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Et mutata suos requierunt flumina cursus,
Damonis Musam dicemus et Alphesiboei.

Tu mihi seu magni superas iam saxa Timavi, ,
Sive oram Illyrici legis aequoris, en erit umquam
Ille dies, mihi cum liceat tua dicere facta ?
En erit, ut liceat totum mihi ferre

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Sola Sophocleo tua carmina digna cothurno ?
A te principium, tibi desinet. Accipe iussis
Carmina coepta tuis, atque hanc sine tempora circum
Inter victricis hederam tibi

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unreality. Virg. was doubtless thinking of “fontem superare Timavi." • Magni' exthe effect of the legendary song of Orpheus, presses the breadth of the stream, and and named any savage beast as a proof of saxa' the character of the region about, the power of music.

as described in the note referred to. 4.] ‘Cursus' might very well be con- 7.] ‘En erit umquam,' 1. 68. Comp. structed with mutata,' as the course of a 6. 6 foll., where the general effect is the river by being checked would in effect be same, an apology for not celebrating his changed, though the words, as Wagn. re- patron, though Virg. does not hide his unmarks, would rather point to a magician's willingness there, as he seems to be doing spell, making the river roll back, like here, under a mask of eager regret. Medea's, Val. Fl. 6. 443, “Mutat agros 8.] “Tua dicere facta,' 4. 54. fluviûmque vias.” The traditional explana- 10.] Pollio's tragedies have been glanced tion of "requierunt,' as active, is however at, 3. 84, and are more particularly menstrongly supported by Prop. 3. 15. 25, tioned by Hor. 2 Od. 1. 9., 1 s. 10. 42. “ Iuppiter Alcmenae geminos requieverat 'Digna, like • dicere Cinna digna, 9. 35. Arctos," and a line of Calvus' Io, quoted Heyne remarks that it is a questionable by Serv., “Sol quoque perpetuos meminit compliment from Virg. to talk of making requiescere cursus (not to mention Ciris, Pollio's verses known by means of his own, v. 232), and also by the part. 'requie. though we may suppose the tragedies had tus,' which seems to show that quiesco,' not yet been given to the public. like 'suesco' and its compounds, had ori- 11.] Imitated from Theocr. 17. 1, who ginally an active sense. The later editors in his turn has imitated Il. 9. 97. With of Propertius understand the construction the language comp. 3. 60. The nom. to to be that of an intransitive verb with a sort desinet' must be principium,' though of cognate acc. ; but such a Grecism is not Virg. writes as if he had said, “a te coepit in the style of Virgil.

Musa,' or words to that effect. The pro6–13.] *This poem is for Pollio, to mise, which is the same as Horace's to greet his triumphal return. Would that I Maecenas, 1 Ep. 1. 1, is rather premature, could hope ever to celebrate him worthily! as it is only in the Eclogues that any alluAs it is, I can only offer him a few verses sion to Pollio occurs. The editors, howwritten at his bidding.'

ever, remark that Nestor makes the same 6.] •Tu mihi' is rightly taken by Wagn. promise with regard to Agamemnon in his and Forb. with superas,' so as to prevent the speech, Il. 9. 97, and does not keep it much need of supposing a parenthesis from seu better. magni' to desinet' (v. 11) with Heyne, or an 12.] Coepta' need not imply that he aposiopesis with the earlier editors. Pollio had taken up the poem and laid it down is returning from his expedition against the again, as Spohn thinks, though that of Parthini to triumph at Rome. Virg., at the course may be its meaning. Hanc sine,' moment of writing, wonders whether the accept this praise of your tragedies (hedefortunate ship has yet reached Italy or not, ram as in 7. 25 note) along with the milithe ethical dative expressing that the poet's tary honours which are to be paid to you at feeling goes along with his patron. "Su- your triumph. peras, as · legis' shows, is to be under- 13.] “Serpere expresses the character stood of passing by sea, as in the parallel of the ivy, like Persius quorum imagipassage A. 1. 244 (where see the note), nes lambunt Hederae sequaces,” Prol. v. 5.

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Frigida vix caelo noctis decesserat umbra,
Cum ros in tenera pecori gratissimus herba,
Incumbens tereti Damon sic coepit olivae.

D. Nascere, praeque diem veniens age, Lucifer, almum,
Coniugis indigno Nisae deceptus amore
Dum queror, et divos, quamquam nil testibus illis
Profeci, extrema moriens tamen adloquor hora.
Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.
Maenalus argutumque nemus pinosque loquentis
Semper habet; semper pastorum ille audit amores,
Panaque, qui primus calamos non passus inertis.
Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.

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14–16.] •It was just daybreak when for Hermione. Comp. also A. 2. 344, and Damon began.'

see above on v. 1. 14.] Damon and Alphesiboeus had driven 19.] • Testibus illis :' their testimony their flocks afield before daybreak, as Virg. has stood me in no stead hitherto, as Nisa himself prescribes, G. 3. 322 foll., for the has broken the vows made before them. summer months. Nothing is said of any 21.] · Maenalios,' Arcadian, note on 7.3, challenge to sing—the contest may have an equivalent to Theocritus’ βουκολικάς been agreed on before ; or Virg. may have soldãs. "Tibia,' the flute, was used by chosen to pass over the preliminaries alto- shepherds as well as the reed or the Pangether, as he has done partially in Ecl. 7; pipe, as appears from Theocr. 20. 29 (comp. or Damon's song may have been answered Lucr. 5. 1385): but here it need merely be by Alphesiboeus without any previous con- a variety for 'fistula,' v. 33.

• Mecum,' cert. Damon need not be supposed to be because the music accompanies the song. singing of his own despair, but merely to Forb. comp. Hor. 1 Od. 32. 1, “ Lusimus be performing in character, as Alphesiboeus tecum ... Barbite." Theocr, introduces a evidently is; he takes advantage, however, refrain into his first and second Idyls, but of the early morning, as if he had been be- generally with more obvious regularity of rewailing his lost love all night.

currence, and occasionally where there is no 15.] Repeated G. 3. 326, with the change pause in the sense, so that they seem to reof 'cum' into et.'

present something in the music. The pre16.] ‘Tereti olivae,' not the trunk of an sent line is from Id. 1. 66, &c. ápxete olive, which would suit neither incumbens' βουκολικάς, Μοϊσαι φίλαι, άρχετ' αοιδάς, nor the epithet ‘teres ;' but his staff of where it does not end but begin the stanzas. smoothed olive, which he carried like Ly- 22–25.] • Arcadia is the country for pascidas in Theocr. 7. 18, pouràv o'z xev áypie- toral song: Pan and the shepherds sing there.' λαίω Δεξιτερά κορύναν, Or Apollo, Ον. Μ. 22.] He dwells on the thought suggested 2. 680, “pastoria pellis Texit, onusque by the refrain. ‘Argutum' and 'loquentis ? fuit dextrae silvestris oliva” (where, how- are worded as if to express the natural ever, Heins. and Merkel give baculum music of the whispering trees (see 7. 1), silvestre sinistrae ').

though the reference is really to the echo 17–21.] Da. Come, gentle day, I am of the songs. Compare a similar double mourning the broken faith of my love, and meaning in 5. 62 (note). “ Pinifer Maeappealing to the gods as a dying man.' nalus," 10. 15.

17.] He sees the day-star rising, and 23.] ‘Amores,' of love-songs, 10. 53. bids it perform its office. “Surgebat Lu- 24.] Comp. 2. 32. Pan here appears as cifer . . . Ducebatque diem," A. 2. 802. a promoter of civilization, by applying na

18.] ‘Indigno amore,' as in 10. 10, un- tural things to the use of man—the lanworthy, because unreturned. Nisa is called guage, as Heyne remarks, resembling G. .coniux' because it was as his wife that 1. 124, “Nec torpere gravi passus sua regna Damon loved her. In translating freely we

veterno." The reeds were not left to murmight talk of a husband's love.' So mur chance music (comp. Lucr. 5. 1382 ereptae magno inflammatus amore Con- foll.), but were taken and disciplined for iugis,” A. 3. 330, of Orestes' baffled love regular use.

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Mopso Nisa datur: quid non speremus amantes ?
Iungentur iam grypes equis, aevoque sequenti
Cum canibus timidi venient ad pocula dammae.
Mopse, novas incide faces : tibi ducitur uxor;
Sparge, marite, nuces : tibi deserit Hesperus Oetam.
Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.
O digno coniuncta viro, dum despicis omnis,
Dumque tibi est odio mea fistula dumque capellae
Hirsutumque supercilium promissaque barba,
Nec curare deum credis mortalia quemquam.

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26–31.] ‘Nisa marries Mopsus—an ill. 59 (61). 128 foll. Dict. Ant. 'Nuptiae.' The omened and unnatural union-yes, he has ceremonies are now supposed to have begun, the honours of a bridegroom.'

the signal being the rising of the evening star: 26.] *Dare,' of giving in marriage, A. see Catull. 60 (62) throughout. • Deserit 1. 345. Quid-amantes ?' 'what may we Oetam,' 6. 86, note. Catull. 60 (62). 7 says, not expect as lovers ?' i. e. what may we “ Nimirum Oetaeos ostendit Noctifer ignes. not expect to happen in love ?

Serv. hints at a legend connecting Oeta 27.] •Iungentur,' of marriage (A. 1. with the worship of Hesperus, who loved a 73), as in similar proverbial expressions, youth named Hymenaeus-possibly as the Aristoph. Peace 1076, a piv kev lúkog oiv story of Diana and Endymion is connected uueväioi, Hor. A. P. 13, “ Serpentes avibus with Latmos. If Virg. referred to this or geminentur, tigribus agni.” This suits the anything like it, we need not suppose him context better than the interpretation of to be here following a Greek original, later editors, of yoking horses and griffins though he is likely enough to have been in a car, as in 3. 91. So the next verse is guilty of the incongruity of making a Greek intended to express intimate daily associa- shepherd allude to the details of a Roman tion. For the griffinis, lions with eagles' marriage. Keightley remarks on the ignoheads and wings, see Hdt. 3. 116. 'lam' rance shown in supposing that there can be seems to be distinguished from aevo se- a morning and evening star at the same quenti,' the latter marking a later step in time of the year (comp. v. 17), observing the monstrous revolution.

that the same error is committed by Catull. 28.] ‘Timidi dammae,' G. 3. 539. Virgil's 60 (62). 34, Hor. 2 Od. 9. 10, and other use of the masc. is noted by Quinct. 9. 3. 6. Latin poets, so as to show that in general The epithet marks their ordinary nature, in they were but careless observers of nature. spite of which they are to herd with their 32—36.] ‘A suitable match for one who enemies. · Pocula' is frequently used to scorns my rusticity, and perjures herself signify not only a cup but its contents, G.1.8, fearlessly.' so that it may easily be used here, where 32.] This marriage has come upon Nisa the notion of a cup is merely metaphorical. as a punishment for her scorn and perfidy. The editors comp. G. 3. 529, “ Pocula sunt Damon evidently means that Mopsus is confontes liquidi,” where the metaphor almost fessedly inferior to himself—a satyr to Hypasses into a simile—"fontes liquidi sunt perion. pro poculis."

33.] The maiden scorning the rusticity 29.] The bridegroom is bidden to pre- and unsightliness of her lover is from various pare for the wedding by getting the torches passages in Theocr. Idyls 3, 11, 20. ready himself. “Incide faces' is a natural 34.] ‘Hirsutumque supercilium.' laoia rustic image, as such things were part of a óppús, Theocr. 11. 31. Promissa' was countryman's work, G, 1. 292, where see restored by Heins. from the best MSS. for note, and ‘novas' is equally natural, as the the old reading “prolixa.' “Immissaque occasion would doubtless seem to require barba,” A. 3. 593. Virg. may have innew torches. “Tibi du r,''is being brought tended it as an imitation of apoyévelos, home to you.'

Theocr. 3. 9 (comp: Id. 20. 8), which is . 30.] • Nuces :' nuts were flung by the interpreted to mean 'having a prominent bridegroom among the boys carrying the chin. torches, as the bride approached. Catull. 35.] ουκ έφα τις θεούς βροτών άξιούσ

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Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.
Saepibus in nostris parvam te roscida mala-
Dux ego vester eram-vidi cum matre legentem.
Alter ab undecimo tum me iam acceperat annus ;
Iam fragilis poteram ab terra contingere ramos.
Ut vidi, ut perii! ut me malus abstulit error!
Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.
Nunc scio, quid sit Amor ; duris in cotibus illum
Aut Tmaros, aut Rhodope, aut extremi Garamantes,
Nec generis nostri puerum nec sanguinis edunt.

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Oat Médelv, Aesch. Ag. 369. 'Mortalia' is allowed to be one on the strength of this for res mortalium,' A. 1. 461. Lucr. 6. line and G. 1. 457. 29 has rebus mortalibus' in the same 41.] Theocr. 2. 82, xúcidov, ús épávni,

ώς μευ περί θυμός άφθη (comp. 3. 42. 37–42.] My first sight of you was Hom. Il. 14. 294), where the second ás when I was a child and you came to gather should probably be ős—when I saw, I at our apples. That moment was my fate.' once became mad,' or, .as surely as I saw,

37.] From Theocr. 11. 25 foll., where I became mad'-so that Virgil's ut’ would the Cyclops tells Galatea he has loved her be a mistranslation. The meaning here apever since she came to gather hyacinths. parently is when I saw, how. was I undone!' • Saepibus in nostris,' within our 'enclo- * Error,' • madness.'. Comp. Hor. 2 Ep. 1. sure' (1.54), “in our orchard.' • Roscida,' 118, where it is coupled with insania,' A. with the morning dew on them.

P. 454. The line is found in the Ciris, v. 38.] The boy, knowing every nook of 430. the orchard, comes to show the way to his 43—46.] •Now I know what love is mother's guest. The reference of matre' nothing human, but the savage growth of is fixed by the passage in Theocr. éjớ oùy the wilds.' ματρί.

43.] · From Theocr. 3. 15. Comp. A. 4. 39.] Authorities were at one time divided 365 note. “Scio' and 'nescio' are the on the question whether alter ab undeci- only instances in which Virgil shortens the mo' meant the twelfth or the thirteenth, the final «o' in a verb (comp. A. 9. 296), former view being supported by Vives, Ca- which is to be accounted for by their conmerarius, Nannius, Sigonius, the elder Sca- stant colloquial use, and possibly also by liger, and Castalio ; the latter by Servius, 'scio' having come to be pronounced as Eugraphius, Manutius, and the younger a monosyllable. • Cotibus,' the older formi Scaliger. See Taubmann's note. Modern of " cautibus,' like “plostrum' of 'plauseditors have found little difficulty in decid- trum,' &c. ing it to be the twelfth, considering alter' 44.] • Aut Tmaros ’ is the reading of the to be convertible with secundus,' but fol- best MSS. “Ismarus' however was read lowing the inclusive mode of counting. by Valerius Probus, and we have already Comp. “ alter ab illo," 5. 49; “heros ab seen it coupled with · Rhodope,' 6. 30. Achille secundus," Hor. 2 S. 3. 193. The There is a similar variety A. 5. 620. The Romans counted both inclusively and ex- line is formed on the Greek model, but it clusively. Acceperat’is restored by Wagn. need not be a translation. From Hom. Il. from the Med. and other MSS. for cepe- 16. 34 it would appear that the intention rat.' • Accipere’is the correlative of inire' was to represent a savage man as actually or “ingredi,' the year receiving those who sprung from a rock : but “extremi Garaenter on it.

mantes' here seems to show that Virgil was 40.] Fragilis' implies that he was thinking less of the rocks than of their injust able to reach them and snap them off. habitants. * Ab terra' is restored by Wagn. from Med. 45.] ‘Nostri,' human, like the transfor a terra.' His general doctrine is that ferred sense of humanus,' savages not • ab' is used by Virg. before consonants being included in humanity. • Edunt' only when it has the force of åró, and then seems rightly explained by Wagn. as equivaonly before certain words, of which terra lent to parentes sunt,' as if giving birth

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Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.
Saevus Amor docuit natorum sanguine matrem
Commaculare manus; crudelis tu quoque, mater;
Crudelis mater magis, an puer inprobus ille ?
Inprobus ille puer; crudelis tu quoque, mater. .
Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.
Nunc et ovis ultro fugiat lupus, aurea durae
Mala ferant quercus, narcisso floreat alnus,
Pinguia corticibus sudent electra myricae,
Certent et cycnis ululae, sit Tityrus Orpheus,
Orpheus in silvis, inter delphinas Arion,
(Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus)
Omnia vel medium fiant mare. Vivite, silvae :

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were a continuing act, like creat,' G. 1. and unnatural unions, w. 27, 28: he now 279, A. 10. 705 ; 'generat,' A. 8. 141; prays that as he is to die despairing and .educat,' A. 10. 518.

a meaner man to triumph, a similar change 47-51.] • The cruelty of love is an old may take effect on all nature. It is noticestory: he made Medea kill her children, able that the changes he desires are those though her heart was hard too.'

which are mentioned elsewhere as the re48.] ‘Mater' is obviously to be explained sults of the golden age (3. 89., 4. 30, &c., from • matrem' of Medea, not, as Burmann 5. 60), the same events being capable of thought, of Venus, though the close con- being regarded either as a bestowal of nection of mater' and 'puer,' when the favour on the less favoured parts of nature, terms are not intended to be correlative, is or as a transference of the just rights of the certainly awkward. The shepherd is natu- strong and beautiful to the weak and conrally led to blame Medea—she must have temptible. Thus the prayer of v. 55 may had a hard heart to have let love impel her be paralleled with Horace's address to the to a crime like this; then recurring to his Muse (4 Od. 3. 19),“O mutis quoque pisciold complaint against love, he proceeds to bus Donatura cycni, si libeat, sonum," and balance the criminality in each case, but the change of Tityrus into Orpheus with the cannot adjust the proportions. There is shepherd-poet's boast (4. 55 foll.), that he nothing particularly inappropriate in this, will equal Orpheus and Linus if allowed to though Catrou thinks it mere playing on sing in the golden age. In Theocr. 1. 132 words, and Heyne would omit vv. 49, foll., from which the passage is copied, the 50.

instances seem merely to be chosen as in49.] ‘Is the cruelty of the mother, or the volving a reversal of the order of nature, wickedness of the boy greater ?' Voss sup- not as symbolizing the dishonour done to poses the question to be whether the mo. Daphnis. Ultro,' not only forbear to ther or the wicked boy be the more cruel, molest them, but actually fly

from them in the answer being, 'the wicked boy : though his turn. • Aurea mala,' 3. 71. the mother is cruel still :' but this is far 54.] The tamarisk, as in 4. 2., 6. 10, less natural, and overlooks the obvious dis- seems to be chosen as one of the meaner tinction between the cruelty of Medea and plants, which is supposed to be raised to the the wanton malice of the god who drove privileges of the alder or poplar, the riverher to crime, which may be compared in trees (6. 63) which were believed to distil point of criminality, but cannot be identi- amber (Оv. M. 2. 364). tied. So “ Inprobe amor, quid non mor- 55.] • Certent-ululae,' a proverbial extalia pectora cogis ?" A. 4. 412. “ Vanum pression, which appears in various forms, mendacemque inproba (Fortuna) finget," Theocr. 1. 136., 5. 136, 137. Lucr. 3. 6: A. 2. 80.

see also on 9. 36. 52–56.] Let the order of nature be 56.] • Arion,' the sea being an element reversed henceforth, barren things becoming for the shepherd, as a bather or a fisher, as fruitful, and base things honourable.' well as the land.

52.] He had before prophesied unequal 58–61.] •Let earth be turned to sea.

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