciples; though Mr. Adams believes that M. Littré, in rejecting certain portions of the eighth class, has underestimated the anatomical knowledge of the sage of Cos, and he gives good reasons for this opinion.. In examining the collection with reference to its

Genuine Works of Hippocrates, vol. i. p. 46.

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doctrines, we find Hippocrates in the first place investigating the influence of surrounding circumstances on the health and diseases of the living body. In the book on Ancient Medicine he opposes those who would attribute all diseases to a single cause, whether heat or cold, or dryness or moisture. He founds his system on realities-on observation, the records of science, and the deductions of sound reasoning. Adopting from the schools of philosophy the doctrine of the primitive elements, and that of the primitive humors which was derived from this, he sees in the human body the humors undergoing changes in accordance with the conditions of health and disease. He is led to believe that health is maintained by the equable proportion and intermixture of the humors, and that disease is the result of their inequalities.. He admits that during their changes the disordered humors undergo a process of coction by which they may be restored to their healthy condition; and as time is requisite. for effecting this process he undertakes to show how the critical discharge is brought about; and to establish the days within which it is to be expected.

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In the book on Airs, Waters, and Places, he inquires into the effects of particular exposures, of the seasons and their vicissitudes; the influence of winds and the properties of waters. He alludes to the diseases prevalent in different places and during different times of the year. He contemplates the moral and physical characteristics of different nations, resulting from the climate, locality, and other influences to which they are subject. He rejects the

superstition of his times in reference to supernatural agencies. He holds that no one disease is more the result of divine wrath than another, and that all of them originate from natural causes. The predispositions resulting from the different periods of life, he studies with equal attention. He holds that the innate heat of the body is at its maximum. during infancy, at its minimum in old age; and that each particular phase in this quality, like the influence of the sun in different seasons of the year, predisposes 'to its particular class of ailments. Among the. agencies applying more especially to the individual, he dwells with becoming attention on diet and exercise; showing how excess or deficiency in the one or the other, may prove the prolific source of dis


In connection with this theory of innate heat, and that of the humors, he lays much stress on the doctrine of Coction; implying by this term, the changes which the disordered humors undergo, pre. paratory to their elimination. So long as they are floating about in a state of crudity, the disease continues in full intensity; but when they are properly elaborated, the disease reaches its crisis, and they are discharged, either by the spontaneous effort of nature, or by the aid of medicine acting in subservience to nature's laws. Where the crisis cannot thus be effected by the removal of the offending humors from the body, it may be brought about by their localization in particular organs or parts of the body, as by the development of a critical abscess, by an erysipelatous inflammation, by a diseased joint, or

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