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530

Haec Proteus, et se iactu dedit aequor in altum,
Quaque dedit, spumantem undam sub vertice torsit.
At non Cyrene; namque ultro adfata timentem :

Nate, licet tristis animo deponere curas.
Haec omnis morbi caussa ; hinc miserabile Nymphae,
Cum quibus illa choros lucis agitabat in altis,
Exitium misere apibus. Tu munera supplex
Tende petens pacem, et facilis venerare Napaeas ; 535
Namque dabunt veniam votis, irasque remittent.
Sed modus orandi qui sit, prius ordine dicam.
Quattuor eximios praestanti corpore tauros,
Qui tibi nunc viridis depascunt summa Lycaei,

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speech. To suppose that the head kept head,' mentioned by Cerda and adopted by murmuring on in its course down the stream Trapp and Martyn, is now generally given till it reached the sea, would be to suppose up. the poet's imagination losing itself in mere 530.] “At non Cyrene:' some verb, geneextravagances.

rally equivalent to dedit' and torsit,' 528—547.] Proteus ended and left him. must be inferred from the preceding senCyrene remained to tell him the cure as tence, as we might say, 'But Cyrene did well as the cause of his loss. It came, she not leave him thus abruptly. See on 3. said, from the nymphs, who were to be ap- 349 and comp. A. 4. 529. i Ultro adfata,' peased by the sacrifice of four of his best spoke without waiting to be addressed, or, bulls, their bodies being left in the sacred as we might render it, spoke at once. grove. On the ninth day he was to go 531.] Comp. Aesch. Ag. 165, ei párav back to the grove, having frst paid funeral από φροντίδος άχθος Χρή βαλείν έτηhonours to Orpheus and Eurydice.'

τύμως. 528.] ως ειπών, υπό πόντον εδύσατο 533.] For the dances of the nymphs, kuuaivovta, Od. 4. 570. In Homer Pro- comp. A. 1. 498 foll. teus departs much less abruptly than in 535.] • Tende' pictures the attitude of Virgil, answering several questions from suppliance, outstretched hands with gifts in Menelaus, and comforting him after the them. · Tendentemque manus Priamum news of his brother's death. Here it may respexit inermis,” A. 1. 487. 'Pacem,' of be said that variety is secured, without any reconciliation with the gods, A. 3. 261, 370, departure from prophetic custom, by con- &c. • Facilis' is not an infrequent epithet fining him to a narrative of the events which of the nymphs, denoting their accessibility led to the calamity, and leaving the rest to and placability. So“ faciles Hamadryades be said by Cyrene; but the fact still re- Prop. 3. 26. 76,“ Naiades faciles” Nemes. mains, that, so far as the manner of bis com- Cyn. 94. The · Napaeae,' vanalai, are dismunication is concerned, he is too much the tinguished from the Dryades, to whom they mouthpiece of the poet, though the narra- seem to have borne a general resemblance, tive is certainly so conducted as to excite by Col. 10. 264, Nemes. E. 2. 20. pity for Orpheus beyond every other feel- 536.] · Votis,' connected with dabunt,' ing, and so to represent to Aristaeus the as if he had said precanti.' gravity of the occasion. “Iactu'

expresses 537.] 'Ordine dicam,' lenynoouar, 'orthe mode, like “ lapsu effugiunt ” A. 2. 225, dine'expressing ritual exactness of detail. “ cursu tendit” ib. 321.

538.] * Eximius' is said by Festus (s. v.) 529.] *Torsit sub vertice :'" quod vulgari and Macrob. (Sat. 3. 5) to be primarily usu, vortice vel in vorticem, ita ut vortex used, as here, of cattle selected for sacrifice. fieret.” Heyne. Proteus, diving to the Donatus (on Ter. Hec. 1. 1. 9) adds that its depth, is said to wreath the water in foam proper application there is to pigs, ' egreunder the eddy, the poet's object being to gius' being the word for oxen under similar give the two images, of a body shooting circumstances, lectus ' for sheep. down and sending up water, and of the 539.] Comp. the invocation of Aristaeus, eddy that agitates the surface. Another 1. 14. The locality here agrees with his interpretation of sub vertice,' 'under his title 'Arcadius magister,' v. 283, but scarcely

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540

Delige, et intacta totidem cervice iuvencas.
Quattuor his aras alta ad delubra dearum
Constitue, et sacrum iugulis demitte cruorem,
Corporaque ipsa boum frondoso desere luco.
Post, ubi nona suos Aurora ostenderit ortus,
Inferias Orphei Lethaea papavera mittes,
Et nigram mactabis ovem, lucumque revises ;
Placatam Eurydicen vitula venerabere caesa.

545

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with the topography of the present story, tunt,” Lucr. 3. 52, comp. by Cerda. v. 317.

546.] The third Aldine edition, a recen540.] •Intacta cervice,' never yoked. So sion which is supposed to have some MS. 'grege de intacto,' A. 6. 38. Comp. G. 3. authority, and perhaps a single MS., reverse 162 foll., where the separation of cattle, ac- the order of this and the next line : and their cording to their destination is dwelt on. disposition has been generally followed by Thus . intacta cervice' is equivalent to .exi. the earlier editors, including Heyne. See mios.'

however on the next verse. • Nigram mac542.] Elsewhere .constituo' is used of tabis ovem :' so Aeneas (A. 6. 249 foll.) setting the victims before the altar, A. sacrifices a black lamb to Night and Earth. 5. 237., 6. 244. So “statuere aram 8. 547.] The genuineness of this line is 271, “ statuere juvencum 9. 627. With disputed by Heyne and Wagn., but in one ‘iugulis demitte cruorem 'Germ. well comp. position or another it is found in all the Eur. Heracl. 821 (of the sacrificers), áp- MSS., though the difference about the ίεσαν Λαιμών βρoτείων ευθύς ούριον φόνον, order, any really exists, may perhaps a passage which Virgil may possibly have furnish a slight external ground against had in mind. The best MSS., including it. As it is commonly understood, as if Med., read dimitte, but the word would it were merely an additional injunction, be less appropriate, and the variety is one “praeterea Eurydicen vitula caesa placawhich constantly recurs.

bis” (Jahn), there is certainly some awk543.] · Corpora ipsa,' as distinct from wardness in its position after “lucumque their blood, and perhaps from their throats. revises,' and without any introducing parThere may be some point in frondoso,' ticle-an awkwardness not removed by as answering to the closing up of the Jahn's remark that the atonement made to chamber recommended v. 303, but the Eurydice might come in as an afterthought, discrepancy pointed out on v. 302 warns not being itself really a means of restoring us against looking too minutely for signs the bees, as, if none but the physical means of analogy.

of restoration are taken account of, the 544.] Heyne suggests that Virgil may mention of Orpheus' poppies and black be pointing to the Novendiale, a sacrifice sheep might be postponed as well. But performed nine days after a funeral, as the line will gain greatly in force and properhaps he does A. 5. 64. At the same priety, if we suppose it to contain an intitime of course he wishes to give time formation from Cyrene that her son will find the production of the swarm, though not his bees restored, and that then he is to 80 long as was considered necessary in offer a calf as a thank-offering to Eurydice : actual practice (see on v. 303).

you will go back to the grove and 545.] 'Inferias,' as funeral offerings. then, finding Eurydice appeased, you will Viventis rapit, inferias quos inmolet honour her,' &c. The sacrifice of the umbris." Orphei,' the Greek dative. bulls and the offerings to Orpheus have • Papavera :' nothing is said by the com- appeased Eurydice, being really offered to mentators to illustrate or explain this offer- her as well. Possibly there may be someing of poppies, in what form it was made, thing delicate in the discrimination of the &c. Is it possible that the reference may propitiatory offerings required by the husbe to the MediTTOūta, or honey-cake, band from the thank-offering which conplaced by the side of the corpse, and in- tents the wife; but it may be no more than tended probably for Cerberus, which we one of those poetical varieties of which may

to have been made with Virgil is so fond. Ladewig too has seen poppy-seed (comp. A. 4. 486., 6. 420)? that a thank-offering is meant. * Mittes : « manibus divis Inferias mit

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550

Haud mora ; continuo matris praecepta facessit;
Ad delubra venit, monstratas excitat aras,
Quattuor eximios praestanti corpore tauros
Ducit, et intacta totidem cervice iuvencas.
Post, ubi nona suos Aurora induxerat ortus,
Inferias Orphei mittit, lucumque revisit.
Hic vero subitum ac dictu mirabile monstrum
Aspiciunt, liquefacta boum per viscera toto
Stridere apes utero et ruptis effervere costis,
Inmensasque trahi nubes, iamque arbore summa
Confluere et lentis uvam demittere ramis.

555

Haec
super arvorum cultu

pecorumque canebam

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548–558.] He follows his mother's above illustrate each other. Here the directions, and on returning to the grove, bodies of the oxen are not bruised, but the finds the carcases of the oxen alive with dead flesh becomes deliquescent, and the bees, which swarm on a tree.'

sides give way, when the bees, which are 548.] For “facessit’ Med. and Gud. a supposed to form in the stomach, force m. pr. have capessit;' but though “iussa their way through. capessere occurs A. 1. 77, 'to dispatch' 556.] Germ. comp. Lucr. 2. 928, is here more appropriate than 'to under- misque effervere, terram Intempestivos cum take,' as the stronger word. In A. 4. 295 putor cepit ob imbris.” The costae' and a single inferior MS. gives ‘iussa capes- * viscera' are connected as in A. I. 211, sunt.

Tergora deripiunt costis et viscera nu549.] • Monstratas aras,' like “monstrata dant." piacula," A. 4. 636. * Excitat,' builds, as 557.] The swarming of the bees is dein Cic. Legg. 2. 27, “nec e lapide excitare scribed much as in vv. 58 foll. Comp. plus” (of a tomb), and other instances also A. 7. 64 foll. • Arbore' is local, congiven by Forc. In A. 8. 543, “excitat Auere' being used as if .in arborem' had aras” is used of kindling, a sense which preceded. Forc. attributes to the present passage. 558.] *Uvam demittere' is doubtless

551.] Ducit,' leads to the altar. « Duc suggested by βοτρυδόν δε πέτονται, Π. nigras pecudes," A. 6. 153. The repe. 2. 89. tition of the lines that have just occurred is 559—566.] ·So ends my rural poem, of course an imitation of the Homeric nar. written while Caesar is winning glories in rative. Heyne, referring to Bentley on the East, in my studious retreat at Naples, Milton, Par. L. 10. 1086, and Upton on by me, the poet of the Eclogues.' Spenser's Faery Queen, pp. 643, 644, finds 559.] This and the following lines, a reason for these repetitions in the poet's though found in all the MSS., have been wish not to alter gratuitously or tastelessly condemned by some critics, such as Brunck what bas once been said well; but in an and Schrader, as the production of a gramold epic writer there is no need to look for marian, such summaries being frequently any thing deeper than that simplicity which, produced as exercises by later writers, a addressing a simple audience, thinks more class of whom Ausonius may be taken as a of explicit information than of ornamental favourable specimen, while they are sufvariety, and is only occasionally visited ficiently uncommon in the undoubted works with unwillingness aŭrig á pili.ws sipnuéva of poets themselves. That a composition μυθολογεύειν.

of this kind might find its way into the 552.] • Induxerat,' had ushered into the text of MSS. of authority, we shall see sky. “Iam nox inducere terris Umbras ... at the opening of Aeneid l; but here as parabat," Hor. 1 S. 5. 9.

elsewhere the unanimity of the MSS. is an 554.] · Monstrum,' of a prodigy, a sense argument not easy to rebut, while the lines very frequent in the Aeneid, A. 2. 680, may be vindicated on their own ground as &c. This passage and vv.. 308 foll. completing a poem which would otherwise

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560

Et super arboribus, Caesar dum magnus ad altum
Fulminat Euphraten bello, victorque volentis

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wear an unfinished air, and as containing operations, which were the work of some nothing unworthy of Virgil, if indeed we time, were taking place. To conclude with may not assert, with Weichert, that the Wagn. that the whole poem was composed single word oti,' v. 564, proves them to during that time is to disregard probability have been written before the latter part without any adequate gain from increased of the reign of Augustus. The poet had strictness of language. See Introductory begun with Caesar; he now ends with him, Essay. · Canebam dum fulminat :' the use contriving at the same time, with a self- of dum' with the present in narrative is assertion which, however artfully veiled, sufficiently common, the verb in the cormust have appeared presumptuous in one responding clause being in the perfect, e. g. less secure of imperial favour, to institute a A. 5. 605, 606, “ Dum variis referunt tukind of parallel between the laurels which mulo sollennia ludis, Irim de caelo misit the master of the world has been winning Saturnia Iuno," while they are engaged in Asia with the more peaceful triumphs in the obsequies, Juno has sent Iris,' the which the Muse has been achieving at whole being viewed from the present moNaples. It is possible that Virgil may ment. Hence it is extended to have taken the hint of an autobiographical where the verb in the leading proposition conclusion from some Alexandrine writer, is in the pluperfect, as E. 7. 6, 7 (note), as the two extant works of Nicander, The- the construction being a mixture of the riaca and Alexipharmaca, both end with a present and past forms of narrative, such as couplet in which the writer recommends frequently occurs in prose as well as in himself by his own name to the reader's poetry. The combination in this passage notice. The conclusion of Ovid's Meta- of dum' with the present, and a verb in morphoses may be said to furnish indirect the imperfect in the leading proposition, evidence to the genuineness of the present is an instance of a similar mixture. The passage, as, if not actually modelled on it, imperfect in formulas, like those noticed it shows at any rate that the spirit of self- in the note on the preceding line, is inassertion which breathes in both was not tended, as is well known, to place the foreign to the Roman poetry of that period. writer at the time when his work will be The dedicatory poem in Catullus, and the perused by the reader. If the present is to concluding ode of Horace's Third Book, are be explained in conformity with this usage, specimens of the same kind of feeling. we must say that it is meant to imply that Other critics, of whom Heyne is one, have the successes of Caesar were still going on been satisfied with rejecting the four last when the composition of the Georgics was lines, a view less consistent than the other, finished, and, in the poet's view, would and equally unsupported. • Haec cane

still be going on when his work should be bam :' a formula like that at the end of a in the reader's hands.

Or we may say letter, “Haec tibi dictabam post fanum that canebam' being regarded as a conputre Vacunae," Hor. 1 Ep. 10. 49. Wagn. ventional synonyme for the present, the precomp. E. 10. 70, “Haec sat erit, divae, sent is used of a time intended to be vestrum cecinisse poetam,

” which he re

coextensive with it. In the passage from gards as the finale of the whole book of Livy 21. 7, quoted by Voss, “dum ea Eclogues. • Canebam super arboribus,' &c., Romani parant consultantque, iam Salike “super Priamo cogitans,” A. 1. 750. guntum summa vi oppugnabatur,” the in• Scribere super re’ is used by Cic. Att. consistency of the tenses has a rhetorical 16. 6. The summary of the contents of force, the point being to fix the mind on the Georgics is more rapid and less exact the late date to which the consultations than that with which the poem opens. extended, and on the early date at which Bees are omitted altogether (for we can the siege began, so that what is present in hardly argue with Forb. from v. 168 that the former is placed in juxtaposition with they are included in pecorum'), as the poet what is past in the latter. doubtless felt that his reader was not likely 561.] . Fulminat,' like "fulminat Aeneas to forget them.

armis,” A. 12. 654, where the image is 560.] The period referred to in this and that of Jupiter hurling his thunderbolts the two following lines is that of Octavianus' on the world. So the Scipios are called progress in the East after the battle of “ fulmina belli," A. 6. 842, Lucr. 3. 1034. Actium. The meaning is evidently that Comp. Aristophanes' well known descripthe poem was finished while these Eastern tion of Pericles (Ach. 531), ňotpant',

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364 P. VERGILI MARONIS GEORGICON LIB. IV.

Per populos dat iura, viamque adfectat Olympo.
Illo Vergilium me tempore dulcis alebat
Parthenope, studiis florentem ignobilis oti,
Carmina qui lusi pastorum, audaxque iuventa,
Tityre, te patulae cecini sub tegmine fagi.

565

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έβρόντα, ξυνεκύκα την Ελλάδα, though dedit una suum memorabile nomen Ρarthe fulmination there was of a different thenope muris Acheloias," Sil. 12. 33, kind. Bello,' instrumental or modal, like quoted by Emm. Oti,' peace : see on armis,' A. 12, l. c. The war is the war E. 1. 6. Weichert's argument, mentioned with Egypt, just closed, the submissions on v. 559, from the form of the word is not those which Octavianus afterwards received, conclusive, as though the genitive .ii,' from Egypt being reduced to a province, while 'ium,' may not have come in till the latter the claimants of the Parthian throne sought part of Augustus' reign, a question on which his arbitration, and Herod was confirmed see Lachmann on Lucr. 5. 1006, the form'i' by him in his kingdom. See Merivale, seems not entirely to have died out after. Hist. 3, pp. 358, 359.

wards. • Palati' is found Juv. 4. 31. Stu562.] ‘Dat iura,' of governing, frequent diis oti' then is opposed to studiis belli,' in the Aeneid. See on A. 1. 293. * Ad. A. 1. 14, the genitive here, if not there, fectare viam' or 'iter' is a phrase. Ter. being possessive. Ignobilis' opposed to Phorm. 5. 8. 71, “ Hi gladiatorio animo ad active life, “Solus ubi in silvis Italis ignome adfectant viam.” The sense is appa- bilis aevum Exigeret,” A. 7. 776. Comp. rently nearly = 'ingredi viam,' though in inglorius,' above 2. 486. “Florentem :' Cic. one or two passages it seems to denote Ep. 4. 13,“ studia ... quibus a pueritia florather purpose than even an early stage ruisti.” The expression there seems to imof accomplishment. Caesar is apparently ply something of a compliment; here it prohere described as working his way to actual bably only denotes abundance. immortality (1. 503), not as making him- 565.] • Carmina pastorum' is not self a god on earth, which Virgil has de- mina pastoralia,' but refers to the actual clared that he is already (ib. 42). "Olympo,' songs of shepherds in the Bucolics. •Lusi,' like “ it clamor caelo," A. 5. 451.

E. 1. 10. Audax iuventa :' he is thinking 563.] The contrast between the con. of bucolic poetry, not as compared with queror and the poet, which had been other kinds of poetry, but with reference to hinted in the previous lines, is here drawn its own standard, with some such feelings out, not only the occupations being com- as those embodied E. 9. 32 foll. Heyne pared, but the places, and even the names. comp. " audacibus annue coeptis," above The spelling · Vergilium' being found in 1. 40. Med. and Rom., has been adopted by 566.] E. l. 1, which shows that “sub Wagn. in his smaller edition, Forb., and tegmine fagi' refers to Tityrus. “Patulae Ladewig, as probably the older. • Alebat' cecini,' Med. Pal. ; *cecini patulae,' Rom., suits' canebat.'

which perhaps might make the sense 564.] · Parthenope,' the other old name clearer, but it is more probable that Virgil of Naples (Neapolis), from the grave of should have wished to reproduce his first one of the Sirens of that name. “ Sirenum line as closely as possible.

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