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Mortalia, for res mortalium, 83, 280 Nescia fallere vita, 243
Mountains, the natural home of wild beasts, Nescis, quid vesper serus vehat, 189

66 : representations of, carried in tri- Nexus and nixus confounded, 323
umph, 255

Nicander, Virgil's possible obligations to,
Mounting a horse, ancient manner of, 259 62, 127 foll. : his various works and lite-
Μουσοπάτακτος, 244

rary character, 127 foll. : legend borrowed
Mulsum, 180, 313

from, 285
Multa nocte, 322

Nidus, uses of, 305
Munus, of funeral honours, 359: munere Niger, of sand, 335
perhaps like χάριν, ib.

Nigidius Figulus, quotation from, by Ser.
Munuscula, gifts for children, 49

vius, 47
Mure, Colonel, his opinions about Hesiod, Nihil est quod, 40
118 foll.

Niphates, whether a river, 254
Musa, the song personified, 20

Nitere, of the effect of cultivation, 159, 215
Muses, goddesses of memory, 74

Nitrum, 164
Mussare, senses of, 322

Nola, Virgil's quarrel with, 217
Myrtle associated with bay, 34: connexion Non for ne 189, 264

of with Venus, 78, 147: use of its ber- Non-non-et, 246
ries, 176

Nonne vides, a Lucretian expression, 150,
Myrtos and myrtus, 72

260
Nostri, genitive plural of nos, 100

Novalis or novale, senses of, 28
N.

Novellus and its deriratives, technical

meaning of, 37

Novendiale, 361
Naiads, number of, 345

Novus = repentinus, 342
Nam, in interrogations, 95, 351

Nox concubia, 170
- and namque, their respective positions Nubilarium, 162
in prose and poetry, 21

Νυκτός άωρί, 170
Namque like nempe, 236

Numbers, odd, superstition about them, 87
Names, lists of, in heroic poetry, 340 Numen, of the will of the gods, 51 : of the
Napaeae, 360

infernal powers, 357
Narcissus, with purple calyx, 57: time of Numerosus hortus, 224
its flowering, 315

Numerus, of a multitude, 77: of the place
Nare, of sailing, 357

of an individual, 327
Natantes, substantive, 299

Nunc, contrasting an actual state with a
Natura, shades of meaning of, 197, 200, hypothesis, 103, 200
212, 318

· sarcastically used with an imperative,
Nature, external images derived from 28
changes in its course, 26

-, external, its sympathy with men, Nunquam hodie, colloquial use of, 40
how represented in the Eclogues, 15, 16 Nursery for vines, 221 : for their supporters,
Navia, 171

ib.
Ne-quidem and nec- - quidem, 157, 301 Nutriri deponent, 239
Nec vero, 323

Nuts, use of at weddings, 82
Necdum, not simply for nondum, 93 Nux, of the almond or the walnut, 163
Nectar, of wine, 345

Nymphs, festival of, associated with the
Negatives, repetition of, 52, 56

Ambarvalia, 9
Nemesianus (M. Aurelius Olympius), whe-

offer flowers as goddesses of
ther the real author of the Bucolics springs, 33: patronesses of song, 74,
ascribed to him, 108 foll. : their subjects 99, 100: take part in the chase, 105:
and character, J 13 foll. : characteristics interchange of their functions, 341 :
and specimens of his Cynegetica, 373 dances of, 360

foll. : Ixeutica attributed to him, 375
Nemus, of a plantation, 64,77, 226, 228, 236
Nepotes, only of descendants, 218

0.
Neptune, legends about his production of a
horse, 262

O final, not generally shortened by Tirgil,
Neque in the sense of ne quidem, 45

43, 83
enim, 205

for au, 83
(nec)-neu, 289

· ubi, &c., 245
Nequiquam or nequidquam? 154

Oaxes and Araxes confused, 27

age, 318

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Oaxes probably a river of Crete, 27

Palaemon the grammarian, 40
Oaxus or Axus in Crete, 27

Palatine, the hill of Romulus, 193
Obambulare, with dative, 299

Paleness of southerns is yellow, 34
Oblitus, passive, 96

Pales, associated with Apollo Nomios, 9,
Obniti, of butting, 272

57, 252
Obnoxius, 'beholden,' 185

Paliurus, 57
Obstruere and obsuere, 336

Pallas, the patroness of fortresses, 35
Ocean, Homeric notion of, 207, 328: parent Palma, what, 253
of all things, 345

Palmes, the bearing-wood of the vine, 204
Octavianus, (C. Julius Caesar,) deification Pampinatio, 238

of, 20 : ovations and triumph of, 193: Pan, a formidable personage, 101 : a patron
progress of after the battle of Actium, of bees, 102: legends of, 285
255, 363

Panchaei ignes, 315
Oceanitis, 340

Panchaia, for Arabia, 208
Oeaxis, a name of Crete, 27

Pandere, a favourite word with Lucretius,
Oebalia, of Tarentum, 315

333
Offringere, of a second ploughing, 154 Pandus, 214
Old age and winter, 163

Parcere with dative, 229
Oleaster, ancient and modern different, 212 Parcus, an epithet of bees, 144
Olim cum, ubi, &c., 237

Parsley used for garlands, 69
Olive treated very slightly in Georgic ii., Parthenope, ancient name of Naples, 364

195 : slow growth of, 196 : varieties of, Parthians, Antonius'expedition against, 194:
203 : long life of, 212: used to support recovery of the standards from, 255 : re-
the vine, 226: sacrificial wreath of, 254 verence of, for royalty, 325: their ar-
--wood, staff of, carried by shepherds, chery, 337
81 : its retentiveness of vegetative power, Parthini, Pollio's victory over, 79
198

Participle, past, with a present force, 165,
wild, affords fodder for cattle, 226 175, 180 : as a substantive, 236
Olus, gardenstuff, 316

present, as a finite verb, 208 : as
Omina and omnia confused, 291

a substantive, 210, 264: instead of an
Onager, 287

aorist, 358
Operari, of sacrifice, 180

Partum, 176
Optare, senses of, 199

Pascere, whether for pasci, 264: pasci with
Orae, of the entrances of the hive, 307, 322 accusative, 279
Orbis, military sense of, 311: of the sun's Passum, 204
path through the sky, 168, 350

Pastinatio, 215, 221
Orchădes, orchites, 203

Pastor, one of the farm slaves, 29
Ordine, 'in turn,' or 'in course,' 344 Pastoral poetry, 2 foll.
Oriens, the rising sun, 170

Pater, a title of the Roman gods generally,
Oriental royalty, 325

196
Orithyia, 353

Patera, 213
Ornus, what, 202

Pati absolutely, 104
Os, of a mask, 235

Patria, perhaps of a hamlet, 248
Oscillum, 235

Patronymic form extended to sisters, 68 :
Osculum, senses of, 249

Greek, combined with Roman family-
Otium, of peace, 20, 364
Ovid, avoids eliding long vowels after the Pause in a verse justifies metrical licences,

first foot, 109 : his Metamorphoses, mo- 24, 34: after first foot, 279
dels on which they may have been formed, Pausia, 203
118: his account of Orpheus and Eury- Pax, of reconciliation with the gods, 360
dice, 353 foll. : supposed fragments of Pears, time for grafting, 96
his Halieutica, 375 : his style not equal | Pecten, 175
to Virgil's or Horace's, 14

Pectinatio, 155
Ox, impiety of slaying, 250

Pecuaria = pecora, 257
Oxen, white, priestess Juno drawn by, Peculium, what, 23
298

Pedes ducunt and similar expressions, 91
Pedum, 61

Pelethronian wood, 262
P.

Pellacia, meaning of, 351

Pellaeus, of things Egyptian, 334
Paestum, rosaries of, 315

Pendere, of the roof of a cave, 344
Paganalia, 234

Penei, disyllable, 342

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name, 211

Per equivalent to inter, 169: per flumina, Poles to support vines, 172
353

Pollio (C. Asinius), his relation to the 4th
Perducere and producere, not synonymous, , Eclogue, 46 : to the 8th, 79
28

Pomum, what it includes, 34, 96, 201
Pererrare, singular use of, 26

Ponere, of planting in order, 174: 'to
Perfect, of instantaneous action, 149, 179, shed,' 237: of dropping young, 219
202 : aoristic, 216

Pontiffs concluded special prayers with ge-
Pergere, senses of, 64

neral invocation, 147
περίακτοι, 254

Pontus, its reputation for poisons, 88
Permittere, construction of, with infinitive, Pools, sources of rivers, 343
21

Pope, his discourse on Pastoral Poetry, 13 :
Pernix, sense of, 272: confused with per- remark from his Postscript to the Odys-

nox, ib.

sey, 321

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Perseus and Andromeda, description of, by Poplar sacred to Hercules, 78, 201
Manilius, 368

white, 95
Persian royalty, 325

Poppies, connexion of, with Ceres, 166 :
Personification of a field, 150, 152, 153: offered to the dead, 361

personification and metaphor, 293 ποππίζειν, 267
Persuadere with active and passive infini. Populi, races or clans, 304
tive, 227

Possum, ' I can, but I will not,' 162
Pessimist feeling in Virgil, 164, 258, 304, Post in the sense of posthac, 27
330

Postquam, different tenses joined with, 23
Petere with ablative, 247

Praesens, of a god or other protector, 24,
Petulcus, 304

207
Phaethon, a name of the sun, 68

Praetorium, 311
Pharsalia and Philippi, whether confounded, Praise, extravagant, supposed to provoke the
192

jealousy of the gods, 74
Phaselus or faselus, 168

Preciae, grapes so called, 204
Philosophy, ancient conceptions of, as a Premere, of planting or sowing, 230, 316 :
poet's province, 62, 244

a hunting term, 287
Philyra and Saturn, 260

Prendere, of oxen or horses, 174, 270
Physical degeneration of mankind, 193 Present, of words signifying to beget' or
Picea, 240

• bring forth,' in a perfect sense, 83, 174
Pilum, the Roman weapon, 193

Pressus, of a heavy-laden ship, 176: presso
Pine sacred to Pan, 74: when to cut down, gutture, 185
171

Priapus, statues of, generally of wood, 75
Pingue and adeps, 263

Primus, various rhetorical forces of, 24, 48,
Pinguis caseus, a cream cheese, 23

63: with infinitive, 316
Pipers at sacrifices, 214

Priscian, character and specimen of the
Pisces, zodiacal sign of, put for winter, 328 poem attributed to him, “ De ponderibus
Pitch, use of, to the husbandman, 173

et mensuris,” 376
Planets animated by individual souls, 327 Prizes in different kinds of poetry, 43
Plangere, intransitive, 179

Pro tempore, 75
Plantare, plantarium, 198

Procedere, of the rising of a star, 96
Pleiades, setting of, 167, 328 : rising of, 328 Procne, legend of, 70, 305
Plenus = repletus, 322

Procubare, 264
Pleonasm, 103

Profundus, of height, 52
Plias or Pleias, 328

z poyévelos, meaning of, 82
Plough, by whom invented, 147: various Proles, 'breed,' 260
parts of, 161 foll.

Promptum est with dative, 220
Ploughing to begin as soon as winter is Pronoun with substantive referring generally

over, 149 : how often it took place, ib. : to the sense of the preceding sentence,
September, 151 : ploughing without the 179, 341 : possessive, and epithet, 209 :
upper garment, 176: in the vineyard, 231 of a person afterwards defined by sub-
Plural verbs substituted for singular in MSS., stantive, 353
65

Pronouns used instead of corresponding ad-
Plurimus qualifying a verb, 163

verbs, 25, 100, 259
Po, swiftness of, 241, 344, 399 : gold found Properatus = propere, 164
in, 344

Properare and maturare, 171
Pocula, of a pair of cups, 39 : of a draught, Propertius, his language about Virgil, 4,
as if from a cup, 82, 284

72: his fondness for mythological allu-
Pole of a waggon, 266

sions, 259

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Prophecy not restricted to knowledge of the Rainbow supposed to draw up moisture,
future, 346

183
Propolis, 307

Rams, points of, 285
Proprius, 'permanent,' 75

Ranunculus Sardous, 76
Proscaenium, 234

Rapax, of a river, 264
Proscindere, of a first ploughing, 154 Rapere, intransitive, 258
Proserpine classed with Bacchus, 115 Rapidus, “violent,' equivalent to rapax, 30,
Prosubigere, 274

185, 209, 228, 331, 349
Proteus, legends and theories concerning,

supposed use of, with a genitive, 27
346

Rapin, his poem on gardening, 318
Protinus or protenus, 21

Raptim, meaning of, 185, 239
Psithia, 204, 332

Rarus =

: panctilis, 316
Pudet, pudor, of moderation or regard for Rastrum, a rake, 154
others, 76, 152

Ravens, omens from, 92
Puer, of a slave, 24

Reaping, most common mode of, 153
Pulli, pulluli, of suckers, 197

Receptare, possible force of the frequenta-
Pulveratio, 238

tive, 180
Purpureus, meanings of, 57, 95, 309, 344 : Red, Greek and Roman gods sometimes
a name of a kind of grape, 204

painted, 102
Purus, of the sky, 95, 232

Reddere, sacrificial use of, 214
Putris, of soil, 215

Redit, &c., of the recurring order of nature,
Pyrrha and Deucalion perhaps regarded by 170 : of a mountain, 282
Virgil as the creators of man, 67

Reeds, number of used to make a pipe, 32
Referre, of recurrence, 180, 188 : of paying

a due, 180
Q.

Refingere, 324

Refrains in Theocritus and Virgil, 81
Quadrigae, properly of horses, 275

Regere, of directing a way, 168
Quae semper, 25

Reiicere, technical sense of, 44
Quaerere, of fruitless search, 298
Quam, omission of, after plus, amplius, &c., Relative clause, second verb in, not regu-

Reins, passed round the driver's body, 261
325

larly constructed, 215, 233
magis, 279
Que, disjunctive, 203, 208, 227 : transposed, Relictus, of unappropriated land, 315

Relegatio, 270
206 : position of, in Virgil, 273

Relinere, of opening casks, 327
Question, double, 220

Renidere, 224
Qui and cui confused, 53

Repetition of noun or verb equivalent to
and quis, distinction between, 22

repetition of copulative, 48 : of lines in
equivalent to si quis, 258

Virgil, 207 : in heroic poetry, 362
Quid and quod after non habeo, 29

Reponere, of repaying, 215: crura, 258 :
dicam, 155

in connexion with feasts, 297, 345
qui, &c., 95, 274
si with conjunctive, 55

Requiescere, active use of, 80
Quidam without reference to a real indi. Rerum, possibly 'in the world,' 250, 351

Rescindere, of breaking open, 174
vidual, 175

Reservoirs, artificial, 243
Quidem nearly ye, 216
Quies with genitive, 322

Resistere, restare, meaning of, 349

Resonare alcyonen, &c., 281
Quinctilian, readings in Virgil preserved
by, 21, 53 : his chapter on Greek and Revocari, of a restored race, 333

Respondere, absolutely, 201
Roman authors, 127

Rex, vague use of, 45, 247
Quincunx, 223, 224
Quirinus the representative of the Roman Rhoetus and 'Rhoecus, 242

Rhaetic wire, 204
nation, 254

Rhythm, Greek, imitations of, 174, 188
Quirites, of others than Romans, 323

Ribbeck, his notion of strophical symmetry
Quod superest, 230, 308

in the Eclogues, 18
Quondam, meaning of, 331

Ridere aliquem, sense of, 53
Quoniam, of time, 350

River for the inhabitants of the country

where it flows, 217, 325
R.

Rivers in Italy almost dry in summer, 178

Rivus, its legal definition, 45
Radius, 39

Robigalia (Rubigalia), 159
Radii (olives), 203

Robur with genitive, 160

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Rocks, savage men supposed to be born | Scindere, of ploughing, 236
from, 83

Scire, of bearing witness, 292
Roes, fondness of, for vines, 233

Scirocco, 35
Roman imitation of Greek literature, 4 Scorpion originally occupied two places in

poets boast of originality, 4, 62, the zodiac, 148
149, 212, 255, 278

Scrobs, 217: and sulcus, 225
Rooks apt to forget their young, 186 Scyllas, legends about the two identified or
Rosea, plains of, their fertility, 215

confused, 70
Rota orbis, 355

Scythia for the north generally, 169
Rubens, vague use of, 170: of spring, 227, Sea, rise of in connexion with earthquakes,
336

245
Rubeus, adjective of rubus, 172

Sea-calves, 347, 350
Rudere, of various animals, 284

Secret milking a legal offence, 37
Ruere, uses of, 155, 226 : portis, 322 Secreta, “the retreat,' 347
Rumpere se, 188: rumpi = rumpere, 275 Secundus, of that which is nearly equal,
Runcatio, 237

33
Rural deities of Italy, 147

Seges, of a field, 96, 149, 237: of land for
life, sacred associations of, 159, 161 sowing, 316
Rursum generally found only before a vowel, Semina, of young plants, 222, 226, 227,
105 : * on the other hand,' 202

231
Rursus, of a change, 293

Seminarium, 221
Ruscus, 238

Seneca, reading in Virgil preserved by, 170:
Rust produced by earth or iron, 216

the tragedian, a passage from Manilius

compared to, 368

Senex, of a person who lived long ago, 69
S.

Sentinels, Roman, how appointed, 320

Septem triones, 284
Sabellians, tribes included under the name, Septuma post decumam, the seventeenth,
211

174
Sabines, hardy life of, 249

Sequax, 233
Sacer ignis, 301

Sequi, where there is nothing to follow, 226
Saeculum (seculum) may perhaps be ren- Serenity produced by a rural life, 247
dered by . society,' 193

Serenus Sammonicus, character and speci.
Saepe videre, 181

mens of his ‘De Medicina Praecepta,'
Saepta in the sense of ovilia, 23

376
Salire, of the veins, 291

Servare, senses of, 345, 353
Saliunca, 55

Servatus, of reaching home safely, 187
Salt given to sheep, 285

Service-berries, drink made from, 284
Saltus, 68

Seven hills of Rome, 250
Sand, infinite number compared to, 205 : Severus Sanctus, his poem, ' De mortibus
at the bottom of the sea, 273

boum,' 1 16
Sandyx, 51

Shades, how governed, 357
Sαρα, 175

Sheep, diseases of, 289 : ointment for, 290
Sarcire, of repairing buildings, 330 Shepherd and poet identified in the
Sarmentum, 237

Eclogues, 11, 69, 98: in the Greek
Satirical talent of Virgil, 38

writers, 11
Satis from satum, 147, 155, 239, 240 Shepherds in the Eclogues, social position
Satur, of rich land, 214: of colour, 339 of, 9
Saturium, 214

speaking in assumed characters,
Saturn in Capricorn supposed to cause rain, 43, 75
180

Short syllable lengthened where there is no
how represented, 237

pause in the sense, 352
Saturnian verse, 235

Si in adjurations, 145
Saw, by whom invented, 158

on the chance that,' 95
Scaena, two kinds of, 254

modo, 338
Scaliger, J. C., his Virgilian enthusiasm, Sibylline verses, account of, 47
281, 297

Sic in adjurations, 94
Sceleratus, half playful use of, 220

Sicyon famous for olives, 248
Scenery, Romans insensible to, 104, 297 Silenus, legends about, 62
Schneider, O., his edition of Nicander, 127 Siler, 197
foll.

Silex used in paving roads, 21
Scilicet, use of, 174, 250

Silk, opinion of the Romans about, 206

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