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Praeceps aerii specula de montis in undas
Haec Damon ; vos, quae responderit Alphesiboeus,
A. Effer aquam, et molli cinge haec altaria vitta,
I at least will find my death in the deep, but several times during the latter part of and she may delight in it.'
it. 58.] Medium,' the mid or deep sea. 62, 63.] Alphesiboeus replies. Virgil, “Graditurque per aequor Iam medium,” A. having rehearsed Damon's song in his own 3. 665. The wish, as Elmsley pointed out, person, asks the Muses to repeat that of appears to be a mistranslation of Theocr. 1. Alphesiboeus, alleging that one man is not 134, navrà d'švalla yévoivro, as if the equal to both. There is nothing here to inword were évália. Virgil may have in. dicate a preference of the latter, or to countended to lead up to this thought by the tenance Voss's notion referred to in the Inmention of Tityrus in the sea, v. 56, “in troduction. Alphesiboeus song is in a short, let earth take the place of sea.' So totally different style from Damon's: and the farewell to the woods, 'silvae' con- whether the Muses are invoked as goddesses trasted with the sea, as in v. 56, and the of memory, or song, or both (see note on shepherd's resolution to drown himself, are 7. 19), it is not extraordinary that the narintroduced as if in anticipation of this gene- rator should request for the second song an ral change. The notion certainly cannot be assistance which he did not require for the called appropriate, though we are in some first. In fact the words .non omnia posmeasure prepared for it by such passages as sumus omnes,' every one has not power 1. 60, and that quoted from Hdt. in the for everything,' a bemistich from Lucilius, note
The farewell is from Theocr. Sat. 5. 21 (Gerlach), seemingly proverbial 1. 115, where it is given in much greater (comp. 7. 23, G. 2. 109 note), sufficiently detail. “Concedite silvae," 10. 63. explain themselves.
That the song is 59.] Again from Theocr. 3. 25, Tàv Bais meant to correspond to Damon's, like Tav å trodùç kúpara invū álõual Menalcas' in Ecl. 5 to Mopsus', is clear Ωπερ τως θύννως σκοπιάσδεται "Ολπις ο from the whole language of the Eclogue, as Youtteus, where okomiáodetal suggested well as from the similarity of detail (see specula' here, though the word, like the note on v. 76): but an amoebean exercise Homeric okotiņ, evidently means no more does not involve a contest here any more than a mountain-top which may be used as than there. a watch-tower. “Specula ab alta,” A. 10. 64-68.] . A. Bring lustral water : 454. The author of the Ciris has a similar wreath the altar with wool: throw sacred line, v. 301.
boughs and frankincense into the fire: I 60.] It is doubtful whether munus'.is am trying to bring back my lover by ento be understood of the song, with Heyne, chantment: now for a magic song.' or of his death, with the majority of editors. 64.] The maiden is standing before the The latter is recommended by Theocr. 23. altar, and about to
• Effer 20, dūpa tou ñ voov Aoiolla taūta pépwr, aquam,' addressed to her attendant, AmaTÒVĚuòv Bpóxov: still there is something ryllis (vv. 76, 77, 101), who is bidden to awkward in death's being called the last gift bring the lustral water out into the impluof a dying man, and it would be more satis- vium,' where these solemnities seem to be factory if there were anything connected going on. • Molli' probably, as Serv. with his death, like the halter in Theocritus, thinks, because the fillet was of wool. which he could be supposed to offer her. Terque focum circa laneus orbis eat," Virgil however probably meant to convey Prop. 5. 6. 6. The passage is imitated the sense of Theocr. 3. 27 (see last note), more or less closely from Theocr. 2. 1 foll. κή κα δή 'ποθάνω, τό γε μάν τεόν αδυ 65.] “ Verbenae sunt omnes herbae τέτυκται.
frondesque festae ad aras coronandas, vel 61.] Theocr. 1. 127, 1 nyeta Bwrolikãs, omnes herbae frondesque ex aliquo loco Μωσαι, ίτε, λήγετ' αοιδάς, a line which oc- puro decerptae : verbenae autem dictae curs not only at the end of Thyrsis' song, quasi herbenae," Donatus on Ter. Andr.
Coniugis ut magicis sanos avertere sacris
4. 3. 11. For its use in the sense of 68.] Imitated from the burden in Theocr. • vervain' see G. 4. 131. 'Pinguis,'«unc- 2. 17, &c., ίυγξ, έλκε τυ τήνον εμόν ποτί tuous,' and so fit for burning. • Mascula' dwua tòv ävdpa. •Ab urbe' seems to imwas the name given to the best kind of ply that the speaker is a countrywoman frankincense, also called stagonias,' being whose lover is away at Mantua, 1. 35. shaped like a round drop. Pliny 12. 14. 69—72.] • Great is the power of magic Comp. Hor. 1 Od. 19. 13, “Verbenas, song : it can bring down the moon, change pueri, ponite turaque.” • Adolere ' occurs men into brutes, burst serpents asunder.' also A. 1. 704., 3. 547., 7. 51, each time in 69.] Observe the correspondence of the connection with sacrifice, an association as opening of Alphesiboeus' song with that of old as Ennius and Valerius Antias, though Damon's. The first stanza in each gives it would not be easy to determine from the subject of the song: the second speaks Virgil's use of the word whether it means of the associations connected with the kind originally to cause it to grow (adolesco), of song chosen. With the present pasthence to honour, like the Greek aúťáveiv, sage comp. Tibull. 1. 8. 19 foll., which reespecially by sacrifice, and finally to burn, sembles it closely, A. 4. 487—491. The as Voigtländer in Forcell. thinks, following power of sorceresses to draw down the in the track of Serv., or in the first in- moon is frequently referred to by the anstance to smell or make to smell, thence to cients. Aristoph. Clouds 749. Hor. Epod. burn, especially in sacrifice, and finally to 5. 45., 17. 77. honour by burning, like the Greek kvisãv, 70.] See Od. 10. 203 foll.
• Ulixi' was which is the view taken in Dr. Smith's Lat. restored by Heins. from the Med. MS. in Dict. The question itself is the more diffi- place of Ulyssei' or Ulyssi,' which is cult to decide, as we cannot tell how far however supported by the Pal. · Ulissei.' the Latin writers themselves understood 71.] This effect of incantation is spoken the original meaning of the word : Virgil at of by Lucil. Sat. 20. 5 (Gerlach), least seems more than once to have availed disrumpetur medius, iam ut Marsu' coluhimself of the similarity in form between bras Disrumpit cantu, venas cum extenderit
oleo' and 'olesco,' so as to communicate to omnes,” and by Ov. M. 7. 203. Id. Am. 2. a compound of one of them a shade of 1. 25. Frigidus anguis,' 3. 93. •Canmeaning borrowed from the other. See tando’ is used substantively or imperson. notes on G. 3. 560., 4. 379.
ally, like “habendo,' G. 2. 250, “tegendo,' 66.] Coniugis' occupies the same place G. 3. 454, &c. as in v. 18, near the opening of Damon's 73-79.] •I twist three threads of difsong, so as to suggest the intended parallel ferent colours round Daphnis' image, which between the two. Here the lovers would I carry thrice round the altar, for the virtue seem to have been already united, if we of the number. Let them be knit into a may argue from the Idyl in Theocr. " Aver- love-knot.' tere, a sanitate mutare," Serv. rightly,‘sanos 73.] *Terna,' probably is put for “tres,' avertere sensus' being probably a transla- though Serv. supposes that there are nine tion of the Homeric Bláa telv opévas čioas, threads of those different colours, and so the Od. 14. 178, quoted by Voss, where BXá- author of the Ciris, v. 370, foll., where this TTELV may have its primary sense of 'to cause
passage is imitated.
• Primum,' as her first to stumble.' She wishes him to be “insanus,' effort at incantation. “Tibi’ is explained by passionately in love, not cold and indifferent. •effigiem,' v. 75. For the magic force of
67.] 'Carmina’ is her magic song, the the number three, comp. Theocr. 2. 43, same which she has just begun, as the A. 4. 511, Ov. M. 7. 189 foll. The three Furies in Aesch. Eum. 306 call their choral colours, according to Serv., are white, roseode ύμνος δέσμιος.
red, and black.
Licia circumdo, terque haec altaria circum
74.) For haec altaria’ one MS., the greatly perplexed the early critics, who Longobardic, gives hanc,' which Wagn. were anxious to read 'nodos' for modo,' would restore even if it had no MS. autho. and had recourse to various devices to acrity. But Jahn and Forb. seem right in count for the metre. remarking that tibi’ is the key-note of the 80–84.] •I put clay, wax, and bay-leaves sentence. 'I bind these threads thrice into the fire, each to work a corresponding round thee (thy image), and I carry thee in effect on Daphnis.' effigy thrice round this altar.' In this view 80.] The commentators explain ‘limus' • hanc' would rather disturb the sense, as and • cera' of images of clay and wax ; but if the effigies’ were not merely Daphnis' Keightley rightly denies that anything more representative, but something distinct. is meant than pieces of clay and wax, which
75.] For the use of images in love-charms, are put into the fire like the sprigs of bay, comp. A. 4. 508, Hor. 1 s. 7. Numero the è mola’ and the bitumen. This is evi. deus inpare gaudet :' the superstition, dent from the words in Theocr. 2. 28, 'Qs according to Serv., was that odd numbers τούτον τον καρόν εγώ συν δαίμονι τάκω, were immortal, because they cannot be "Ως τάκοιθ' υπ' έρωτος ο Μύνδιος αυτίκα divided into two equal parts, the even being Aépis. The rhyme is meant to imitate the mortal. With the expression comp. 3. 59, jingle usual in charms, as Voss remarks, "amant alterna Camenae.” The hemistich comparing Cato, R. R. 160, where some occurs in the Ciris, v. 373.
seemingly unmeaning specimens of the sort 76.] Jahn seems certainly right in re- are given. garding this verse as interpolated, though 81.] 'Eodem,' dissyllable. “ Una eademit is apparently found all the MSS. It que via,” A. 10. 487. . Sic:' so may my love not only offends against the division of the act in two ways, softening Daphnis to me song into three strophes of equal length, and hardening him to others. Voss. but makes it longer by one line than 82.] ‘Sparge molam :' aloitá tou apãDamon's song, to which it is evidently Tov a vpi Táketai ál'éminagoe, Theocr. meant to be equal, as the song of Menalcas 2. 18. For the 'mola' in sacrifices, comp. is to that of Mopsus, at the same time that A. 2. 133., 4. 517. • Fragilis,' crackling. it introduces a pause where the sense re- “Et fragilis sonitus chartarum commediquires none, and leaves only two lines for tatur,” Lucr. 6. 112. Bay-leaves were the next stanza, a smaller number than is thrown on the altar, and their crackling found anywhere in this or the former song. was thought auspicious. “ Et succensa
77.] *Twine three colours in three knots: sacris crepitet bene laurea flammis, Omine i. e. make three knots, each of a thread quo felix et sacer annus eat. Laurus, io, with a different colour.
bona signa dedit : gaudete, coloni,” Tibull. 78.] ·Modo' adds emphasis to the com- 2. 5. 81 foll. Comp. also Theocr. 2. 24. mand thus repeated. "Just twine them.' 83.] Δελφις έμ’ ανίασεν, εγώ δ' επί Δέλ
I modo, Plaut. Trin. 2. 4. 182. Veneris pidi dapvav Aïow, Theocr. 2. 23. 'Eri vincula :' for other allusions to these knots, Aén pide explains in Daphnide,' in the case Voss refers to Synesius, Ep. 121, and Appu- of Daphnis,' nearly equivalent to‘in Daph. leius, Met. 3. 137. The expression is from nim,' like " talis in hoste fuit Priamo," Theocr. 2. 20, tágo' äua kai léye raðra' A. 2. 541. Possibly there may be a play τα Δελφιδος οστέα πάσσω. This line intended between • Daphnis ' and dágvn.
Talis amor Daphnim, qualis cum fessa iuvencum
85-90.] May Daphnis' longing be like 91–94.] ‘These things which he has left the heifer's, who, tired with seeking her I will bury at the door, in the hope that mate in vain, throws herself on the grass, they will bring him back.' and will not return to her stall at night.' 91.] From Theocr. 2. 53, where the
85.] Virg. can hardly have any other border of the lover's robe which he has left meaning than that the heifer is seeking her behind is thrown into the fire. So Dido mate, like Pasiphae 6. 52 foll. ; but the proposes to burn the relics (called exuviae") picture is not unlike the celebrated one in of Aeneas, A. 4. 495 foll. • Perfidus ille,' Lucr. 2. 352 foll. (compared by Cerda) of A. 4. 421. a cow looking for her lost calf, desiderio 92.] Pignora' seems to imply that they perfixa iuvenci.'
were left purposely, not by accident. 'Li86.] • Bucula,' G. 1. 375.
mine in ipso' must be her own threshold, to 87.) • Propter aquae rivum, Lucr. 2. which she wishes to attract him, the thres30. In ulva,' Heins. from the best MSS., hold being, as Heyne remarks, a commonothers in herba.'
place in Latin poetry in connection with 88.] This whole line is said by Macrob. lovers’ visits, so that there is no allusion to Sat. 6. 2, to be taken from Varius' poem the practice mentioned by Theocr. 2. 60, of De Morte Caesaris, where a dog chasing a performing incantations at the door of the stag is thus described, “Non amnes illam person whose presence was desired. medii, non ardua tardant, Perdita nec serae 93.] • Debent' is explained by “pignora.' meminit decedére nocti.” If this be so, They are his pledges, and so bind him to Virg. must be held to have proved his right redeem them. to the line by the use he has made of it. 95–100.] 'These poison-plants I had Both the thought itself, the turn of the ex- from the great Moeris, who by their help pression, and the rhythm of the verse, are could transform himself, conjure up spirits, better suited to the love-stricken heifer and charm away crops.' than to the eager hound. The word 'per- 95.] · Herbas' and 'venena,' apparently dita' in particular suggests the abandon. a hendiadys. “Pontus' bad a reputation of ment of love more naturally than reck- its own for poisons from its connection with lessness in pursuit, while it is undoubtedly Mithridates, and produced a particular poimuch more effective when hanging, as it son-plant, the aconite : but it may possibly were, between two clauses, a position with be put for Colchis, the country of Medea, by which Forb. aptly comp. A. 4. 562, than the same wilful or careless confusion which when necessarily attached to the latter. we find in Cic. Pro Lege Man. 9, Juv. 14. With decedere nocti,' which occurs again 114, cited by Forb. G. 3. 467, comp. decedere calori,' G. 4. 96.] "Moeris' is mentioned no where 23. The expression is not unlike Gray's else; but as his name is given to a shep“ leaves the world to darkness and to me. herd in the next Eclogue, he was doubtless With 'perdita' Keightley comp. 2. 59. meant to be a noted country wizard. • Plu
89.] With 'talis amor Daphnim—talis rima' closely connected with 'nascuntur.' amor teneat,' comp. vv. 1, 5.
97.] The change of men into wolves,
Moerim, saepe animas imis excire sepulchris
Lukav@pwnia, was a common superstition, what is the supposed object of the process extending down to the middle ages. See here, as it can hardly be connected with the story of Lycaon, Ov. M. 1. 209 foll., expiation as in Theocr. and Aesch. Voss seemingly one of the earliest traditions on thinks she intends nothing short of the dethe subject. 'Et se condere silvis' goes struction of Daphnis, which is symbolized closely with lupum fieri,' his' belonging by the ashes thrown into the river, and to the former only in its connection with carried into the sea, just as in Theocr. the latter. In Ovid l. c. Lycaon nactus Id. 2 the enchantress finally threatens to silentia ruris exululat.' So in 6. 80, Te. poison Delphis; but v. 104 shows that she reus or Philomela, immediately on being is still hoping to bring him back. Whattransformed, flies to the desert.
ever it is, she seems to look upon it as a last 98.] “Nocturnosque ciet manes,” of the resource, vv. 102, 103. • Rivo fluenti iace,' sorceress, A. 4. 490.
like 'undis spargere,' A. 4. 600. 99.] “Cantus vicinis fruges traducit ab 102.] •Nec respexeris’ is the reading of agris,” Tibull. 1. 8. 19. The practice was the Med. and one or two other good MSS., actually forbidden in the Laws of the Twelve and is preferred by the later editors to the old Tables, under the name of 'fruges excan- reading 'ne respexeris.' The grounds for tare.' Pliny 28. 2. Our own unfortunate deciding between them are slight. Wagn.'s witches, as Keightley reminds us, were argument for nec' that Virgil means her (and are still) accused of charming away not to look back while flinging the ashes butter out of the churn.
away is rather begging the question, as the 101–104 ] • Take the ashes and throw passage in Theocr. might suggest another them over your head into the running meaning. It would seem, however, from stream ; perhaps that may have an effect.' Hom. Od. 5. 349 that the two actions of
101.] The imitation here is of another throwing away and turning the back were passage in Theocr. 24. 91 foll., where Tire- meant to be closely connected, Ulysses sias bids Alemena burn the serpents which being bidden άψ αποδησάμενος βαλέειν Hercules had strangled in his cradle at mid. εις οίνοπα πόντον, Πολλόν απ’ ηπείρου, night, and make one of her maids ling αυτός δ' από νόσφι τραπέσθαι, to cast away their ashes in the morning. Here away Leucothea's scarf, and turn his back, the burning of the sacrificial boughs and Eur. Andr. 294 speaks of Ainging an infrankincense with the wax and clay, the auspicious thing unèp kepaláv. salt cake and sprigs of laurel, answers, as 105-109.] · Here is a good sign at last; Voss suggests, to the burning of the ser- the ashes flame up suddenly. It must be pents; and the ceremony of flinging away so: and the dog is barking. Can it be the ashes is evidently meant to be similar, Daphnis? It is; cease, my charms.' though there is perhaps some little dif- 105.] The last command is anticipated ference in the detail, as in Theocr. the ser- by an appearance of a sudden flame in the vant is to carry the ashes across the stream, ashes. Serv. would make Amaryllis the then to Aling them away, and return with- speaker, on account of the words dum out looking back, while in Virgil she is ap- ferre moror;' but this would be awkward, parently to fling them away down the stream, and we may easily suppose that both the not looking back when doing so. Comp. enchantress and her attendant would join also Aesch. Cho. 98, 99, oreixw, kabáqual' in removing the ashes. The blazing of the ώς τις εκπέμψας, πάλιν, Δικoύσα τεύχος, fre was a good omen, as its smouldering ảorpopolo iv õppaoiv, where Blomfield was a bad one (comp. G. 4. 385, 6, Soph. remarks on Virgil's misunderstanding of Ant. 1006); and a sudden blaze would naTheocr. It is not easy, however, to see turally be thought an especial token of