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Theodoric the Goth even attempted the restoration of learning in the West; and his successor, Athalaric, restored to the professors at Rome the salaries that had been long withheld from them. He also enriched the schools of Milan, Pavia, and other cities.; and Justinian on again acquiring the dominion of the West, confirmed the edict of the Gothic emperor. So that learning may be said to have held some semblance to its ancient rank, up to the final subjugation of Italy by the Lombards.

But though the ancient educational institutions, after the advent of Christianity as a political power, were by degrees discountenanced and forsaken, yet the laws in regard to them were never formally abrogated. Many of them, under the patronage at first of the Bishops, and afterwards of the Benedictine monks, were converted into Christian schools. Some of them in the Eastern portion of the empire, now under the sway of the Saracens, served as starting points for the progress of knowledge, and especially of medical knowledge, among the Arabs. In many of the cities and municipalities of which the Western portion of the empire consisted, and into which it was finally dissolved, traces of the ancient system of medical education and police continued visible throughout the whole of the middle ages; and in connection with other fragments of Roman law not yet laid aside, played no unimportant part in the early development of modern science and civilization.

* Aliæ Aliquot Constitutiones Justiniani, capitula xxii, pp. 237. Elzevir edition.


For "Telephorus," page 29, last line but one, read Telesphorus.

For "Burgess," page 33, last line, and page 36, tenth line from bottom,

read Burges.

For "Clinicæ,” page 47, fourth line from top, read Clinice.

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never disconnected by the educated physicians of antiquity, who rejected most of the specialists as impostors.*

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Of these illegitimate sons of Esculapius, the numbers and pretensions were as great in ancient as in modern times; and they were quite as apt to receive the countenance and favor of the upper classes. Chosroes of Persia was the patron of Uranus; and Nero was the supporter of the audacious Thessalus, who, like Paracelsus, repudiated all learning as useless, and like the still more recent mountebank, Hahnemann, modestly assumed to be above all, and opposed to all, who had ever gone before him. Pliny and Galen are justly severe on most of these ancient impostors. And if we can credit their account of them, the host of industrialists, oculists, rhinoplasts, dentists, bone-setters, herniotomists, lithotomists, gelders, abortionists, and poison-venders, pervading Italy, France, and Spain throughout the middle ages, before whom the modern group of pretenders grow pale and insig nificant,—were at least equaled, if not exceeded, in ignorance, as well as arrogance, by the quacks of Rome.t

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With regard to schools, besides the cities already mentioned, Athens, Corinth, Berytus, Laodicea, and Cæsarea, among the Greeks; and at different epochs, Milan, Pavia,Traves, Arles, Marseilles, and Bordeaux

* Corpus Juris Civilis Digest, lib. 1. tit. xiii. § iii.

+ Galen, Methodus Medendi, lib. i., cap. i., ii., iii. Vol. x. p. 5, et seq. Pliny, lib. xxix., cap. viii. Corpus Juris Civilis Digest, lib. 1., tit. xiii., 1. 3. et Julii Pauli Recept. Sentent. lib. v. tit. xxiii., §§ 7, 8, 11, 12.

among the nations speaking the Latin tongue,—in short, most of the other large cities of the empire,supported each its own institution; in which the study of medicine was systematically pursued in connection with other liberal arts and sciences.* Each of these schools enjoyed a degree of local reputation; and, with regard to medicine, held by custom, if not by rescript, somewhat the same relation to that of Alexandria, as the gymnasia and provincial medical schools of Prussia, Denmark, and Holland at present hold, to the more celebrated universities of these countries.†

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Though many of these institutions may have been of spontaneous growth, yet by degrees most of them fell under the immediate patronage and supervision of government. The number of professorial chairs. in each of them was regulated by law. The 'professors, in common with the Archiatri or state physicians, received a fixed salary out of the public treasury; and after a faithful performance of their duties for twenty years they had the privilege of retiring with honor in the enjoyment of a pension.|| Teaching, however, was not wholly restricted to the state and salaried professors, but was open to other able and educated men.T

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* Guizot, Cours d'Histoire Moderne, Leçon 4m, p, 160, and Leçon 16m, p. 261.

+ De Medicis et Studio Medicinæ in urbe Alexandriña; hoc scitu dignum refert, Ammian. [22 in fin.]; ad commendandam, inquit, artis peritiam, medico pro omni experimento sufficit si Alexandriæ dixerit se eruditum. [Notes to the Codex Justiniani, lib. i., tit. iii. cap. 18.]

Digest, lib. xxvii., tit. i., cap. vi., § ́2.

§ Codex lib. x., tit. lii., § 6.

| Lib. xii., tit. xv.

Digest, lib. xxvii., tit. i. cap. vi., §'11.

The attention bestowed upon the schools by some of the emperors after the time of Constantine, appears to have been extremely inquisitorial.* The edict of Valentinian, Valens, and Gratian, addressed to Olybius, the prefect of Rome, A. D. 370, though probably intended solely for the advancement of learning, is sufficient to show the jealous care with which the government officials watched over all men of liberal education; and that real liberty, even in the pursuit of knowledge, had long since given place to arbitrary power.

In compliance with this edict, the youth coming to Rome for completing their literary education, were required to furnish the city magistrate with a passport from the governors of their respective provinces, stating their name, age, and rank in life; to declare, on arrival, the course of studies fo which they intended to devote themselves; and to acquaint the magistrate with their place of abode in the city, in order that he might place them under massters in charge of such branches of education as they had selected. They were held under the most rigid supervision by the city authorities, with reference to their conduct in the public assemblies of students, but more particularly in their private associations or clubs; which were discountenanced as vicious, if not dangerous to the state. They were prohibited from frequent attendance upon the public spectacles, and from riotous feasting at irregular hours. The student conducting himself unbecomingly, was subject to be publicly scourged,

* Codex, lib. x., tit. lii. §§ 7 and 8.

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