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Sponte sua, dum ferre moror, cinis ipse. Bonum sit !
Nescio quid certe est, et Hylax in limine latrat.
Credimus ? an, qui amant, ipsi sibi somnia fingunt?
Parcite, ab urbe venit, iam, carmina, parcite, Daphnis.

good. Serv. and Plutarch (Life of Cicero, tion is the right one, as against Döring's c. 20) relate that this omen happened to Ci. • Nescio quid ... certe est !' ‘Hylax' is cero's wife as she was sacrificing to Vesta in a natural name for a dog, like · Hylactor,' the year of Catiline's conspiracy, and that Ov. M. 3. 224. it was interpreted as a sign of honour and 108.] Cerda comp. Publ. Syr. “ Amans glory.

quae suspicatur vigilans somniat."

• Som106.] Voss distinguishes sponte sua nia fingere' occurs in Lucr. 1. 104. from ipse,' making the latter mean the 109.] Daphnis is seen, and the charms mere dying cinders ; but the pleonasm are bidden to cease ; a conclusion unlike would agree better with Virgil's general use that in Theocr., where the enchantress is of ipse,' and would here, as elsewhere, be unsuccessful. * Iam, carmina, parcite' is highly forcible in itself. Bonum sit restored by Voss from the Med. and Oblong. • bene sit' was the usual form of ejacula. Vat. MSS. for 'iam parcite, carmina.' tion. Cic. Div. 1. 45 (quoted by Emm.) Wagn. defends the old reading by referring gives a fuller one, “Maiores nostri omnibus to v. 61; but the position of .tibia' there rebus agendis quod bonum, faustum, felix, is evidently meant to answer to its position fortunatumque esset praefabantur.” in v. 21, &c., so that we may argue that

107.] Nescio quid certe est' is copied • carmina' should stand here where it has from Catullus, as it is copied by Persius, a stood in v. 68, &c. fact which settles that the present punctua

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The historical occasion of this Eclogue has been already adverted to in the Introduction to Ecl. 1. After obtaining a promise of protection, Virgil, so says the traditional account, returned to his property, when he found his entrance resisted and his life menaced by an intruding soldier, whose name is variously given as Arrius, Claudius, or Milienus Toro. He sought safety in flight, and made a second appeal to the higher authorities, which this time was crowned with more permanent success. Ruaeus conjectures that the present Eclogue was in fact a poetical petition presented to Varus or Octavianus. Certainly it is skilfully contrived to interest the reader in the poet's favour. Moeris, one of the servants, is going to the town, Mantua doubtless, with part of the farm produce, which he is to give to the usurping proprietor, when he is stopped by a neighbour, Lycidas, relates his and his master's troubles, and receives a warm expression of sympathy at the loss which had so nearly fallen on the whole district by the death of their illustrious compatriot, some of the poet's verses being quoted by way of showing how great that loss would have been, while Virgil's successful return is hinted at as an event which will produce further poems. There is a compliment to Varus (v. 27), and another to Caesar (v. 46).

The framework is more or less borrowed from the Oalúota of Theocritus (Idyl 7), the most personal of that poet's works, the first part of which is taken up by an account of a country walk, in the course of which Lycidas, a goatherd, and a famous singer, comes up with Simichidas, the representative of Theocritus, and consents to sing with him as they journey along. Some passages in the Eclogue are modelled on passages from other Idyls which are referred to in the notes.

As there are no hills or beeches in the Mantuan territory, which, if any, must be referred to vv. 7 foll., the scenery would seem to be imaginary or confused—a conclusion confirmed by v. 57. (See however note at the end of the Eclogues.)

The allegorizing interpretation spoken of in the Introduction to Ecl. 1 has been applied here, though only in the case of Amaryllis (v. 22), who has been supposed to represent Rome. Moeris too, like Tityrus, has been thought to be the poet's father.

The correspondence between the specimens quoted from Menalcas' poetry, Lycidas and Moeris first repeating three, then five lines each, is doubtless intentional. See the last paragraph of the Introduction.

The date of the poem is later than that of Eclogue 5 (see v. 19), and consequently than those of Eclogues 2 and 3. Its relation to Eclogue 1 we can hardly determine in the present state of our knowledge, though Serv. pronounces that Eclogue to be the earlier of the two.

L. Quo te, Moeri, pedes ? an, quo via ducit, in urbem ?
M. O Lycida, vivi pervenimus, advena nostri,
Quod numquam veriti sumus, ut possessor agelli
Diceret : Haec mea sunt; veteres migrate coloni.
Nunc victi, tristes, quoniam Fors omnia versat,
Hos illi—quod nec vertat bene-mittimus haedos.

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1.] ‘L. Whither away, Moeris ? to the have expected to die before such an outcity?' So the Lycidas of Theocr. (see rage, as Wagn. explains it, and also that Introd.) asks Equixida, Sm.TÙ Mega- death would have been a boon. *Advena,' μέριον πόδας έλκεις ; Quo te pedes:' used contemptuously, as A. 4. 591., 12. the ellipse, which is natural in ques. 261. The order of the words seems to tions of the kind (comp. 3. 25, cantando express the confusion of Moeris, who brings tu illum,' Madvig, $ 479, d), is apparently them out in gasps. to be supplied from ducit.' Voss comp. 3.] Wagn. reads.quo' for . quod,' from Plin. Ep. 7. 5, “Ad diaetam tuam ipsi three MSS., denying 'pervenimus ut' to be me, ut verissime dicitur, pedes ducunt,” Latin ; it is however sufficiently defended from which he infers that the phrase had by Forb., who contends that'eo' is implied come to be used for involuntary motion. in the form of the sentence, a remark which So in Theocr. 13. 50., 14. 52, ở nódes åyov really applies to all cases where .ut' has is said of persons hastening they know or the force of so that,' though no antecare not whither, like Horace's “I pedes cedent like «sic,' adeo,' or 'talis' is exquo te rapiunt et aurae” (3 Od. 11.49), “ire pressed. On the other hand quo,' besides pedes quocunque ferunt” (Epod. 16. 21). its deficiency in external authority, would In Homer however (e.g. Il. 18. 148, rhv introduce a confusion into the order of the μεν άρ' Ούλυμπόνδε πόδες φέρον) it is sentence greater than could well be excused merely a primitive expression for walking by Moeris' perturbation of mind. or running; and it might be doubted 4.] ‘Haec mea sunt: see on 1. 47. It whether it is more here, were it not for the was the natural language in laying a claim. passage from Theocr. 7. 2). Virgil's more 5.] Sors’ is found in some MSS., and usual expression is “ferre (efferre, referre) approved by Burm., who would read also pedem.' . Quo via ducit :' " qua te ducit via, tristis,’ with Probus, Inst. Gramm.; but dirige gressum,” A. 1. 401. •Urbem' 'sors,' as Wagn. remarks, is rather the seemingly Mantua, 1. 21, 35.

event than the ordaining power. The em2–6.]M. We have lived to be turned phatic word would seem to be 'fors,' not out of our farm by an intruder. It is to i versat’ — since things are regulated by him I am carrying this present.'

chance, which makes void the rights of 2.] • Vivi pervenimus,' we have lived to property.' see,' or 'we have reached the point alive;' 6.] Vertat bene’ is the order of the vivi' expressing both that they might Med. and three other MSS., preferred by

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L. Certe equidem audieram, qua se subducere colles
Incipiunt, mollique iugum demittere clivo,
Usque ad aquam et veteris, iam fracta cacumina, fagos
Omnia carminibus vestrum servasse Menalcan.
M. Audieras, et fama fuit; sed carmina tantum
Nostra valent, Lycida, tela inter Martia, quantum
Chaonias dicunt aquila veniente columbas.
Quod nisi me quacumque novas incidere lites
Ante sinistra cava monuisset ab ilice cornix,
Nec tuus hic Moeris, nec viveret ipse Menalcas.

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Wagn, on rhythmical grounds to the com- were nearly killed.'

bene vertat.' The latter order 11.] · Audieras' is affirmative, not interseems more usual in prose, but the former rogative, as Wagn. thinks. Moeris asserts occurs more than once in Terence. Mit- what Lycidas had told him, merely to show timus’ is used seemingly because Moeris, that he believes it. Yes, so you did, and though carrying the kids himself, speaks so the story went.' for his master, who is the sender of the 12.] ‘Nostra,' speaking for Menalcas in present.

particular. Serv. quotes Cic. Pro Milone 4, 7–10.] ‘L. I thought your master's “ silent leges inter arma.” poetry had saved all his property.'

13.] “Chaonias,' referring to the doves 7.] «Certe equidem' are not infrequently of Dodona-an epithet of the class menfound together. Hand, Tursell. 2, p. 28. tioned on 1. 55. The language, as Heyne • Qua— fagos’ is connected with omnia,'ex- observes, was apparently suggested by pressing the extent of the property. Though Lucr. 3. 752, “ accipiter fugiens veniente the scenery is imaginary (see Introd.), the columba.” With the thought comp. Soph. specification here seems to show a jealousy Aj. 169. on behalf of the strict rights of Menalcas, 14.] • Me. “We may suppose that it which, as Voss points out, doubtless re- was Moeris who first observed the propresents Virgil's own feeling. Subducere,' phetic bird, and that he then informed to draw themselves up from the plain—the Menalcas of what it portended.” Keightley. slope being regarded from below, as in “ Incidere ludum," Hor. 1 Ep. 14. 36. A

iugum demittere' it is regarded from similar expression occurs in one of Serv.'s above.

notices, where it is said that Claudius 8.] “Molli clivo,' G. 3. 293. Caes. threatened “se omnem litem amputaturum, B. C. 2. 10, speaks of "fastigium molle,' interfecto Vergilio." as he elsewhere uses bene,' like our ex- 15.] The appearance of a raven on the pression “a gentle slope.'

left hand seems simply to have constituted 9.] The old reading was veteris iam the augury a credible one. Cic. Div. 1. fracta cacumina fagi,' which is slightly sup- 39. 85, “ Quid (habet) augur, cur a dextra ported by Pers. 5. 59, “ Fregerit articulos, corvus, a sinistra cornix faciat ratum ?" veteris ramalia fagi.” With the present Plaut. Asin. 2. 1. 12, “ Picus, cornix est a reading, which was restored by Heins. laeva: corvus, parra a dextera.” What from the Med. and Gud. MSS., comp. 2. 3 determined the character of the augury

Voss contends with some to be favourable or the reverse does not plausibility that the beeches were the appear. Voss., following Serv., thinks boundary of the property, citing Hor. 2 that the unlucky sign here was the hollowEp. 2. 170, but as he believes the scenery ness of the oak. Martyn however observes to be real, it is possible that he may be with some justice that the present omen pressing the words more than they will may be regarded as lucky or unlucky, bear.

according as we choose to look at Menal. 10.] See Introd. • Vestrum,' because cas' escape or the loss of his property. Moeris had spoken in the plural, as for the All that we can say is that it was a varning, whole household.

as in Hor. 3 Od. 27. 15, Teque nec laevus 11–16.] •M. So people believed: but vetet ire picus Nec vaga cornix." soldiers do not respect poetry: in fact, we 16.] Hic,' the speaker himself, like

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L. Heu, cadit in quemquam tantum scelus ? heu, tua nobis
Paene simul tecum solatia rapta, Menalca ?
Quis caneret Nymphas ? quis humum florentibus herbis
Spargeret, aut viridi fontis induceret umbra ?
Vel quae sublegi tacitus tibi carmina nuper,
Cum te ad delicias ferres, Amaryllida, nostras ?

Tityre, dum redeo - brevis est via- pasce capellas,
Et potum pastas age, Tityre, et inter agendum
Occursare capro, cornu ferit ille, caveto.
M. Immo haec, quae Varo necdum perfecta canebat:

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öda. “ Tibi erunt parata verba, huic ho- he comes back. Lycidas hears him singing mini verbera,” Ter. Heaut. 2. 3. 115. on the way, and catches the words and the Comp. A. 1. 98. So ‘hic' and 'ipse' are air. Vv. 23–25 are a close version of contrasted 3. 3. Serv. says in one place Theocr. 1. c., so that Virg. must be underthat Virg. had to throw himself into the stood as indirectly praising himself not Mincius in order to escape, an event to only as the rustic poet who sings to his which he supposes him to refer in 3. 95; friend and to his love, but as the Roman in another, that he took refuge in the shop Theocritus. See Introduction to the of a charcoal-maker, who let him out an- Eclogues.

22.] Nostras' does not imply that there 17-25.] 'L. Was Menalcas 80 was any rivalry between Lycidas and Me. death? Who could write verses like his, nalcas, but merely that Amaryllis was such such as those of his where he commends that the swains desired her.' his sheep to Tityrus ?'

23.] · Dum redeo’ is not «till I come 17.] *Cadit :' “non cadit ... in hunc back,' but while I am on my way back’hominem ista suspicio," Cic. Pro Sull. 27. in other words the use of the present shows In such expressions cadere seems to be that it is the continuance of the time, not used in the sense of is the lot' or part of,' its completion, that is thought of. In so that 'suspicio cadit in aliquem' is little strictness we should have expected dum more than equivalent to cadit aliquis in absum ; but the speaker in asking to be suspicionem,' just as ruyxávelv is used waited for naturally talks of himself not as indifferently of the thing happening and the absent, but as coming back. In Theocr. person to whom it happens.

there is nothing answering to 'dum redeo' 18.] • Solatia’ is referred by Voss spe- or brevis est via,' though the former is cifically to the song on Daphnis, which is implied in the context. alluded to in the next verse; but the appli. 24.] ‘Inter agendum. Serv. cites • inter cation is doubtless more general.

loquendum' from Afranius, and inter po19.] The allusion is seemingly to 5. 20, nendum' from Ennius. 40, on which latter see the note. The 26—29.] .M. Yes, or the verses he song is that of Mopsus, not that of Menal- wrote to Varus, about sparing Mantua.' cas; but Menalcas is apparently regarded 26.] Moeris quotes another triplet of Meas the poet who rehearses his friend's song nalcas, apparently with a preference, adding as well as his own, just as he there declares that the poem is not yet finished, so as to himself the poet of Ecl. 3 (5. 86, note)-in show the loss which lovers of song would other words, he is Virgil. For the repre- have suffered in the poet's death. There is sentation of the poet as actually doing what some skill in the intimation of the prehe only sings of, comp. 6. 46. 62.

ference, which implies not only a com21.] •Or who would sing the songs I pliment to Varus, but a recommendation of lately stole from you?' •Caneret,' or some Virgil's own interests. For Varus, see such word, is supplied in thought from the Ecl. 6, Introd. • Necdum' is not simply two preceding lines. * Tibi' is evidently for nondum,' as Voss thinks, ' nec' having not Moeris, but Menalcas, who is going to the force of and that not,' or not either,' visit Amaryllis, like the Kwuaoths in and thus laying a stress on the unfinished Theocr. Id. 3, and like him, ib. vv. 3 foll., state of the poem. asks Tityrus to take care of his goats till

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“Vare, tuum nomen, superet modo Mantua nobis,
Mantua, vae, miserae nimium vicina Cremonae,
Cantantes sublime ferent ad sidera cycni.”
L. Sic tua Cyrneas fugiant examina taxos,
Sic cytiso pastae distendant ubera vaccae :
Incipe, si quid habes. Et me fecere poetam
Pierides ; sunt et mihi carmina; me quoque dicunt

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Vatem pastores; sed non ego credulus illis.

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27.] •Superet' = 'supersit :' see on G. there may be said to add to the feel2. 235. Serv. says Virg. interceded for the ing of the passage. There seems no auMantuan district as well as for his own thority for representing Corsica (called lands, and obtained the restitution of a part Cyrnus by the Greeks, see Dict. Geogr.) of it.

as famous for yews, which is assumed by 28.] Nimium vicina,' though they were several of the commentators; but as the forty miles apart, because Mantua suffered honey of Corsica, though known historically for its proximity to its disaffected neigh- as one of its articles of produce, was, like bour. Serv. says that Octavius Musa, who that of Sardinia (7. 41), proverbially bitter had been appointed to fix the boundaries, (Ov. Am. 1. 12. 20, where it is called finding the territory of Cremona insufficient "mel infame'), and as the baleful yew' for the wants of the soldiers, assigned to (G. 2. 257) was prejudicial to bees (G. 4. them fifteen miles' length of that of Man- 47), Virgil seems, as Martyn observes, to tua, in revenge for an offence formerly have thought himself at liberty to connect given him by the inhabitants. In another the two, as Ov. I. c. affects to suppose that passage Alfenus Varus is said to have treated the Corsican honey must be collected from the Mantuans unjustly, exceeding his in- hemlock-ilowers. It is however just posstructions in the extent of territory which sible that 'taxos' may be an error for he took from them, and leaving them only 'buxos,' as Diodorus (5. 14) expressly the swampy ground, a proceeding with attributes the bitterness of the honey to which he was taxed in a speech by a cer- the number of box-trees on the island. tain Cornelius.

31.] • Cytiso,' 1. 79, G. 3. 394 foll., 29.] The same promise is made to Varus where it is given to goats, as here to cows, which we have had 6. 10, though the to increase their milk. •Distendant,' Heins. image is varied. Mantua was celebrated from the best MSS. for distentent.' for its swans, G. 2. 199, and the music of 32.] • Si quid habes,' 3. 52, note. The swans was a commonplace with the an- remainder of Lycidas' speech is from cients, so that the song of the swans aptly Theocr. 7. 37 foll. It can hardly be doubted represents Virgil's gratitude, at the same that Virgil means to distinguish between time making it contingent on the preser- 'poeta' and 'vates,' Lycidas asserting himvation of his lands.

self to be the former, while he does not 30–36.] ‘L. As you hope for a farmer's claim the honours of the latter. What the blessings, let me hear more of such verses. precise distinction is, cannot easily be deI am something of a poet myself, though termined from the usage of the words the shepherds overrate me.'

either in Virgil (who scarcely uses poeta' 30.] Sic' in adjurations, as in 10. 5. except in the Eclogues) or in other writers ; • May your bees (1. 55., 7. 13) continue to but we may perhaps infer from the other give good honey.' The use is virtually the sense of 'vates' that it would naturally same as that of sic' or 'ita' in protesta- denote a bard in his inspired character, tions, when it is frequently, though not and its transference to other acts, “medi. always, followed by “ut.' “ Sic has deus cinae vates,” Pliny 11. 37. 89; legum aequoris artis Adiuvet, ut nemo iamdudum vates," Val. Max. 8. 12. 1 (quoted by litore in isto ... Constitit,” Ov. M. 8. 867. Martyn), as we, though from a different Thus the Greek oőrwg and our so. In a point of view, should say 'an adept,' shows passage like the present we should say “ As that it suggested the notion of eminence. In you hope for this or that.' It is true that Theocr. I. c. the shepherd says that he is in Hor. 1 Od. 3. 1 foll. such an adjuration, the shrill mouth of the Muses, and that all as Macleane there objects, involves a viola- call him the best singer. tion of logic: but the very inconsequence

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