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Iam legere et quae sit poteris cognoscere virtus :
Molli paulatim flavescet campus arista,
Incultisque rubens pendebit sentibus uva,
Et durae quercus sudabunt roscida mella.
Pauca tamen suberunt priscae vestigia fraudis,
Quae temptare Thetim ratibus, quae cingere muris
Oppida, quae iubeant telluri infindere sulcos.
Alter erit tum Tiphys, et altera quae vehat Argo
Delectos heroas; erunt etiam altera bella,
Atque iterum ad Troiam magnus mittetur Achilles.
Hinc, ubi iam firmata virum te fecerit aetas,
Cedet et ipse mari vector, nec nautica pinus

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corn, wine, and honey will come unbidden: Hesiod, Works, 232 foll. oöpeol dpūç there will also be the glory of adventure.' "Ακρη μέν τε φέρει βαλάνους, μέσση δε

26.] κλέα ανδρών ηρώων, Ηom. ΙΙ. 9. μελίσσας, of the golden-age blessings which 524. * Parentis ' is doubtless the true read- attend the good even now. ing, as well as the best supported : ‘pa- 31.] · Fraudis,' the wickedness of artirentum' would be a natural correction ficial society, opposed to the simplicity and from such passages as A. 1. 645., 2. 448., innocence of the state of nature. The idea is 10. 282. The child will read of the glories kept in ‘temptare' and in ‘mentiri' (v. 42). of its father and the heroes of older time, 32.] «Temptare' like “ sollicitant freta," the subjects of poetry and history, and thus G. 2. 503. Comp. Hor. 1 Od. 3. 9 foll. learn to conceive of virtue.

Cingere,' imitated by Ov. M. 1. 97 (speak28.] · Flavescet arista,' that is, spon- ing of the golden age), “Nondum praecitaneously, which seems to be expressed by pites cingebant oppida fossae.” • paulatim :' there will be no process of 33.] The Roman MS. has tellurem insowing, from which the springing of the findere sulco;' but 'infindunt pariter sulcrop can date, but the field will gradually cos' occurs A. 5. 142. develop into corn. Comp. Hor. Epod. 16. 34.] In the Sibylline cycle all history 43 foll. (of the Islands of the Blest) : “Red- was to come over again. Virgil seems to dit ubi Cererem tellus inarata quotannis, be mixing this notion with that of a return Et imputata floret usque vinea, Germinat et to the age of gold, so as to give some scope nunquam fallentis termes olivae.

to the national love of conquest. In Hesiod may perhaps mean waving :' comp.“mollia the heroes form a fourth age, between oscilla,” G. 2. 389 (note).

brazen and iron. Tiphys was the helms. 29.] In G. 1. 132 Virg. goes one step man of the Argo. further, intimating that in the golden age 35.] The Argonauts are called delecti wine ran in the beds of the rivers.

viri' Enn. Med. 5, • lecti juvenes' Catull. 30.] · Roscida,' because it was imagined 62 (64). 4, perhaps a translation of ảproteis. that the honey fell in the shape of dew, and See Eur. Med. 5 (Elmsley's note), Theocr. was gathered by the bees from leaves— 13. 16. • Altera bella,' the old wars over "aerii mellis coelestia dona," G. 4. 1.

On again. the return of the golden age it will appear 36.] Achilles is the emblem of the in larger quantities, so that men will be youthful warrior: otherwise a second conable to gather it from leaves for themselves, quest of Troy would hardly be mentioned as they will be able to obtain everything as the typical achievement of the hero king else without labour. Comp. G. 1. 131. of the descendants of Trojans. There also may be a reference, as Heyne re- 37–47.] When he is grown to manmarks, to the honey sometimes found in the hood, even commerce will cease, for everyhollows of trees (G. 2. 453), as there is in thing will grow everywhere; nature will the parallel passage, Hor. Epod. 16. 47, supply the place, not only of industry, but “ Mella cava manant ex ilice,” as if this of artificial civilization : so the Fates orwould happen everywhere under the new dain.' order of things, and this is supported by 38.] Vector,' the passenger,' which

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Mutabit merces : omnis feret omnia tellus.
Non rastros patietur humus, non vinea falcem;
Robustus quoque iam tauris iuga solvet arator;
Nec varios discet mentiri lana colores,
Ipse sed in pratis aries iam suave rubenti
Murice, iam croceo mutabit vellera luto;
Sponte sua sandyx pascentis vestiet agnos.
Talia saecla, suis dixerunt, currite, fusis
Concordes stabili fatorum numine Parcae.
Adgredere o magnos—aderit iam tempus-honores,

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seems to be its sense where it is used of substance ; Serv. calls it a plant, and some maritime carriage. “Et ipse,' much more have had the bad taste to think that these the sailor in a ship of war.

lambs of the golden age were to be turned 39.] . Mutat merces' of a merchant, scarlet by feeding on that plant. Bentley Hor. 1 S. 4. 29. "Omnis,' &c.: comp. wished to read nascentis, which seems G. 1. 63., 2. 109 notes. Virg. doubtless to show that he did not understand in copies Hesiod, Works, 236 foll., who says pratis.' of his upright nation, ουδ' επι νηών Νίσ- 46.] *Talia saecla,' 'o blessed ages,' σονται, καρπόν δε φέρει ζείδωρος αρουρα. which perhaps might be expressed in prose,

40.] We seem to have gathered from vv. •Cum talia sitis, currite.' This use of 31 foll. that even after nature has begun to • talia' in the vocative may be compared to return to the freedom and spontaneity of the vocative use of oúros, e. g. Soph. Oed. the golden age, man will still continue to Col. 1627, ώ ούτος, ούτος, Οιδίπους, τι deal with her by force. We are now told mélojev Xwpzīv; Virgil clearly had in his that in the full development of her gracious mind Catull. (62) 64. 326, “Sed vos, quae bounty such violence will, as it were, die a fata sequuntur Currite ducentes subtemina, natural death, the same change which re- currite, fusi,” though he has as usual varied leases the sea and the seaman from traffic the expression, making the Fates address releasing the earth and the husbandman the ages, though they talk to the spindles. from tillage.

The process in each case seems to be merely 41.] One or two MSS. have robustis,' that of ordaining the particular destiny, as which Forb. adopts; but robustus ' is sup- a thing to come. So επικλώθειν is used in ported by Lucr. 5. 933., 6. 1253,“ robustus Hom. for ordaining. The attempt of the curvi moderator aratri.” In either case the later editors, after Cerda, to bring Virg. epithet is sufficiently natural, and cannot be more into conformity with Catullus by called merely ornamental, as the force em- making talia saecla' the acc. after ployed indicates the difficulty of the labour. rere' is exceedingly harsh. Comp. G. 1. 63., 2. 38, 238, 260 foll., 355 47.] The Parcae that utter in concert foll. notes. It signifies little whether “tauris' the fixed will of fate. For a similar use of be taken as dat. or abl. Both are suffi- numine' comp. A. 2. 123, “ Quae sint ea ciently supported; and the difference in numina divom Flagitat.” Numen fatorum' sense between the two cases in such a con- is so far a pleonasm that either word might nection seems scarcely ascertainable. have been used without the other in nearly

44.) We may either take mutabit' for the same sense. For the line generally 'fucabit,' or in its common sense—will Serv. comp. Hor. Carm. Saec. 25 foll. In change (the colour of) his fleece for (oróinto') the Ciris, v. 125, there is a line “ Concordes purple and yellow.' • In pratis' is the stabili firmarunt numine Parcae." same as “pascentis,' v. 45—the live sheep 48—59.] 'Let him assume his thronein the field, opposed to the fleece in the the whole world waits for him with expechands of the dyer. The country will en- tant longing. O may I live long enough joy the advantages of luxury without its to tell of his glories! The theme would artificial concomitants, from which it rightly at once exalt me above all poets, human shrinks. G. 2. 465.

or divine.' 45.] Sandyx,' scarlet.' The sandyx' 48.] So Augustus is addressed G. 1. 42. is described by Pliny (35. 6) as a mineral “Magnos honores' is explained by Voss of

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Cara deum suboles, magnum Iovis incrementum !
Aspice convexo nutantem pondere mundum,

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Terrasque tractusque maris caelumque profundum,
Aspice, venturo laetantur ut omnia saeclo!
O mihi tam longae maneat pars ultima vitae,
Spiritus et, quantum sat erit tua dicere facta :
Non me carminibus vincet nec Thracius Orpheus,
Nec Linus, huic mater quamvis atque huic pater adsit,
Orphei Calliopea, Lino formosus Apollo.
Pan etiam, Arcadia mecum si iudice certet,
Pan etiam Arcadia dicat se iudice victum.
Incipe, parve puer, risu cognoscere matrem:

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the successive magistracies at Rome, which nected in sense with maneat.' He might is possible, however frigid it may seem to either have said .O si vita tam longa sit our taste.

quantum,' or “O si vitae pars ultima ma49.] ‘Deum' is used generally, as. Aeneas neat, quantum,' but he has chosen to say is called • deum certissima proles,' A. 6. both. So 'spiritus’ would be more natu322. • Iovis incrementum' appears to be rally coupled with vita’ than with 'pars a singular expression. The word is seldom ultima vitae.' applied to a person, and it is elsewhere 54.] 'Spiritus' expresses both breath' used with a gen. of that of which it is the and 'poetical inspiration,' the latter as in beginning or rudiment, as in Ov.M.3. 103. Hor. 4 Od. 6. 29. • Tua dicere facta' for

50.] Mundum,' the starry heaven, with ad dicenda tua facta.' The poets and its massy dome (convexo pondere).' Heyne later writers, following the Greeks, often well remarks that the world is moved at the use the infinitive where good prose writers coming of this divine boy as a sanctuary is would employ a different form of words. moved at the coming of its god. See A. 3. See 5. 1 note, and Key's Lat. Gram. 1255. 90., 6. 256, “Sub pedibus mugire solum 55.] *Non-nec:' the main clause being et iuga coepta moveri Silvarum visaeque divided, a second negative is introduced canes ululare per umbram Adventante dea." with each of the clauses into which it is Forb. rightly rejects the explanation of divided. Key, 1412.

Orpheus :' he Heyne and others, • Aspice mundum &c. naturally chooses mythic poets to contrast ut laetantur,' observing that nutantem' is with himself as the bard of the new golden equivalent to 'ut nutat.'

age. 51.] 'Caelum profundum,' " the azure 57.) Orphei’ (Oppéï, Oppei) occurs deep of air,” Gray ; but this is scarcely again G. 4. 545, 553. Calliopea,' Kallióclassical. • Profundus,' like 'altus' and Trela, another form of Calliope, occurring Badúc, means 'high' as well as deep.' “Sil- also Prop. 1. 2. 58, Ov. F. 5. 80. •Forvae profundae,” Lucr. 5. 41, A. 7. 515. mosus,' a perpetual epithet like 'pulcher The line occurs again G. 4. 222.

Apollo,' A. 3. 119. 52.] The common reading is laetentur.' 58.] The Arcadians would be competent • Laetantur' was restored as more poetical judges (10. 31), as well as partial to their by Heyne. Both are admissible: Bent. on god Pan. Hor. Ep. 1. 1. 91. Aspice ut’ in this 59.] As might be expected, some MSS. passage is merely a rhetorical way of making have dicet.' à direct statement, the proper mood for 60–63.] 'Let him smile on his mother : which is the indicative : there is no real she deserves it: and without her smile he appeal to the mind of a second person as in can never come to honour.' A. 8. 384, “ Aspice qui coeant populi, quae 60.] These last four lines are very obscure, moenia clausis Ferrum acuant portis in me particularly 63 and 64. No doubt they conexcidiumque meorum.”

tain the poet's prayer for the speedy appear53.] There is here a confusion of expres- ance of the young deliverer. Heyne, Wund., sion, owing to the number of predicates and Voss, after Julius Sabinus, understand crowded into the sentence. • Quantum' risu' of the mother's smile, by which the refers to tam longae,' but it is also con- boy is bidden to recognize her, appealing to

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Matri longa decem tulerunt fastidia menses ;
Incipe, parve puer: cui non risere parentes,
Nec deus hunc mensa, dea nec dignata cubili est.

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v. 62. So far however from necessitating sufficiently supported by Plaut. Capt. 3. 1. such an interpretation, v. 62 will scarcely 21, where some notion of mockery is doubtagree with it, as the words there imply that less intended, as it is a parasite that is the parents have not yet smiled. Besides, speaking. We must suppose then with the command to recognize the mother by Voss that Quinct. found quoi' in his copy, her smile is very flat, especially when re- and read it 'qui' rather than cui.' peated in the second • Incipe,' as Wagn. re- 61.] . Longa fastidia,' i. q. taedia.' • Fas. marks, and the construction ‘risu cognos- tidium ferre and afferre occur elsewhere, cere' harsh. “Risu,' then, is the smile of Quinct. 5. 14, Cic. Mur. 9. 21. Ten the child opening its eyes on its mother, months was recognized by the Roman law who is supposed (v. 62) not to smile on it as the period of gestation. The writers of till it has smiled on her-a natural enough some MSS., not knowing that tulerunt,'

argumentum ad infantem.'. A remarkable 'stetěrunt,' &c. are recognized by the gramvarious reading of v. 62 is preserved by marians, give ' tulerint,' or 'tulerant.' Quinctilian (9.3), 'qui non risere parentes,' 62.] · Delay no longer ; if thou dost, thou the point of his quotation being the change wilt forfeit the love of thy parents, who of number as exemplified in .qui' followed are already weary with waiting, and a child by hunc.' But though the sense would whom his parents do not love can never agree well with risu cognoscere,' as just become a hero or enjoy the rewards of a explained, the transition from 'qui' to hero'-like Hercules, who (Hom. Od. 11. hunc' would be inexcusably harsh in a 601) Metálavárolol Otoioi Tép tetal év simple passage, and the construction ‘ri• Daniys vai čxel kalliopupov "HBnv. Comp. dere aliquem,' to smile on a person,' is not also Hor. 4 d. 8. 30.

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MENALCAS invites Mopsus, a somewhat younger shepherd, to play and sing. Mopsus complies with a funeral song on Daphnis, the ideal shepherd. Menalcas matches it by a corresponding song on Daphnis' apotheosis. They praise each other, and exchange gifts.

In the introduction, which contrasts with that to Ecl. 3, being an interchange of courtesies, not of scurrilities, Virgil follows the first Idyl of Theocritus : in the form of the singing match, the sixth and ninth, as also to a certain extent in the conclusion. The subject of the songs too bears a relation to the first Idyl, where Thyrsis sings of the dying hours of Daphnis, a hero of pastoral mythology, the beloved of the nymphs, and the victim of the wrath of Aphrodite. The story, which is very variously related, seems to have been taken up by Virgil where the other narrators dropped it. This of itself favours the notion that Daphnis is intended to represent some other person, as otherwise there would seem to be no object in imagining an apotheosis for him. If we are to seek for any such person there can be little doubt that it must be the dictator Caesar, an opinion which seems to have prevailed in the time of Servius, though he mentions that others fixed on Virgil's brother Flaccus, or on Quinctilius Varus, while others again thought merely of the mythical Daphnis. The apotheosis would be extravagant in the case of a private individual, but it answers sufficiently well to the honours recently decreed to Caesar, the placing of his statue in the temple of Venus Genetrix, the change of the name of the month Quintilis to Julius, and the commemoration of his birthday in the calendar. In the preceding Eclogue Virgil has shown himself disposed to celebrate political and social regeneration under pastoral images (a parallel which lends a faint plausibility to a notion mentioned by Philargyrius, that Daphnis stands for the ill-fated infant Saloninus): in Ecl. 9. 46, which the mention of Daphnis, though only as a shepherd, slightly connects with the present poem, he displays his sympathy with Caesar in particular as the shepherd's supposed patron. This symbolizing is merely a result of the identification of the poet with the shepherd, discussed in the Introduction to the Eclogues, persons and things affecting the former being described as affecting the latter, just as Gallus in Ecl. 10, being the shepherd poet's friend, is made a shepherd himself, so that in maintaining it we are not, as Keightley thinks, committed to the position “that Virgil, who was perhaps the least original poet of antiquity, was the inventor of a new species of poetry.” At the same time we need not be anxious with Servius to find a meaning in every detail, as if the lions and tigers stood for the nations subdued by Caesar, or the lovely flock which Daphnis fed for the Roman people.

The date of the Eclogue can only be fixed with reference to Ecl. 2 and 3 (see v. 86), but it may be conjectured that it was written soon after the order by the triumvirs for the commemoration of Caesar's birthday, in 712. Virgil seems to identify himself with Menalcas, as in Ecl. 9, though there is no dramatic distinction between the two shepherds. Servius, however, finds a historical counterpart for Mopsus in Aemilius Macer, a poet of Verona.

The scenery is again from Theocritus.
For the structure of the poem see Introduction to Ecl. 8.

Me. Cur non, Mopse, boni quoniam convenimus ambo,
Tu calamos inflare levis, ego dicere versus,
Hic corylis mixtas inter considimus ulmos ?
No. Tu maior ; tibi me est aequum parere, Menalca,
Sive sub incertas Zephyris motantibus umbras,
Sive antro potius succedimus. Aspice, ut antrum

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1-18.] ‘Me. Suppose we play and sing 3.] Consedimus' was the old reading. in the shade here? Mo. Or the cave • Considimus was restored by Heinsius. perhaps. Me. You have but one rival. The perfect would not be absurd, as Voss Mo. And he would rival Apollo. Me. thinks, since it might answer to the Greek Begin one of your favourite subjects. aorist, which is used idiomatically in quesMo. I have a new poem, which I would tions of the kind : e. g. Aesch. Prom. 747, match against any of my rival's. Me. Do Soph. Oed. T. 1002: the present however not think of him. I should never compare appears to be usual in Latin, as Plaut. him with you.'

Amph. 1. 1. 253, “Cur non introeo in 1.] ‘Menalcas' is Virgil, both here (vv.86, nostram domum ?" Cic. 2 Fam. Ep. 7, 87) and in Ecl. 9, as Tityrus was in Ecl. 1. “Cur ego non adsum?” So the use of Theocr. 8. 3, "Aμφω συρίστεν δεδαη- 'quin.' uévw, äuow ácidev. With boni' in the 5.] •Motantibus' is the reading of the sense of skilled,' Forb, comp. A. 9. 572, better MSS. and Serv., and is itself more • Hic jaculo bonus.' · Boni ... inflare,' poetical. Heyne has ‘mutantibus.' We find like 'praestantior ... ciere,' A. 6. 164: but * succedere sub' Caes. B. G. 1. 24 (where it similar Grecisms abound in Virgil. They means to go up a hill), like. ascendere ad,' may be explained by regarding the infinitive but probably Virgil in writing v. 5 meant as a noun: see note on G. 1. 213.

some other word to follow sub umbras.' 2.) So in Theocr. l. 1, Thyrsis is 6.] Mopsus modestly suggests that the skilled in singing, the goatherd in piping. cave would be preferable.

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