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Silva, of a luxuriant crop, 152

Stag, longevity of, 75

Silvae, how connected with pasturage, 20: Stage-curtain, ancient, rose instead of fall-
of plantations, 228, 237

ing, 254

Silvanus, connexion of with the cypress, Stagnare, of overflowing rivers, 334

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Specimen, 218

Spectare ad aliquid, 40

Speculari, shades of meaning of, 171
Spelaeum, a rare word, 104

Spelt, a hardy grain, 167

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Subigere, of rowing, 164: other senses of,

Subiectare and subvectare, 273

Subjunctive, in questions, 38, 240: pre-
sent followed by imperfect, 315
Submittere, its agricultural sense, 24, 258
Succedere sub, 54

Succidere, to sever from below, 176
Suckers, propagation of trees by, 197
Sudum, of the season, 311
Sufficere, 258

Sulphur, kinds of, 290
Sun, prognostics from, 188
Suovetaurilia, 181

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Super, besides,' 233: other adverbial
senses of, 275: 'concerning,' 363

Superare, its various senses, 94, 163, 218,
227, 228, 257

Spenser, prefatory epistle to his 'Shep- Superesse, of abundance, 263

herd's Calendar' referred to, 3

Spercheus, orthography of, 245


Supinus, applied to land, meaning of, 223
Supremus clamor, 353

Spernere, to spurn,' 328: of slighted love, Surdo canere, &c., 99


Spinus, what, 318

Spirare, of the sea, 178

Spondaic, hexameter, 276
Springs, sacredness of, 25, 338

Squalere, of land going to weeds, 194: of
roughness, 230: connected with squama,
304, 312

Stabula, not confined to cattle, 305
Stabulare, intransitive, 271

Sus, of a wild boar, 274

Suspendere aratrum, 35: tellurem, 151
Suus, uses of, 305, 323

Swallow flies low before rain, 183: enemy
to bees, 305: harbinger of spring, 336
Swans, music of, 94: poets changed into,

Swineherds not out of place in the Eclogues,

Sword, straight, of the Roman soldier, 194

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Tabulata, of the branches which supported Thymbra, 306

the vine, 232

Tabum and tabes, 293

Taenarus, entrance to the shades at, 354
Talis, in the vocative, 51
Talpa, masculine, 163

Tamarisks, relation of, to bucolic poetry,


Tamen, after all,' 97, 102

Tantum, answering to orov, 64: used of
place or of time, ib. : with genitive, 311:
with adjectives, 313

Tardae noctes, 245

Tarentine territory, fertility of, 214, 316
Taurus for bos or iuvencus, 149

Taygeta and Taygetus, 245, 256
Taygete, one of the Pleiads, 328

Telum, of lightning, 179
Temo, of the plough, 161

Tempe, of any lovely valley, 244

Temperare, of mitigating either heat or
cold, 155, 281: with dative or ablative,

Thymbraeus, of Apollo, 338
Tibia, 214

Tibullus, avoids eliding long vowels after
the first foot, 109

Tigers, black, 348: tigers not found in
Thrace, 358

Timere, with dative, 67

Tinguere, of both immersing and dyeing,
Tinus, 317

Tithonus not one of the ancestors of the
Caesars, 256

Tityrus identified with Virgil, 11

-, meaning of the name, 20

Tmolus not known to have been famous for
saffron, 150 its wine, 204, 345
Tofus (tophus), 216


Toga picta, 253: praetexta, ib.
Tollere ad astra, 58

Tondere, of reaping, 152: of browsing,
240, 333 of plucking a flower, 317
Tonsa oliva, 254

Tempestas, shades of meaning of, 147, 171, Torches, cutting of, part of a countryman's
177, 178

Temples dedicated after victory, 253

Temptare (tentare), of giving physical pain,
25, 289

Tendere vim, 347: vincula, ib.

work, 82

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Tener opposed to aridus, 66: tenerae res, Tractim, 331

of young plants, 229

Tenere, of shutting out, 233: ora, 355
Tennyson referred to, 8, 194

Tenuis, subtle' or 'penetrating,' 153, 231,
280, 348: disyllable, 185: of wine, 204
Terere - tornare, 241

Tpaydia, origin of, 234

Truha or trahea, 160

Trahi, of extent, 169, 347: other applica-
tions of, 347

Translation, estimation in which it was
formerly held in England, 5

Tereus, Greek and Roman versions of the Trap set by Virgil for the critics, 45

story of, 70

Terni for tres, 86

Terrae, of the whole earth, 191


Terreus, made of earth,' 229

Thalia said to be the inventress of agricul-
ture, 63

Thasian wine, 204

Theocritus, characteristics of, 2

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Trees, cutting another man's maliciously a
legal offence, 37: various modes of pro-
pagating, 197: spontaneous generation
of, ib.

fruit-bearing, the blasting of, omin-

ous, 21

-, verse cut on the bark of, 55, 104
Triboli (tribuli), 159

doubtful whether he had any Tribulum, 160
predecessors in pastoral poetry, 2

-, servility with which Virgil co-

pies him, 5, 6
Theophrastus, undiscriminating use of by
Virgil, 230

Thesidae, of the Athenians, 234
Thrace the country of Mars, 353

Three, magic efficacy of the number, 86

Tristis, of bad weather, 328
Tritura, how performed, 163
Triumph, Roman, allegory drawn from,


Troglodytic life, 284

Troy, origin of Romans from, 235
Truncus, with genitive and ablative, 337
Tu, enforcing a precept, 313

Tueri, 'to maintain,' 214

Tugurium, etymology and meaning of, 27
Tum, marking a point in a description, 225:
and tunc, 227

denique for tum demum, 233

Tumultus, 190

Tunica, of the rind of trees, 202

Venire, of a star rising, 106: 'to become,'
148: to grow,' 150, 197

Venus, connexion of the Julian family with,
96, 147 of passion, 358
Ver agere, 229

Verb carried from one part of a sentence to
another, 241: omitted in inscriptions, 75

Turf, burning away of, not practised by the Verbenae, 85, 316
ancients, 153

Turning the back in certain ceremonies, 89
Turpis, ugly,' 257


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Versare, of keeping sheep, 106: of plough-
ing, 156: of forming plans, 311
Versus, senses of, 317

Vertere, of ploughing, 144: vertere fas
atque nefas, 194

Vertex for polus, 169: vertex and vortex,
191 meanings of, ib.

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Victor, of intellectual triumph, 252
Videre, in the sense of vigilare, 64
Videri,' to be seen,' 65

Viduatus with genitive and ablative, 359
Vigilare aliquid, 177

Vincere verbis, 277: flamma, 301
Vine leaves used for skimming must, 175

poles not allowed to remain out, 237
Vines sometimes trained on willows, 103:
different modes of rearing, 195: innu-
merable varieties of, 205; vine and its
supporters spoken of indifferently, 195,
221: vines and figs, position of some-
times changed on transplanting, 222:
some vines suited for the hill, others for
the plain, ib.: vine planted less deeply
than its supporter, 225: training of, by
espaliers, 232: pruning of, ib.
Vineyard, aspect of, 225: vineyards on ter-
raced rocks, 234

Virgil draws his images to a great extent
from books, 7

seems sometimes to mistake the mean-
ing of Greek authors, 83, 85, 89, 173

hints at one mode of expression while
using another, 232: tells things by im-
plication, 65, 233, 252, 272, 355, 361

does not name the authors whom he
imitates, 131

orthography of the name, 364

-, his literary ambition, 62, 135 foll.: his
agricultural knowledge probably defective,
130 his enthusiasm for nature and for
philosophy overrated, 134 foll.: his pro-
mises to celebrate his patrons, 62, 80, 256

Virgo, of other than unmarried women, 67
Virgultum, 196

Virus, sometimes a neutral word, 157
Vis and vin (visne) distinguished, 38
Viscera, extent of its meaning, 300, 336
Vitium, 'disease,' 77

Vocare for provocare, 268
Vocative of the participle, 342
Volans, at full speed,' 199

Volcanus (Vulcanus), of a large fire, 175
Volemi, 203


Volgo, universally,' 283

Volgus, of beasts, 292

Volitare per ora, &c., meaning of, 252
Volucer equivalent to tenuis, 216
Volutabrum, 287

Wind spoken of as the agent in producing
a calm, 32, 355: prognostics of, 182:
impregnation by, 276

Winds supposed to blow from all quarters
at once, 177: homes of, in the different
quarters of the sky, 183, 276

Wine given to horses, pigs, &c., 295: poured
on altar at end of sacrifice, 345

Wines called from places after the vines
had ceased to be grown there, 204
Winnowing-fan, 160

Wolves, change of men into, 88: supersti-
tion about meeting, 96

Wood pigeons, incubation of, a sign of au-
tumn, 26
sacred to Venus, 42

Volvere, of passing time, 225: of breath, Woods, sound of, a sign of wind, 182


Vomitoria, 243

Vopiscus, references of, to Nemesianus, 109

Vowel, a short, rarely unelided, 34

Wool, varieties of, 279

Wycherley, his lines on Pope's Pastorals
quoted, 12, 13

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Page 5. I have expressed myself as if Pope might have been better employed in original composition than in translation. Further reflection has led me to doubt whether his Homer is not a more durable monument of his peculiar genius than any great original poem, or perhaps any number of small original poems, would have been. But the value of the illustration, such as it is, is not affected by the critical judgment which goes along with it.

P. 10, line 11, for reality in which read reality which.

Pp. 47, 48, notes on vv. 4, 5. Mr. Greswell, in his "Origines Kalendariae Italicae," vol. ii. pp. 625-630, explains the ultima aetas' as the ninth in the decursus of saecula peculiar to the city of Rome, coinciding with the tenth in that of the Etruscan saecula in general. He refers to a story mentioned by Servius on E. 9. 46, to the effect that on the appearance of the comet after the death of Julius Caesar, Vulcatius the haruspex announced that it signified the end of the ninth (in the Roman order, eighth) secle, and the beginning of the tenth, adding that as the secret was one which he had no right to divulge, he should be struck dead by the gods; which took place immediately. Mr. Greswell remarks that Vulcatius was in error, as the eighth Roman secle had not then come to an end, being only half completed, but that the story shows what was believed at the time.


P. 50, note on v. 28. Dele the reference to G. 2. 389. There is nothing in the note there which need hinder our giving' mollis' here and in E. 5. 31 the sense of ' waving,' neither corn-ears nor thyrsi being things which necessarily move altogether, if they move at all.' 'Mollis arista' however probably includes something more-the notion not merely of flexibility, but of delicacy and grace. The corn-ear may of course be looked upon as rough, horrens ;' but it may also suggest an opposite notion, with no less truth. To suppose with some of the commentators that the corn of the golden age is to be no longer pointed and bearded, but soft, is, I think, to mistake the poetical image.

P. 96, note on v. 50. Dele the words 'Insere-generation,' and substitute The meaning is not merely that the trees shall be good bearing trees for more than one generation, but that the farmer's posterity shall enjoy the property of their progenitor. Servius says "Hoc in gratiam Augusti, per cuius beneficium securus de agris suis est... ac si diceret, Nihil est quod possis timere : nam illud respicit quod supra invidiose ait [1. 74], Insere nunc, Meliboee, piros."

P. 102, note on v. 27. For sulphate read sulphide.

P. 103, note on v. 40. I understand that vines are trained on willows in Lombardy at the present day.

P. 158, text, v. 141. after amnem.

Dele semicolon

P. 167, note on v. 222. After E. 2. 67, add Virgil's meaning is express, and his error is sufficiently accounted for when its source is pointed out.

P. 168, note on vv. 231-251. For Through the temperate zones read Between the temperate zones.

P. 184, note on vv. 391, 392. For spattering read sputtering.

P. 216, note on v. 214. For a venomous snake read venomous snakes.

P. 243, note on v. 466. For as then read as there.

P. 260, note on v. 91. For 2. 406 read 2. 476.

P. 265, note on v. 155. For defendit read defendite.

P. 278, text, v: 297. For felicum read filicum.

P. 280. Dele note on v. 326, which contains an unintentional misquotation.

P. 332, note on v. 276. I ought to have excepted E. 8. 76, which, though found in all the MSS., is almost certainly spurious, as I have there remarked: but the case of a burden of a song repeated once too often is clearly different from that of an ordinary interpolation.

P. 344, note on v. 373. Lord Dudley, in his "Letters to the Bishop of Llandaff," p. 61, says of the Po, "It is very broad at Piacenza, and pours along with tremendous rapidity."

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