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mentators among the Greeks; of Celsus and Cælius Aurelianus among the Latins, next to the works of Galen, were the chief. Portions of these, when accessible to him, he was required to ponder over, with the oral explanations or written comments of his preceptor. The temples were open to him, up to the time of Constantine; after which he had the opportunity of attending, with his instructor, upon the sick; and was obliged to practice under him before commencing for himself.
Indeed, the importance of practical training was, if possible, more highly estimated by the ancients than the moderns. Even the charlatans of Rome, who spurned all connection with the liberal arts, and professed to qualify their pupils within the short space of six months,* were duly impressed with the necessity of clinical teaching, and were in the habit of ostentatiously parading through the streets, followed by a retinue of young men, with whom they made their daily visits to the sick; a custom to which we owe the sarcastic epigram of Martial:
"Languebam; sed tu comitatus ad me
At Rome, as among the Greeks, there were physicians belonging to the servile races. And, that these might the more readily practice their profession,
* Galen, Methodus Medendi, lib i. cap. i. Kuhn's edition, vol. x. p. 5. f Lib. v. Ep. 9.
they were usually declared freedmen by their masters. The estimation placed upon slaves engaged in the practice of medicine, may be ascertained from the Codex of Justinian ;* which fixes the legal value of a maid servant at twenty solidi; of a male slave skilled in any handicraft, at thirty solidi; notaries, whether male or female, at fifty solidi; and physicians, male or female, at sixty solidi.
We have already seen that in ancient Egypt, as far back as history extends, the practice of medicine was divided into numerous branches. This custom never became general among the Greeks or Romans; yet in the larger cities some approach was made towards it. Galen informs us that in the less populous districts, where specialists were unable to find employment, they were in the habit of perambulating the country, and practicing from place to place. Pharmacy, as already shown, had become a distinct department as early as the days of Aristotle. Gymnasiarchs and Iatroleptists, or anointers and bathers, in the exercise of their calling, were in some measure subservient to the profession, and had always paid some attention to the treatment of injuries. Midwifery was still in the hands of the obstetrix. And some few of these ancient handmaids of Lucina, as Aspasia, Cleopatra, and others, were writers as well as practitioners. But surgery and medicine proper, though sometimes taught or practiced separately as specialities, were
* Lib, vii. tit. vii, § 5.
never disconnected by the educated physicians of antiquity, who rejected most of the specialists as impostors.*
Of these illegitimate sons of Esculapius, the numbers and pretensions were as great in ancient as in modern times; and they were quite as apt to receive the countenance and favor of the upper classes. Chosroes of Persia was the patron of Uranus; and Nero was the supporter of the audacious Thessalus, who, like Paracelsus, repudiated all learning as useless, and like the still more recent mountebank, Hahnemann, modestly assumed to be above all, and opposed to all, who had ever gone before him. Pliny and Galen are justly severe on most of these ancient impostors. And if we can credit their account of them, the host of industrialists, oculists, rhinoplasts, dentists, bone-setters, herniotomists, lithotomists, gelders, abortionists, and poison-venders, pervading Italy, France, and Spain throughout the middle ages, before whom the modern group of pretenders grow pale and insignificant, were at least equaled, if not exceeded, in ignorance, as well as arrogance, by the quacks of Rome.t
With regard to schools, besides the cities already mentioned, Athens, Corinth, Berytus, Laodicea, and Cæsarea, among the Greeks; and at different epochs, Milan, Pavia,Traves, Arles, Marseilles, and Bordeaux
* Corpus Juris Civilis Digest, lib. 1. tit. xiii. § iii.
+ Galen, Methodus Medendi, lib. i., cap. i., ii., iii.
Vol. x. p. 5, et seq.
Pliny, lib. xxix., cap. viii. Corpus Juris Civilis Digest, lib. 1., tit. xiii., 1. 3. et Julii Pauli Recept. Sentent. lib. v. tit. xxiii., §§ 7, 8, 11, 12. ·
among the nations speaking the Latin tongue,-in short, most of the other large cities of the empire,supported each its own institution; in which the study of medicine was systematically pursued in connection with other liberal arts and sciences.* Each of these schools enjoyed a degree of local reputation; and, with regard to medicine, held by custom, if not by rescript, somewhat the same relation to that of Alexandria, as the gymnasia and provincial medical schools of Prussia, Denmark, and Holland at present hold, to the more celebrated universities of these countries.t
Though many of these institutions may have been of spontaneous growth, yet by degrees most of them fell under the immediate patronage and supervision of government. The number of professorial chairs. in each of them was regulated by law. The professors, in common with the Archiatri or state physicians, received a fixed salary out of the public treasury; and after a faithful performance of their duties for twenty years they had the privilege of retiring with honor in the enjoyment of a pension. Teaching, however, was not wholly restricted to the state and salaried professors, but was open to other able and educated men.T
* Guizot, Cours d'Histoire Moderne, Leçon 4m, p, 160, and Leçon 16m, p. 261.
† De Medicis et Studio Medicine in urbe Alexandrina, hoc scitu dignum refert, Ammian. [22 in fin.]; ad commendandam, inquit, artis peritiam, medico pro omni experimento sufficit si Alexandriæ dixerit se eruditum. [Notes to the Codex Justiniani, lib. i., tit. iii. cap. 18.]
Digest, lib. xxvii., tit. i., cap. vi., § 2.
§ Codex lib. x., tit. lii., § 6.
| Lib. xii., tit. xv.
Digest, lib. xxvii., tit. i. cap. vi., § ́11.
The attention bestowed upon the schools by some of the emperors after the time of Constantine, appears to have been extremely inquisitorial.* The edict of Valentinian, Valens, and Gratian, addressed to Olybius, the prefect of Rome, A. D. 370, though probably intended solely for the advancement of learning, is sufficient to show the jealous care with which the government officials watched over all men of liberal education; and that real liberty, even in the pursuit of knowledge, had long since given place to arbitrary power.
In compliance with this edict, the youth coming to Rome for completing their literary education, were required to furnish the city magistrate with a passport from the governors of their respective provinces, stating their name, age, and rank in life; to declare, on arrival, the course of studies fo which they intended to devote themselves; and to acquaint the magistrate with their place of abode in the city, in order that he might place them under massters in charge of such branches of education as they had selected. They were held under the most rigid supervision by the city authorities, with reference to their conduct in the public assemblies of students, but more particularly in their private associations or clubs; which were discountenanced as vicious, if not dangerous to the state. They were prohibited from frequent attendance upon the public spectacles, and from riotous feasting at irregular hours. The student conducting himself unbecomingly, was subject to be publicly scourged,
* Codex, lib. x., tit. lii. §§ 7 and 8.