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Quem fugis, ah, demens? habitarunt di quoque silvas 60
Dardaniusque Paris. Pallas, quas condidit arces,
Ipsa colat; nobis placeant ante omnia silvae.
Torva leaena lupum sequitur; lupus ipse capellam ;
Florentem cytisum sequitur lasciva capella;

Te Corydon, o Alexi: trahit sua quemque voluptas.
Aspice, aratra iugo referunt suspensa iuvenci,
Et sol crescentis decedens duplicat umbras:
Me tamen urit amor; quis enim modus adsit amori ?
Ah, Corydon, Corydon, quae te dementia cepit !
Semiputata tibi frondosa vitis in ulmo est.
Quin tu aliquid saltem potius, quorum indiget usus,

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60.] Quem fugis' may be for 'cur me fugis?' (see on 1. 54), or the meaning may be 'You know not whom you avoid in avoiding me,' like "nec qui sim quaeris," v. 19. 61.] Athens was the only city that Minerva founded, though in the elder Greek mythology it seems she was the goddess of fortresses in general, and hence called poíπτολις, ἀλαλκομενηΐς, πολιάς, πυλιοῦχος, ἀκραία, ἀκρία, κληδοῦχος, πυλαῖτις. See Dict. Biog. Athena. Corydon prefers the country to Athens, the noblest of cities. We should remember that he is a Greek.

62.] Ipsa colat,' 'let her have them to herself.' Placeant,' 'let me love the country,' for 'let me enjoy it;'-a natural expression, since the love is essential to the enjoyment. It occurs again G. 2. 485, "Rura mihi et rigui placeant in vallibus amnes, Flumina amem silvasque inglorius." 63.] Every creature pursues that for which it hungers: I pursue thee.' Theocr. 10. 30, ̔Α αΐξ τὸν κύτισον, ὁ λύκος τὴν αἶγα διώκει, Α γέρανος τὠροτρον· ἐγὼ δ ̓ ἐπὶ Tiv μeμávnμai. Ipse,' in his turn.'



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68.] My love does not cool with evening, or end with the long summer-day.' Both notions seem to be implied. With the first comp. vv. 8—13, where, as here, it is hinted, not directly expressed, with the second, Hor. 2 Od. 9. 10 foll. " nec tibi Vespero Surgente decedunt amores, Nec rapidum fugiente Solem."

69-73.] 'This is madness. I will return to my neglected business, and trust to find another love.'

70.] Both the half-pruned vine and the over-leafy elm would be signs of negligence. Comp. G. 2. 410, “ Bis vitibus ingruit umbra." An unpruned vine was a great scandal in ancient husbandry. Hor. 1 S. 7. 31. Voss, reviving a notion of Serv., sees an allusion to an alleged superstition, that to drink of the wine of an unpruned vine caused madness, Numa having forbidden libations to be made from such wine, to show that the gods did not approve of the slothful husbandman-so that this would be another rustic proverb; but whatever may be the value of the illustration, not only the context, but the words themselves show that Corydon is simply taxing himself with a neglect of common duty.


71.] At least try to do some basketwork;' one of the home occupations of the husbandman, G. 1. 266. These lines are copied from Theocr. 11. 72 foll. Saltem,' 'at least,' if you cannot go about harder work. So in 10. 71, the poet makes a

66. For similar versions or variations of Bovλvróc, see Hor. 3 Od. 6. 43, and Epod. 2. 63, "Videre fessos vomerem inversum boves Collo trahentis languido." Iugo referunt,' 'draw home.' "Versa iugo refe

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THIS Eclogue is a specimen of a rustic singing-match, such as occurs in several of the Idyls of Theocritus, the fifth being that which Virgil had here chiefly in view. The somewhat coarse banter which precedes it is studied partly after the fifth, partly after the fourth Idyl. Other imitations will be found noticed in their places. The match itself is technically called Amoebaean singing (rendered by Virgil 'alternis,' or 'alternis versibus,' v. 59, 7. 18), the general principle of which seems to be that the second of the competitors should reply to the first in the same number of verses, and generally on the same or a similar subject. For further varieties see the Introduction to Eclogue 8. Here the challenger begins, as in Theocr. Idyls 6 and 8, though in Idyl 5 the contrary is the case.

Vives found an allegory in this Eclogue, Damoetas standing for Virgil and Menalcas for one of his rivals; but the poem is now universally agreed to be imaginary, in spite of the awkward introduction of the historical names of Pollio, Bavius, and Maevius. If anything, Menalcas is to be identified with Virgil, as would appear from the fifth and ninth Eclogues; but this cannot be pressed, nor need we follow those who, like Cerda, attempt to establish a difference in Menalcas' favour, contrary to Palaemon's verdict. The date, like that of Eclogue 2, can only be determined relatively to Eclogue 5. The scenery is again Sicilian, at least in part.

M. Dic mihi, Damoeta, cuium pecus? an Meliboei ?
D. Non, verum Aegonis; nuper mihi tradidit Aegon.
M. Infelix o semper, ovis, pecus! ipse Neaeram

1-31.] M. 'Whom are you keeping sheep for? D. Aegon. M. Poor sheep! their owner is hopelessly in love, and his hireling steals the milk. D. As if you had any right to taunt me ! M. Of course not; I cut Micon's vines. D. Broke Daphnis' bow and arrows, you mean. M. Well, I saw you steal Damon's goat. D. It was mine; I won it at a singing match. M. You! when you can't sing. D. I'll sing against you now for a calf.'

1.] Theocr. 4. 1, 2. Cuius,' -a, -um, oc

curs in Plaut. and Ter., but was obsolete in Virgil's time, as Cornificius' parody shows. It is used by Cic. Verr. 2. 1. 54, where the language is apparently that of a legal formula. The question implies that Damoetas is a mere hireling, 'alienus custos,' v. 5.

2.] Aegon's name is a taunt, because he is the rival of Menalcas, v. 4.

3.] Theocr. 4. 13. With the order of the words Burmann comp. G. 4. 168, "Ignavum, fucos, pecus a praesepibus arcent." Ipse,' your owner, Aegon. Catull. 3. 6, "Ñam

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Dum fovet, ac, ne me sibi praeferat illa, veretur,
Hic alienus ovis custos bis mulget in hora,
Et sucus pecori et lac subducitur agnis.

D. Parcius ista viris tamen obiicienda memento.
Novimus, et qui te, transversa tuentibus hircis,
Et quo-sed faciles Nymphae risere-sacello.
M. Tum, credo, cum me arbustum videre Miconis
Atque mala vitis incidere falce novellas.

D. Aut hic ad veteris fagos cum Daphnidis arcum
Fregisti et calamos: quae tu, perverse Menalca,
Et, cum vidisti puero donata, dolebas,

Et, si non aliqua nocuisses, mortuus esses.

M. Quid domini faciant, audent cum talia fures!
Non ego te vidi Damonis, pessime, caprum

mellitus erat (passer), suamque norat Ipsam tam bene quam puella matrem."

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4.] Fovet,' 'courts,' repeatedly used by Cicero in the sense of paying attention to a person: comp. its use in the sense of 'constant attendance,' e. g. "castra fovere," A. 9. 57.

5.] 'Twice an hour,' when twice a day would have been full measure, as Serv. remarks. The phrase is of course exaggerated but the offence of secret milking was a common one, punished by Justinian, Emmen. says, with whipping and loss of wages. The taunt is from Theocr. 4. 3.

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6.] The ewes are exhausted and the lambs starved.' Perhaps, as Voss thinks, he may mean the time before the lambs were weaned, when the ewes ought not to have been milked at all. Subducere' need only mean 'to withdraw,' as in Cic. Tusc. 2. 17,"subduc cibum unum diem athletae;" here however the additional notion of stealth is suggested by the context.

10.] Tum (risere ') :' 'credo,' ironical. A. 7. 297. Menalcas affects to charge himself with what Damoetas did. Arbustum,' a vineyard in which the vines were trained on trees, opposite to 'espaliers :' here the trees on which the vines were trained. 'Miconis vitis' are from Theocr. 5. 112.

11.] 'Mala falce,' like 'dolo malo,'' mala fraude,' 'malicious.' Tibull. 3. 5. 20, "Et modo nata mala vellere poma manu." Pliny, 17. 1, says that the laws of the Twelve Tables imposed a heavy fine for cutting another man's trees, 'iniuria.' 'Novellas' is emphatic, as the young vines ought not to have been touched with the knife at all, G.




2. 365. The word is a technical term in rural economy, being used in later Latin substantively for a young vine, while 'novello' means 'to plant young trees' (Suet. Dom. 7), and 'novelletum,' 'a nursery.'

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12.] Ad veteris fagos:' the same scenery as in 2. 3., 9. 9. The bow and arrows naturally belonged to a shepherd: see 2. 29 note.

13.] Perverse' equivalent to 'prave.' The passage is imitated from Theocr. 5. 12, τὸ δ ̓, ὦ κακέ, καὶ τόκ ̓ ἐτάκευ Βασκαίνων, καὶ νῦν με τὰ λοίσθια γυμνὸν ἔθηκας, which accounts for the repetition of 'et,' vv. 14, 15.

14.] The 'puer' is evidently Daphnis, not, as Heyne thinks, some boy to whom he gave the bow and arrows.

15.] Comp. 7.26.

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16.] Fures' is comic for 'servi.' Comp. Hor. I Ep. 6. 45, “ Exilis domus est ubi non et multa supersunt Et dominum fallunt et prosunt furibus." Comp. also the double meaning of the English 'knave' and 'villain,' though the process of change there has been reversed. 'What will the master do if the man talks at this rate?' It seems to be a proverbial expression: at any rate the sense is clear, in spite of the objections of Wagn. and Forb., as the whole form of the line shows that domini' and 'fures' are meant to be correlative terms. Fures,' in fact, involves 'servi,' and something more, preparing us for Menalcas' new charge. 'Faciant,' 'what would they do if they were to come on the scene?' the case being a supposed one, the substitution of Aegon for Damoetas; so that there is no occasion to adopt facient,' the reading of some inferior MSS.

Excipere insidiis, multum latrante Lycisca ?
Et cum clamarem: Quo nunc se proripit ille?
Tityre, coge pecus; tu post carecta latebas.
D. An mihi cantando victus non redderet ille,
Quem mea carminibus meruisset fistula caprum ?
Si nescis, meus ille caper fuit; et mihi Damon
Ipse fatebatur; sed reddere posse negabat.

M. Cantando tu illum ? aut umquam tibi fistula cera
Iuncta fuit? non tu in triviis, indocte, solebas
Stridenti miserum stipula disperdere carmen ?
D. Vis ergo, inter nos, quid possit uterque, vicissim
Experiamur? ego hanc vitulam-ne forte recuses,
Bis venit ad mulctram, binos alit ubere fetus—
Depono tu dic, mecum quo pignore certes.

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'Indoctus' implies want of skill in any particular art, as in Hor. A. P. 380, "Indoctusque pilae discive trochive quiescit."


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27.]' Stridenti,' i. q. 'stridula,' as Spohn remarks, '-i' being the adjectival termination. Bentl. on Hor. 1 Od. 2. 31., 25. 17. Stipula,' a single reed, opposite to 'fistula cera juncta.'' Miserum disperdere carmen,' 'to play a vile and wretched strain.' Disperdere carmen,' meaning to play a bad tune, not to spoil a good one. The dis is intensive, as in ' dispereo.' Milton, Lycidas 123, "And when they list their lean and flashy songs Grate on their scrannel pipes of wretched straw.' Dryden (Essay on Satire) refers to this line as showing that Virgil might if he pleased have made himself the first of Roman Satirists-rather a large conclusion.

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28.] The general rule seems to be that 'vin' or ' visne' simply asks for information, while' vis 'commands. Bentl. on Hor. 2 Sat. 6. 92. Vicissim,' referring to the manner of proceeding, while 'inter nos' merely expresses that there is to be a contest. 'Vicissim' may be meant as a translation of apoßaiws, but its use in 5. 50 shows that it need not be understood so strictly.

30.] Theocr. 1. 26, ̔Α δύ ̓ ἔχοισ ̓ ἐρίφως Toraμéλžeтαι is dúo Tέllas. Theocr. speaks of a goat with twins; and Keightley remarks that it is not usual for cows to have twins. Keightley also remarks that Virgil, in slavishly following his original, has made Damoetas, a hireling, stake a

"Sed vatem egregium cui non sit publica heifer from the herd which he is keeping.


Qui nihil expositum soleat deducere, nec
Communi feriat carmen triviale moneta."

'Vitula' is apparently used for 'juvenca,' as Spohn remarks.

31.] Depono:' Theocr. 8. 11, 12, катαOεīvai ãελov. 'Quo pignore,' the modal

M. De grege non ausim quicquam deponere tecum :
Est mihi namque domi pater, est iniusta noverca;
Bisque die numerant ambo pecus, alter et haedos.
Verum, id quod multo tute ipse fatebere majus,
Insanire libet quoniam tibi, pocula ponam
Fagina, caelatum divini opus Alcimedontis:
Lenta quibus torno facili superaddita vitis
Diffusos hedera vestit pallente corymbos.
In medio duo signa, Conon, et-quis fuit alter,
Descripsit radio totum qui gentibus orbem,
Tempora quae messor, quae curvus arator haberet ?

ablative, which is really the same with the
ablative absolute.

32-59.] 'M. I dare not wager any of my cattle; but I have a better stake, two cups of Alcimedon's making. D. I have two by the same hand; but they are nothing to the heifer. M. No put-offs: I'll accept any terms. Palaemon shall be umpire. D. Come on then: I'm not afraid: only pay attention, Palaemon. P. The grass is soft to sit on, and the country lovely: so begin, Damoetas, first.'

32-34.] Theocr. 8. 16, 17. 'Tecum,' 'like you.' Wagn. comp. Plaut. Cas. Prol. 75, Id ni fit, mecum pignus, si quis volt, dato."


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36.] Theocr. 1. 27 foll. Pocula,' a kind of dual, a pair of cups, as in v. 46, two being generally set before each guest, Hor. 1 S. 6. 117. 'Ponam' 'deponam.'

37.] Cups of beechwood belong to primitive country life, as Wagn. remarks, comparing Tibull. 1. 10. 8, Ov. M. 8. 669. Alcimedon is not heard of elsewhere. It is suggested (Sillig, Catal. Artif. p. 36) that he may have been a contemporary artist whom Virgil meant to compliment.

38.] 'Torno' for' scalpro,' the graving tool, not the lathe. Serv., on A. 2. 392, has an improbable story that Virgil originally wrote



'facilis,' which was altered because of the rule forbidding the use of two epithets with the same noun.

39.] 'Hedera pallente corymbos' is probably for hederae pallentis," a use of the material ablative for the genitive not uncommon in Virgil, e. g. A. 7. 354, " Ac, dum prima lues udo sublapsa veneno Pertentat sensus," for 'lues udi veneni.' It is a peculiarity - perhaps an affectation. Spohn connects the ablative with 'diffusos,' and so Forb. and Keightley. In any case Virgil cannot be acquitted of obscurity, as the ablative at first sight seems clearly to belong to' vestit,' which is scarcely possible, though Trapp thinks that the vine may be said to do what is really done by the ivy, to show how closely they are united. The vine is intertwined with the ivy (both emblems of Bacchus, and so fit ornaments for a drinking cup), as in Theocr. the ivy with the flowers of the helichrysus. 'Hedera pallens' is probably that kind the leaves of which are marked with white, or rather with light yellow; "hedera alba," 7. 28. One or two MSS. give 'palante,' rather a plausible variation.


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40.] In medio,'' in the fields,' the spaces inclosed by the vine and ivy. Keightley. Conon was a famous astronomer in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus: the 'alter,' whose name the shepherd in his simplicity forgets, was probably Eudoxus, whose Phaenowas versified by Aratus. 'Totum orbem' apparently means the whole circle of the heavens. Comp. A. 6. 850, "caelique meatus Describent radio et surgentia sidera dicent." 'Radius' is the rod with which the geometrician drew figures on his abacus, but here and in A. 6' describere radio' seems to be a figurative phrase for scientific delineation. Gentibus,' ' for mankind;' explained by the mention of 'messor' and 'arator' in the next line. 42.] 'Curvus,' 'bending over the plough.'

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