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C. Saetosi caput hoc apri tibi, Delia, parvus
C. Nerine Galatea, thymo mihi dulcior Hyblae,
29.] Corydon speaks in the character of sudden and absurd change from ostentatious Micon (see on 3. 10, 79), who is supposed homeliness to lavish promises. “Sinum' to dedicate an offering to Diana with an or 'sinus' (Plaut. Curc. 1. 1. 82) is disaddress in the form of an inscription: tinguished by Varro from a poculum,' * Parvus,' as Menalcas, Theocr. 8. 64, calls quod majorem cavationem habet." (L. L. himself uircós, “a young boy.'
The resemblance in appearance 30.] The verb is omitted, as frequently and sense to sĩnus' seems merely acciin inscriptions, A. 3. 288. For the cus- dental. Quot annis,' comp. the yearly tom of offering spoils of hunting to Diana, offering to Daphnis, 5. 67. comp. A. 9. 407, Soph. Aj. 178. The 35.] • Pro tempore’ is coupled with pro longevity of the stag was proverbial among re' by Caes. B. G. 5. 8, 'according to our the ancients. • Vivacis cornua cervi' is circumstances,' εκ των παρόντων, as copied by Ov. M. 3. 194.
Heyne renders it. The statues of Priapus 31.] • Proprium,' 'one's own property,' were commonly of wood ; but Thyrsis inand hence 'permanent,' coupled by Cic. Pro tends to insult Micon and his Diana, by Lege Manil. 16 with perpetuum,' with apologizing for having had to make his god
perenne' De Sen. 4. So A. 6. 871, "propria of the same material which his rivals prohaec si dona fuissent,” Hor. 2 S. 6. 5, "pro- mise to their goddess-not remembering pria ut mihi munera faxis." The thought that such extravagant language is utterly is the same as in the well-known line, Lucr. out of character. 3. 971, “ Vitaque mancipio nulli datur, 37–40.] · Cor. Sweet Galatea, lovelier omnibus usu.” The thing of which a con- than everything in nature, come to thy tinuance is prayed for is no doubt success Corydon at evenfall.' in hunting. •Tota,' not a mere head or 37.] Galatea, the Nereid, appears in bust. Serv.
Theocr. (Idyls 6 and 11) as the love of 32.] Comp. A. 1. 337, where this line is Polyphemus. Virg., who, as Keightley realmost verbally repeated of a Tyrian hunt- marks, had transferred the language and
A similar line is quoted by Teren- feelings of Polyphemus to Corydon in Ecl. tianus Maurus De Metris, professedly from 2, here makes him address Galatea, who is the Ino of Livius Andronicus, “Iam nunc his love, just as Daphnis, who in Idyl 8 purpureo suras include cothurno." Diana answers to Corydon here, marries a nymph. is generally represented with buskins. *Pu- The words are imitated more or less from niceo :' colouring was frequent even in Theocr. 11. 19 foll., and both passages are the case of marble statues. • De marmore copied and characteristically amplified by stabis:' aeneus ut stes," Hor. 2 S. 3. Ov. M. 13. 789 foll. • Nerine' seems not 183, σφυρήλατος εν Ολυμπία στάθητι, to occur elsewhere in Latin as a patronymic, Plato Phaedr. p. 215.
but Catull. 62 (64). 28 calls Thetis . Nep33–36.] • Th. Priapus, we offer thee tunine.' Hyblae;' see on 1. 55, though cakes and milk, being poor; however, here it need not be a piece of mannerism, though thou hast only a marble statue now, as a shepherd speaking as a Sicilian would thou shalt have a golden one if the lambing naturally allude to Hybla. turns out well.'
38.] · Hedera alba,' 3. 39. 33.] Thyrsis fails first in his subject, 39.] He bids her come to him in the Priapus instead of Diana, and then in the pastoral evening. See on 3. 67.
tui Corydonis habet te cura, venito.
C. Muscosi fontes et somno mollior herba,
41–44.] • Th. May I be more hateful rock.' Catull. (66) 68.58; Hor. 1 Ep. 10.7. to thee than everything in nature if I can • Somno mollior,' ύπνω μαλακώτερα, bear thy absence longer. Go home, my Theocr. 5. 51, of a fleece (comp. 15. herds.'
125). μαλακός is an epithet of ύπνος, as 41.] Thyrsis thinks first of his rivalry old as Homer (Il. 10. 2), like “mollis' of with Corydon, 'immo' implying that he somnus,' G. 2. 470, &c., which is as likely seeks a better way of expressing his passion, to have suggested the comparison as any reand then of his own feelings rather than of semblance in the things themselves. The his love's, and fails accordingly. It is not address is imitated from Theocr. 8. 33 foll., necessary to suppose that he is addressing 37 foll. Galatea also, as he may only mean to show 46.] • Rara,' see on 5. 7. how much better he loves his love. Sar- 47.] “Defendit aestatem capellis,” Hor. doniis' is rightly restored by Wagn. from 1 Od. 17. 3. It is difficult to say whether the Med. and the majority of MSS. for in this and similar instances the dative is to
Sardois.' The technical name for the be explained as one of personal relation, plant is ‘Ranunculus Sardous,' Batpáxlov 'on behalf of, or as originally identical xvwoốtorepov, known in England as the with the ablative. • Solstitium,' G. 1. 100. celery-leaved crowfoot, so acrid that its 48.] Corydon mentioned the summer for leaves applied externally produce inflamma- its heat, but he is led to dwell on its beauty, tion. Those who ate it had their faces a characteristic proof of his superiority to distorted into the proverbial sardonic smile. Thyrsis. For laeto' Wagn. inclines to Thyrsis contrasts it with the thyme of read • lento’ from a correction in the Med., Hybla, as producing proverbially bitter alleging that the buds appear on the vine honey, “Sardum mel,' Hor. A. P. 375, as before the leaves : but leaves are not the • horridior rusco’ is contrasted with can only mark of luxuriance, which is here didior cycnis,' and `vilior alga' with he- doubtless indicated by the appearance of the dera formosior alba.'
buds. Forb. well comp. G. 2. 262, “ lae42.] · Rusco,' G. 2. 413. • Proiecta' is tum vitis genus,” which shows that the epi. emphatic : 'which is thrown on the shore, thet is virtually a perpetual one of the vine. and which no one cares to take up.” “Vilior 49—52.] “Th. Here we are at our firealga,' Hor. 2 S. 5. 8.
side, where we can bid defiance to the 43.] Theocr. 12. 2, oi o è toxŪVTES Év cold.' ήματι γηράσκουσι.
49.] Thyrsis' picture, as Keightley aptly 44.] He lays the blame on the cattle, as remarks, is a sort of Dutch pendant to if they were delaying his pleasure by delay- Corydon's Claude Lorraine. Its fault is its ing at their food. *Si quis pudor' seems subject : yet it is the one which would most to be an appeal at once to their moderation naturally be expected to follow Corydon's, in eating, and to their regard for him. It according to the division of the year in 5. is the same notion as “improbus anser,' G. 70. The focus' is one of the details of 1. 119, where see note.
rural life seemingly ridiculed as a subject 45-48.] • Cor. My flocks shall have for poetry by Persius 1. 72. water, and grass, and shade : summer is at 50.] Semper,' like assidua,' forms part the full of heat and beauty.'
of Thyrsis' boast, and it leads him to dwell 45.] ‘Muscosi,''gushing from the mossy on what is itself an unpleasing detail, the
Hic tantum Boreae curamus frigora, quantum
C. Stant et iuniperi et castaneae hirsutae;
dvoraf va dwuara. This and the preceding 'same thing whether the fruit be spoken of line seem to be from Theocr. 11. 51, as as belonging to the tree, as in G. 2. 82, or Keightley remarks, though the context the tree to the fruit, as in E. 1. 38., A. 6. there is quite different.
206. 51.] Theocr. 9. 12 foll., 19 foll.
55.] · Alexis' is doubtless introduced 52.j. Numerum’is understood by Heyne with a reference to Ecl. 2 (compare the and the later editors of the counting of the mention of mountains in 2.5), but as Corysheep, the prospect of which does not deter don does not always adhere to his own the wolf from devouring any of them : but character (see v. 30), we need not suppose the old interpretation seems simpler, the that he is always speaking of those whom he wolf not fearing the multitude of the sheep, has himself loved. where the notion is the same as that of 56.] The general drought would affect Juvenal's defendit numerus,' and not un. even the rivers, which are the natural relike Horace's nos numerus sumus,' source when there is no rain. mere set of figures,' 'a mere throng.' 57—60.] • Th. Everything is parched up: Alexander, when told of the number of the but Phyllis' arrival will bring fertility and Persian army, replied that a single butcher refreshing showers.' is not afraid of a number of sheep.
57.] All that can be said against Thyrsis 53–56.] • Cor. It is the fruit season, here is that he dwells more on unpleasing and all is luxuriant: but the absence of objects than Corydon : but this was forced Alexis would blight all.'
on him by the subject of his picture, and 53.] • Stant' is more than sunt,' by he makes what he can of the anticipated which Heyne explains it: but it merely contrast, vv. 59, 60. Vitio,' disease, a gives the picture. The non-elision of iuni. sense more common in the cognate words, peri' and castaneae’ is a metrical variety 'vitiosus' and 'vitiare :' “ Dira lues quonborrowed by Virgil from the Greeks. The dam Latias vitiaverat auras,” Ov. M. 15. passage is imitated from Theocr. 8. 41 626. Forb. thinks that Virgil may be refoll.
ferring to Lucr. 6. 1090 foll., where diseased 54.] Perhaps from Theocr. 7. 144 foll. states of the air are treated of as causes of Quaque' is the correction of Heinsius, pestilence. Comp. morbo coeli,' G. 3. Gronovius, and Bentley for quaeque,' 478, 'corrupto coeli tractu,' A. 3. 138. which is retained by Jahn and defended by 58.] 'The vines on the slopes of the hills Forb., the latter making sua’ the ablative are all withering.' singular pronounced monosyllabically, after 59.] Phyllidis,' 3. 76, &c. • Nemus the example of Ennius and Lucretius (1. omne' may refer to the plantations, or 1022., 3. 1025). Wagn. however replies perhaps, as vines have just been spoken of, with force that it is strange that Virgil to the 'arbustum,' which appears to be its should have preferred an archaism of this sense G. 2. 308. 401. kind when a more obvious expression was 60.] The image is that of G. 2. 325, the close at hand. "Quaque’ too seems pre- marriage of Jupiter and Juno, Aether and ferable to .quaeque,' as making the trees Earth. Comp. also‘ruit arduus aether,' the more prominent objects, and thus con- G. 1. 324, 'coeli ruina,' A. l. 129, which necting the line with the preceding—the is the same picture, the whole sky appeartrees are standing, and each has its fruit ing to pour down, though without the added lying under it,' poma' being used generally personification. • Iuppiter' is used of the (2. 53 note). It of course comes to the air, G. 1. 418., 2. 419.
C. Populus Alcidae gratissima, vitis Iaccho,
M. Haec memini, et victum frustra contendere Thyrsim.
70 61–64.] • Cor. Each god has his favour- chosen rather than the river and mountain ite tree: but Phyllis is fond of the hazel, so trees to be compared with Lycidas in v. 68, that is the tree for me.'
as it is to the scenes of his labour that 61.] · Populus,' leukáv, 'Hpakléoç ispòv Thyrsis wishes to invite his beloved one. ēpvos, Theocr. 2. 121. So G. 2. 66., A. 8. Pinus ’ is the ritus öuepos, called by Ov. 276. The story was that Leuce was a A. A. 3. 692, pinus culta.' nymph beloved by Pluto, who caused a 66.] ‘In Auviis’ merely means that the white poplar to grow up in the shades after poplar is a river-tree. “ Fluminibus salices her death: and that Hercules, on his way crassisque paludibus alni Nascuntur," G. 2. from the infernal regions, made himself a 110. garland from its leaves.
68.] Comp. Homer's comparison of a 62.] • Myrtus. The myrtle, being a beautiful youth killed to a poplar cut down, seaside plant, was supposed to have shel- Il. 4. 482. tered Venus on her first rising from the sea. 69, 70.] Thyrsis was vanquished, and
64.] Serv. seems to have read ' Veneris' Corydon crowned with lasting glory.' for • corylos,' and Heyne prefers it, but it 70.] Virgil imitates Theocr. 8. 92, KK would rather weaken the emphasis which at τούτω Δάφνις παρά ποιμέσι πράτος έγεντο, present falls on ‘laurea Phoebi.'
but the meaning of the words is not clear. 65–68.] ‘Th. Each spot has its favour. The choice lies between • henceforth Coryite tree : but Lycidas will grace any spot don is Corydon with us,' as if, intending to more than any tree.'
say 'primus,' or some such word, he had 65.] If Thyrsis fails at all here, it is that changed the expression, as if to show that he does not pay so high a compliment as the highest praise that could be bestowed Corydon : but his language is more natural. on Corydon was to say that he was himself, Corydon had spoken merely of favourite and henceforth it is Corydon, Corydon trees : Thyrsis compares Lycidas himself with us '-Corydon is in all our mouths; to a tree, as being like it, the glory of the but though either would yield a sufficiently place which he frequents. Comp. 5. 32 foll. good sense, no adequate parallel has been Silvis' are probably the plantations which adduced either for the identical proposition, the shepherd has to take care of, as · horti' Corydon est Corydon,' or for the use of are his gardens or orchards. For this reason • est nobis 'to signify all our talk is about the trees belonging to them seem to be him.'
We have here again the songs of two shepherds, Damon, in the character of a despairing lover lamenting over his faithless Nisa, who has taken a less worthy mate, and finally resolving on self-destruction, and Alphesiboeus in the character of a woman also forsaken
by her lover, though only for a time, and trying to recover him by enchantments, which at last prove successful.
The poem is addressed to Pollio, in a preface running parallel with that to Ecl. 6 (see Introduction there, and note on v. 7 here). Its date may be fixed with certainty from vv. 6 foll., which evidently point to the time when Pollio had gained his victory over the Parthini in Illyricum (victricis laurus,' v. 13, refuting the hypothesis that it was addressed to him when setting out on the expedition), and was on his way home to receive the triumph which he celebrated Oct. 25, A. U. 715. Whether“ iussis carmina coepta tuis,” v. 31, actually means that Pollio suggested one or both of the subjects of the Eclogue, or merely that he asked to have another pastoral written, is of course impossible to say. Voss chooses to fancy that it was for the second song, as an imitation of the Pharmaceutria of Theocritus, that Pollio had asked, and that Virgil intends to give it the preference, both by the appeal to the Muses, v. 62, 63, and by the title of the whole poem. But Virgil's own words need convey no such notion (see note there), and there seems no reason to suppose that the title Pharmaceutria was affixed by the poet, especially as the Med. MS. has a different title, “ Damonis et Alphesiboei Certatio."
The Eclogue itself so far parallel to Ecl. 5 th: it contains a species of amoebean, consisting not, like Eclogues 3 and 7, of a number of short efforts, but of two continuous strains of equal lengths—the difference between a dialogue and a set oration followed by a set reply-suggested perhaps by Theocr. Id. 9, where there are two songs of seven lines each. But the detail here is much more complicated, each of the poems being divided into parts, on similar, though not absolutely identical, principles (see on v. 48). Each consists of nine stanzas (so to call them), every one of them followed by a burden. These nine stanzas are not all of equal lengths, consisting respectively of three, four, and five lines ; but they fall into a threefold division, the members of which are equal. It is in the arrangement of these divisions that the two poems do not correspond, the third division of Damon's song consisting of stanzas of four, five, and three lines with their burdens, while in the third division of Alphesiboeus' the order of the stanzas runs, five lines, three lines, and four lines. In the remainder they are identical, the first division of each being subdivided into four, three, and five lines, the second into four, five, and three lines.
The circumstances under which this amoebean exercise takes place are not stated (note on v. 14). The two songs have no formal connection, though baffled love is the theme of both. The first is imitated from various passages in the first, third, and eleventh Idyls of Theocritus, the second entirely from Idyl 2, which Virgil abridges and fits with a more prosperous conclusion.
The lynxes (v. 3) and the mention of Oeta (v. 30) show that the scenery is not national.
PASTORUM Musam Damonis et Alphesiboei,
1--5.] ‘My subject is the songs of Damon of the person or persons following. Aland Alphesiboeus, which entranced all that phesiboei,' 5. 73. heard them, inanimate as well as animate.' 2.] For the effect of song upon nature
1.] Forb. seems right in supposing that comp. 6. 27 foll., 71. The cattle forget to "pastorum Musam’ is meant to be equiva- graze for joy and wonder, as in 5. 26 for lent to "silvestrem Musam,' as coniugis grief. amore,' v. 18, appears to be to "coniugali 3.] The lynx, like the lion, 5. 27, seems amore, though of course the genitive in to be neither Italian nor Sicilian, so that each case is still in apposition to the name its introduction is an additional element of