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to contain himself, began to vociferate in praise of my abilities. Do not think,' said I, 'that these are all the discoveries my art enables me to make; there are others yet to be mentioned, which will elicit the testimony even of the patient.' Then turning to the latter I resumed: 'Is not the pain in this part increased, and accompanied with a sense of weight in the right hypochondrium, whenever you take a full breath?' At hearing this the patient also was surprised, and was as loud in my praise as Glauco. Seeing fortune still smiling upon me, I was desirous of making some remark in reference to the shoulder, which appeared to be drawn downwards, as often occurs in severe inflammations as well as in induration of the liver; but I did not venture to speak on this point, fearing to diminish the admiration which I had already excited. Nevertheless I touched upon it cautiously; saying to the patient, 'You will not long feel the shoulder drawn downwards, if perchance you do not find it so already.' When he admitted this symptom also, seeing him greatly astonished, I said, 'I will add but one other word to show what you conceive to be the nature of complaint.' Glauco declared he would not be surprised if I should do even this. But the patient, overcome with wonder at such a promise, observed me closely, waiting for what I should say. I told him he had taken his disease to be a pleurisy. This, with a further expression of surprise, he admitted to have been his own opinion, as well as that of his attendant; who had been fomenting his side with oil, for the relief of that disease. From this time for

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ward Glauco entertained the highest opinion both of me and of our art; for, having never before come in contact with a physician of consummate ability, he had hitherto formed but an humble estimate of the profession. I have related to you these particulars," he adds, as if addressing a class of students, "in order that you may understand that there are symptoms peculiar to particular diseases, and others common to several diseases; and, further, that there are some symptoms inseparable from the disease, some usually accompanying it, others again of uncertain character, or of rare occurrence; so that if fortune at any time offers to you a good opportunity, as in the instance just related, you may know how to take advantage of it; remembering that fortune often presents to us the means of acquiring fame, which, through ignorance, many are unable to turn to good account."*

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The following is equally characteristic: "There are," says he, "certain persons who promise to prove that the arteries do not contain blood, yet never test their assertion by dissections. A teacher of this sort having asserted his ability to show that the aorta is always empty, and not demonstrating the fact, was exhorted to do so by a number of ambitious young men who had provided animals for the purpose. At first he refused to comply with their request unless suitably rewarded; whereupon they placed before him a thousand denarii as an inducement to prove his assertion. After much

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* De Locis Affectis, lib. v., c. 8: Kuhn's edition, vol. 8,

p. 361.

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prevarication, when urged to proceed by all present, he took the scalpel in hand, and began by making an incision in the left side of the chest, where he imagined the artery could be exposed; but such was his want of anatomical skill that he cut directly down upon the bone. One of his associates, however, having opened through the intercostal spaces, he, again proceeding, injured in the first place the artery, and afterwards the vein. The young men who had deposited the money with the spectators, now, laughing at him, undertook the experiment themselves. They dissected through the intercostal spaces, as they had been previously taught by me, in such a way as not to injure the vessels; and without delay surrounded the artery with two ligatures; one at its point of departure from the heart, the other where it rests upon the spine, just as these boastful teachers had promised to do, in order that when the animal was dead one might see, from so much of the vessel as lay between the ligatures, whether or not the artery was empty of blood. But when it was not found to be empty, they declared that an incision must have been made in it at the time of applying the ligature; as if some other individual, and not these teachers themselves, had promised the demonstration. For they had never tried the experiment in presence of witnesses, nor could they have had much skill in applying the ligatures, since they did not even know that the artery and vein both extend to the lower boundary of the ribs."* The order of applying the two liga

* Adminis. Anatomic., lib. iii. cap. 7. See also Kuhn's edition of Galen, vol. ii. p. 642.

tures given above, evinces how imperfect must ha been Galen's knowledge of the course of the bloo through the aorta.

An admirer of Plato and Aristotle whose doctrines he would have attempted to reconcile, he was the strenuous opponent of the Epicureans. After a burst of indignation against all who would place their supreme good in the gratification of their own will, he exclaims: "Why should I waste words on such men! Others of nobler understanding might well censure me for thus perverting the sacred attribute of speech, which ought to be reserved for composing hymns in adoration of the Author of our being. I hold true piety to consist, not in sacrificing to him hecatombs of bulls, or in burning incense of cassia, or of hundreds of fragrant ointments, to his honor; but rather in ascertaining for myself, and in teaching to others, something of his wisdom, his goodness, and his power. I hold it to be the most convincing evidence of his goodness, that he has supplied every creature with what is most convenient for its use, and that all are supported by his bounty. On this account it becomes us to celebrate his goodness with hymns of praise. We see, as evidence of his consummate wisdom, that he has chosen the means most appropriate for accomplishing his own designs. And seeing that he has created all things agreeably to his own will, we have evidence of his almighty power."*

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Many of the minor works ascribed to Galen may have been composed in his earlier years; but most of

* De Usu Partium, lib. iii. cap. 10, vol. iii. p. 237.

those upon which his fame, reposes were written after his recall to Rome. Some portion of his writ ings, among these the two books of Anatomical Administrations which he had composed after the method of Marinus, were consumed during the conflagration of the temple of Peace and the destruction of his own dwelling; other parts, have perished since his death. Yet we have now in print and assigned to him, eighty-two treatises, the genuineness of which is undisputed; eighteen upon which the critics are not so well agreed; nineteen fragments, more or less voluminous; and eighteen commentaries on Hippocrates. To which should be added nearly forty treatises or fragments of treatises still extant in manuscript. His works now wholly lost, are supposed to amount to one hundred and sixty; about fifty of which were on medical subjects. He was also known as a philosophical writer; and to have devoted a portion of his labors to grammar and mathematics.

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The works most highly esteemed in the Galenical collection, are the Administrationes Anatomica, De Usu Partium Corporis Humani, De Locis Affectis, Methodus Medendi, another treatise on the same subject addressed to Glauco, De Prænotione, Ars Medica, and, if really his, the work entitled Medicus or Introductio, which by some critics has been ascribed to Herodotus, one of his immediate predecessors. Worthy to be associated with the foregoing are the treatises: De Ossibus, De Elementis, De Temperamentis, De Atrabile, De Facultatibus Naturalibus, An in Arteriis Natura Sanguis

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