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cises, however, were not confined to youth. The people of every rank engaged in them. At the Palestræ, in which they were conducted, injuries were of frequent occurrence. The Gymnasiarchs in charge of these institutions, as well as the Iatroleptists, or anointers, who assisted them, had constant opportunity of witnessing and treating accidents; and from the experience thus acquired, these men were in some degree trained to the management of diseases originating from other causes. The Homeric heroes had probably acquired their surgical skill in this manner. But if some of them, as Machaon and Padalirius, possessed extraordinary ability in the treatment of injuries, they were not exclusively devoted to its exercise; for they were quite as ready at inflicting wounds as at curing them.

2. At the schools of philosophy some attention was always devoted to medicine as a department of speculative knowledge. The School of Pythagoras, at Crotona in Magna. Græcia, now the south of Italy, preceded that of Plato by more than a century. Before assuming the business of teaching, Pythagoras had spent much time in Egypt; and he probably introduced something of Egyptian science in his course of instruction at Crotona, where medi-; cine was first cultivated as a department of philosophy. Of this school were Empedocles, the author of à medical poem; Alemæon, who was occupied in the dissection of brute animals; and Democedés, the most skillful physician of his time, who flourished more than a century before Hippocrates. Of

this same school also was Acron, the first of his sect to give attention to practical rather than to speculative inquiries; and who is said to have arrested the progress of an epidemic at Athens, by kindling large fires in different parts of the city. To him the Empirics, a sect of much later date, were ambitious of tracing their opinions. He was the author of a treatise on nutrition, which had perished before the age of Pericles.

Of these philosophers, Democedes is the only one who is known to have devoted himself to medicine as an industrial occupation. Leaving Crotona and his father's house, he first settled at Egina; where, though poorly provided with the instruments of his art, he soon surpassed the most expert of the physicians. In the second year the Ægineta engaged him, for a talent out of the public treasury; in the third year, the Athenians, for a hundred mine; and in the fourth year, Polycrates, for two talents. He subsequently. accompanied this prince in a maritime expedition from Samos to Asia Minor; where he fell into the hands of the Persians. He afterwards rose to distinction by curing Darius of an injury of the ankle, . which the Egyptian physicians had failed to relieve; and thus he acquired great influence at Susa, sitting at the king's table, overwhelmed with riches, and in the enjoyment of every honor and privilege which Darius could bestow, excepting only the privilege of returning to his native country-a privilege for which he languished; and which, after curing Atossa, the wife of Darius and daughter of Cyrus, of a tumor of the breast, he finally obtained by

stratagem. In the time of Democedes, the physicians of Crotona, according to Herodotus, were esteemed to be the ablest in Greece, and the Cyrenæans the second.*

The writings of Plato and Aristotle are filled with allusions to our art; and from it they are continually drawing their happiest illustrations. Plato had the following inscription over the door of his Academy:

"Let none ignorant of geometry enter here."t

And whether this is to be understood literally, or as referring to previous moral and intellectual training, it is evident he sought to give instruction only to such as had already received elementary education sufficient to enable them to appreciate and profit by his discourses. Nor could.his pupils have been more than voluntary listeners. For when reading to them his dialogue "On the Soul," the most of them rose and departed, Aristotle alone remaining to be edi-. fied by its reasonings. This school was of small beginning. The little orchard adjoining the Academy, constituted Plato's principal patrimony. Before he began to teach, it yielded him only two. aurei nummi annually. But the revenue derived from it in course of time, amounted to more than a thousand; for it was much enlarged by well-wishers and studious persons, who bequeathed something of their wealth to the philosophers. Plato exacted no pecuniary recompense from his pupils.. But Aris

* Herodotus. Bk. iii., ch. 129, et seq.

Stanley. History of Philosophy. Fol. Lond., 1687, p. 262. ́
Diogenes Laertius, in Life of Plato. Chap. 37.

tippus, who had been his fellow-pupil under Socrates, and was afterwards the founder of the Cyreniac sect, believing that instruction is the more highly valued by the money paid for it, gave the first example among the philosophers of charging for his lectures; an example afterwards followed at the Academy, where Speusippus, the nephew and successor of Plato, established the fee for a course of dialectics at a mina. Polemo, the third in succession, after Plato, lived within the garden of the Academy; whilst his disciples, to be near the school, built for themselves little lodges round about it. Cratnor, a disciple of Polemo, being in ill health, took up his abode at the temple of Esculapius in Athens, where it was his intention to establish an independent school of his own; but regaining his health, he relinquished this purpose, and afterwards bequeathed his possessións to the Academy. Attalus, king of Pergamus, subsequently enlarged and ornamented its public grounds; which were thenceforward called the "Gardens of Attalus." Xenocrates, the successor of Speusippus, in consequence of the' great number of youth resorting to him, was obliged, for the proper government of the Academy, to establish a regular system of police, and to appoint officers from time to time for carrying his regulations into effect.

The government of the Lyceum was nearly the same as that of the Academy. From the life of Theophrastus, the successor of Aristotle, we. learn, that voluntary contributions were occasionally taken up for the maintenance of the philosophers; that for

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the order and economy of the institution, the regulation of its tenements, altars, statues, and ornamental grounds, there were special officers appointed, and laws established, by the governor; and that, besides those who were associated together as philosophers, there were immense numbers of young men resorting to the institution; some of whom appear to have been occasionally admitted to the tables of their instructors.

Both of these institutions were in some degree under the cognizance of the republic: The people occasionally exercised the right of closing them, and of silencing or restraining the teachers, according as their doctrines countenanced or opposed the prejudices, policy, or religious tendencies of the community.

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Those who had gone through the course as, ordinary students, occasionally chose afterwards to remain as permanent residents. Aristotle, before opening his own school at the Lyceum, had been a member of the Academy for more than twenty years. From among the permanent residents, the director usually selected his, successor. Thus, Strato, the second after Aristotle at the Lyceum, "ordered in his will, that Lyco should succeed him; giving as a reason, that the others were either too old, or otherwise employed; and requesting them to confirm his choice.

How much of medicine may have entered into the systematic course of instruction at either of these institutions, we have not now the means of ascertaining. That Plato was well versed in the prin

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