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Candida succinctam latrantibus inguina monstris
Dulichias vexasse rates et gurgite in alto
Ah ! timidos nautas canibus lacerasse marinis,
Aut ut mutatos Terei narraverit artus,
Quas illi Philomela dapes, quae dona pararit,
Quo cursu deserta petiverit, et quibus ante

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would be neater, but the difference is not writers (Propertius, Ovid, Statius, Martial) very great, being only that in the one case were apt either to confuse with Ithaca, or to we have to supply · narraverit,' in the other include among the dominions of Ulysses,

ut narraverit' (“Quid loquar, aut ut nar- though Homer (Il. 2. 635) places the raverit Scyllam, aut ut mutatos,”. &c.). Echinades under Meges. A question apJahn's construction of . Scyllam' with pears to have been raised among the an• loquar’ is objectionable, as involving an cient critics about the appropriateness of awkward confusion between the narrative of the word "vexasse,' which is defended, as Virgil and that of Silenus : while Hilde. sufficiently strong for the occasion, by Gell. brand's proposal, adopted by Forb., to 2.6, Macrob. Sat. 6. 7, and Probus ap. Serv. make • Scyllam . vexasse ... lacerasse'

78.] The story of Tereus was differently depend on • narraverit,' introduces an told, the Greeks generally making Procne equally awkward coupling of vexasse ... the nightingale, and Philomela the swal. lacerasse' with mutatos' (which cannot, low, the Romans reversing the order, peras Forb. thinks, be for mutatos esse'), and haps, as Voss suggests, from a false notion leaves the words. quam fama secuta est of the etymology of Philomela. Those who to form a tame and unmeaning parenthesis. followed the latter version were again On the other hand, Virgil is fond of using divided, some keeping to the old narrative . fama est' or some equivalent, such as and making Procne Tereus' wife and Philo“ volat,” A. 3. 121, “occupat auris,” ib. mela her sister, others reversing the rela294, with an infinitive clause, so that. fama tions, doubtless because they saw that the secuta est' may easily be resolved into nightingale must have been the mother of fama est apud posteros.' The further Itys, whose name is the burden of her song. difficulty, the attribution to Scylla, the This last is probably Virgil's view, as he daughter of Nisus, of the transformation would more naturally represent the wife which really happened to the other Scylla, than the sister as preparing the feast, v. 79, daughter of Phorcus, is not peculiar to this while in other passages in his works, G. 4. passage, the same thing being done, as 15 and 511, he follows the Roman as disCerda and Ruaeus show, by Ov. F. 4. 500 tinguished from the Greek version. The and Prop. 5. 4. 39 foll., and conse- whole subject is elaborately treated in Voss's quently is to be accounted for either by the note. hypothesis of different versions of the le- 79.] Serv. rightly distinguishes between gend, or, as Keightley prefers, by the Ro- • dapes' and 'dona,' the former being the man ignorance of Greek mythology, not flesh of Itys, which was served up to corrected by the insertion of aut,' which Tereus, the latter the head and extremi. would be ungraceful, even if it were better ties, which were presented to him after his supported than by the single unnamed MS. meal. reported by Pierius. That Virgil some 80.] It is not clear whether Tereus or years afterwards, G. 1. 404, incidentally Philomela is the subject of 'petiverit' and followed a different story, does not affect supervolitaverit.' The former is recomthe argument.

mended by mutatos artus,' v. 78, and by 75.) This and the two following lines the prominence apparently meant to be are found in the Ciris, v. 59 foll., with the given to him : the latter by the structure of variation of deprensos' for "ah timidos.' v. 79, and perhaps by the language of the The language apparently follows Lucr. 5. clause quibus ... alis, which seems more 892, "rabidis canibus succinctas semi- appropriate to the nightingale than to the marinis Corporibus Scyllas.' Scylla is hoopoe. There is a further doubt about more fully described A. 3. 424 foll.

quo cursu,' which may either denote the 76.] Dulichias,' the ships or ship speed of Philomela's flight or Tereus' pur(Od. 12. 205) Ulysses, so called from suit, or the manner in which they fled, as Dulichia, or Dulichium (A. 3. 271), birds ( quo' for quali'). If we accept the one of the Echinades, which the Roman former, which agrees better with cursu,'

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Infelix sua tecta supervolitaverit alis ?
Omnia, quae, Phoebo quondam meditante, beatus
Audiit Eurotas iussitque ediscere laurus,
Ille canit; pulsae referunt ad sidera valles ;
Cogere donec ovis stabulis numerumque referri
Iussit et invito processit Vesper Olympo.

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we must understand quibus . . . alis' of 83.] The mention of the Eurotas points his or her return after transformation to to Apollo's love for the Spartan youth Hyahover over the palace, connecting ante'cinthus, to whom accordingly we must supwith sua' (Heyne comp. Ov. M. 2. 491 pose him to have supg. Laurus' is reof Callisto when transformed, “Ante do- stored by Wagn. for lauros' from the mum quondamque suis errabat in agris "), Med., in accordance with what seems the a conjunction which will be less harsh if we general usage of Virgil. regard “infelix' as a sort of parenthetical 84.] Comp. 5. 62, and Lucr. 2. 327 there exclamation. If the latter, ante' may quoted. then be understood to mean that before 85.] An incidental proof that Chromis flying to the woods the metamorphosed and Mnasylus were shepherds, as no others king or queen took a last farewell of the are represented as listening to the song. palace by flying round it. The description Numerumque referri' is the reading of the of the bird flying round the house might best MSS. instead of referre,' and is more seem to point to the swallow, in which case probable as the more difficult reading. The Virgil would have followed the Greek ver- same mixture of the passive and active insion of the story, as Heyne thinks, in spite fin. is found A. 3. 61 (where there is a of the other passages referred to on v. 78: similar variety of reading), 5. 773., 11. 84. but this would not suit · deserta petiverit.' For the custom see E. 3. 34. Ov. M. 6. 668 foll. says of the sisters “pe- 86.] •Invito,' as Olympus was himself tit altera silvas, Altera tecta subit,” though listening. Voss comp. Il. 18. 239, where he does not explain which is which. Here Juno bids the sun set against his will. It the ambiguity is certainly awkward, and is doubtful whether • Olympus' is merely looks almost like a confusion of the habits the heaven, or the mountain, over which the of the nightingale and swallow. Quibus evening star is said to rise, as in 8. 30, alis petiverit' is for. quomodo alis petiverit,' " tibi deserit Hesperus Oetam,” A. 2. 801, and so, according to the first view, 'quo Iamque iugis summae surgebat Lucifer cursu.

Idae;' but the former is simpler. In either 81.] This line also occurs in the Ciris, v. case ‘Olympo' is probably to be constructed 51, caeruleis' being substituted for infelix.' with processit.' aïllos, the star of the

82.] •Meditante, 1. 1. •Beatus,'' happy sheepfolds, was a Greek epithet of the evenin hearing such a song.'

ing star.

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This is another singing-match between Corydon and Thyrsis, with Daphnis as umpire. Unlike those in Eclogues 3 and 5, it ends decisively in the defeat of Thyrsis. The story is told by Meliboeus, who was not present until the terms of the contest had been agreed on, so that of them we hear nothing.

The Idyls of Theocr. which Virgil seems chiefly to have had in view are the 6th and 8th.

Various attempts were made by the earlier critics to identify the characters, Corydon being supposed to be Virgil or a friend of Virgil's, Thyrsis a contemporary rival, or even, according to Cerda, Virgil's great prototype Theocritus, Meliboeus and Daphnis patrons of the poet, if not the poet himself. Serv., who mentions this mode of interpretation without adopting it, makes Codrus (v. 22) a historical personage, asserting on the authority of the Elegies of Valgius (Dict. B.) that he was a conte porary poet; but the clause is apparently omitted in some of the MSS. of the old commentator. Nothing in the poem points to any historical basis ; all can be explained by supposing it to be an imaginary Eclogue in the Theocritean style. There does not even seem to be any necessity for supposing that in introducing Meliboeus, Daphnis, and Corydon, Virg. is thinking uniformly of the Meliboeus, Daphnis, and Corydon of former Eclogues, though there is some appropriateness in making Daphnis the bestower of the crown of poetry, and Corydon, the hero of Ecl. 2, its receiver.

The scenery is, as usual, confused. Arcadian shepherds are made to sing in the neighbourhood of the Mincius, while neither the ilex (v. 1), the pine (v. 24), the chestnut (v. 53), nor the flocks of goats (v. 7), would seem to belong to Mantua.

There appears no means of determining the date, as the mention of the Mincius does not prove that Virgil was then in actual possession of his property.

This Eclogue is alluded to by Propertius (3. 26. 67), “Tu canis umbrosi subter pineta Galaesi Thyrsin et attritis Daphnin arundinibus ;" but the reference is sufficiently vague, as the mention of Galaesus is apparently intended to recall a totally different scene, that described in G. 4. 126, and the juxtaposition of Thyrsis and Daphnis can mean no more than that Virg. introduces both, as Theocr. does, though in different Idyls.

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M. FORTE sub arguta consederat ilice Daphnis,
Compulerantque greges Corydon et Thyrsis in unum,
Thyrsis ovis, Corydon distentas lacte capellas,
Ambo florentes aetatibus, Arcades ambo,
Et cantare pares, et respondere parati.

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1–20.] A singing-match had been the god of rural song, so that shepherds agreed on between Corydon the goatherd who can pipe and sing are naturally made and Thyrsis the shepherd, Daphnis being Arcadians. There seems also to have been umpire. I was just going to look after a a law in Arcadia in historical times (Polyb. stray he-goat when Daphnis asked me to 4. 20) compelling the study of music, come and listen. I agreed hesitatingly, and which Polybius thinks produced a humaniz. they began.'

ing effect on the people. Keightley sup1.] Imitated generally from the begin- poses that these passages of Virg. suggested ning of Theocritus' 6th and 8th Idyls. "Ar- the notion which became current at the reguta,' 8. 22 note. Virg. may intend that vival of letters, representing the Arcadians the very tree should, as it were, suggest a as living in an ideal golden age of pastoral song, as in Theocr. 1. 1 foll. the whisper felicity-a view sufficiently unlike that of the leaves is paralleled with the sound taken by the ancients themselves, with of piping

whom the Arcadians were proverbial for 3.] Distentas lacte' may be meant to thickwitted rustic stupidity, Juv. 7. 160, show that the time was towards evening; &c. For the confusion between Arcadia and so perhaps v. 15.

and Mantua, see Introduction, 4.] · Aetatibus, the plural, each being 5.] • Parati’ is constructed with both made to have his own aetas,' by a poetical "cantare' and respondere,' 'pares' being variety, where a prose writer would have taken with 'parati’ or with cantare, said, “ambo florente aetate.' Arcades,' equally prepared, or prepared to sing in a and therefore skilled in song, 10. 32. Ar- match, either to take the first or the second cadia was a pastoral country (called õundos, part in an amoebean contest. This seems Theocr. 22. 157), and Pan, its patron, was better than to connect.pares' with can.

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Huc mihi, dum teneras defendo a frigore myrtos,
Vir gregis ipse caper deerraverat ; atque ego Daphnim
Aspicio. Ille ubi me contra videt : Ocius, inquit,
Huc ades, o Meliboee! caper tibi salvus et haedi ;
Et, si quid cessare potes, requiesce sub umbra.
Huc ipsi potum venient per prata iuvenci;
Hic viridis tenera praetexit arundine ripas
Mincius, eque sacra resonant examina quercu.
Quid facerem ? neque ego Alcippen, neque Phyllida habebam,
Depulsos a lacte domi quae clauderet agnos;
Et certamen erat, Corydon cum Thyrside, magnum.
Posthabui tamen illorum mea seria ludo.
Alternis igitur contendere versibus ambo
Coepere; alternos Musae meminisse volebant.

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tare,' the infinitive used as in Greek for a instances, collected by Wagn., are A. 4. noun, as if it were pares in cantando,' 663., 6. 162., 7. 29., 10. 220. Comp. the though the construction would be admissi- traditional explanation of G. 1. 203. Here ble in itself, and is apparently sanctioned the sense is, “I had just observed that he by Nemesianus' imitation (2. 16), “ambo had strayed, when I catch sight of Daphnis.' aevo cantuque pares.” At the same time 11.] The bullocks are clearly those of the stress on 'parati’ is chiefly in connec- Meliboeus, who accordingly must be suption with respondere,' as that would be posed to be in charge of them as well as of the strongest test of improvisation : and the goats, and also of lambs, v. 15, as this makes the word more appropriate than Damoetas, 3. 6, 29, is both shepherd and 'periti,' Schrader's conjecture, which is cowherd. supported not only by 10.32, but by Theocr. 12.] Comp. 1. 49 foll., G. 3. 14, 15, 8. 4, άμφω συρίσδεν δεδαημένω, άμφω Α. 10. 205. The Mincius is evidently αείδεν.

mentioned to give the reason why Meliboeus' 6.] 'Huc,' in the direction of the place bullocks will not go out of sight; but the where they were sitting. •Defendo a fri- mention of it suggests the thought of the gore myrtos' has created some difficulty, invitingness of the spot, which is the thing even as early as the time of Serv. It is to be dwelt on in the second clause, eque. solved by supposing that the scene is laid quercu.' in the spring-time, when the nights are 13.] Comp. 1. 54 foll. Sacra,' as being frosty (a supposition which agrees with the the tree of Jupiter. whispering of the leaves, v. 1, the humming 14.] • Alcippe' and 'Phyllis' seem to of the bees, v. 13, and the weaned lambs, be partners (see on 1. 31), perhaps former v. 15), and that Meliboeus, like Corydon, partners, of Meliboeus, not, as Serv. sup2. 45, &c., had to look after his trees as well poses, partners respectively of Corydon and as after his flocks and herds. 'Dum' is Thyrsis. used with the present, though the verb in 16.) •Corydon cum Thyrside' is conthe principal clause is in the pluperfect, as nected by a loose apposition with certain A. 6. 171 foll. quoted by Wagn. For men.' Somewhat similar is Soph. Ant. 259, .myrtos' a few MSS. have myrtus ;' but lóyou s' év állňkovou šppólovv kakoi, in this case the usage of Virg. appears to Púmaš idéyxwv púlaka. Magnum' seems be in favour of the second declension. to be a predicate. . Et' couples the

7.] Vir gregis,' Û Tpaye, Tãv leukãy two antagonistic considerations. Thyrsis aiyāv ävep, Theocr. 8. 49. 'Ipse : the is the name of one of the personages in leader of the herd had strayed, and there. Theocr. Idyl 1. fore of course the herd with him. Heyne, 18.] ‘Alternis :' introduction to Ecl. 3. referring to v. 9. • Deerro' is dissyllabic, 19.] Volebam' is found in one or two as in Lucr. 3. 860. *Atque,' used in a style MSS. mentioned by Serv., and adopted by of poetical simplicity, where, in connected Voss; but “volebant' is clearly right. writing, we should have had • quum.' Other There is no need to supply "eos' before

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Hos Corydon, illos referebat in ordine Thyrsis.

C. Nymphae, noster amor, Libethrides, aut mihi carmen,
Quale meo Codro, concedite; proxima Phoebi
Versibus ille facit; aut, si non possumus omnes,
Hic arguta sacra pendebit fistula pinu.
T. Pastores, hedera nascentem ornate poetam,
Arcades, invidia rumpantur ut ilia Codro;
Aut, si ultra placitum laudarit, bacchare frontem
Cingite, ne vati noceat mala lingua futuro.

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.meminisse, with Wagn. and Forb., or was transformed. So Tibull. 2. 5. 29, .me' with Spohn and Jahn.

• Musae' are “ Pendebatque vagi pastoris in arbore vothe Muses of the two rivals, who are said to tum, Garrula silvestri fistula sacra deo.” remember the amoebean strains, as recalling 25—28.] · Th. Crown me, in spite of them to the memory of the shepherds, the Codrus' envy, and protect me against his Muses being mythologically connected with evil tongue.' memory, who was said to be their mother.

25.] The arrogance and spleen of Thyrsis Comp. A. 7. 645, “Et meministis enim, are contrasted with the modesty of Corydon. Divae, et memorare potestis.” The lan- 'Hedera,' 8. 13. “Doctarum hederae praemia guage is worded as if the shepherds had a frontium,” Hor. 1 Od. 1. 29. Crescennumber of verses in their minds, and the tem' most MSS. “Nascentem 'is restored Muses chose to remember amoebeans by Wagn. from Serv. and the first reading rather than others; but it must not be of the Med. pressed to mean that the contest had been 26.] 'Invidia rumpantur,' a colloquial exstudied or rehearsed beforehand (see v. 5 pression, doubtless intended as characnote), as by the act of memory probably no teristic trait of Thyrsis. Emm. quotes Cic. more is intended than the act of composi- in Vatin. 4, “ ut aliquando ista ilia, quae tion, which Virg. elsewhere (1. 2, &c.) ex- sunt inflata, rumpantur.” The supposed presses by the word · meditari.'

allusion to the story of Codrus the Moor, 21—24.] Cor. Muses, grant that I glanced at by Hor. 1 Ep. 19. 15, would be may sing like my Codrus; if not, I abandon quite out of place, were it only that Virg. the art.'

evidently sympathizes with Corydon and his 21.] 'Libethrus,' Libethra,' or 'Libeth. friend. rum,' was a fountain in Helicon, with a ca- 27.] Thyrsis affects to fear that Codrus vern, mentioned by Strabo, 9. p. 629, A. may attempt to injure him by extravagant Tūv A£ßnOpídwv vuudūv ävtpov. Pausa- praise, which when bestowed on a person nias speaks also of a mountain of the same either by himself or by another, was conname. They are mentioned as distinct from sidered likely to provoke the jealousy of the the Muses, though equally with them patron- gods, and so used to be guarded by the esses of song. Comp. 10. 1, where Arethusa apologetic expression praefiscine.' Cerda is invoked. In Theocr. 7. 91, the nymphs refers to a fragment of Titinius (Charis. p. teach a shepherd song.

210), “ Pol tu ad laudem addito praefiscine, 22.] Codrus,' 5. 11. It signifies little ne puella fascinetur.” • Ultra placitum 'is whether proxima' be constructed with generally understood beyond his judgment,' . carmina’ supplied from 'carmen,' or taken i. e. with extravagant insincerity; but it as a verbal acc. after facit.' With the

more probably refers to the pleasure of the sense comp. Theocr. 1. 2, uetà IIāva gods. • Bacchare,' 4. 19. δεύτερον άθλον αποιση.

28.] Mala lingua.' “ Nec mala fasci23.] Non possumus omnes,' 8. 63. nare lingua," Catull. 7. 12. • Vati futuro ' Corydon, as Voss remarks, modestly classes is a stronger expression than ‘nascentem himself with the many.

poetam' (see note on 9. 32), and so 24.] He hangs up his pipe, as aban- argues increased self-confidence in Thyrdoning the art. Comp. Hor. 3 Od. 26. sis. 3, &c., and Macleane on 1 Ep. 1. 4. The 29–32.] Cor. Micon offers to Diana a pine is sacred to Pan, Prop. 1. 18. 20, boar's head and a stag's horns, promising her “ Arcadio pinus amica deo," being the tree a marble statue if his success in hunting into which a nymph whom he loved, Pitys, should continue.'

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