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Perditus et liquidis inmisi fontibus apros.
Quem fugis, ah, demens ? habitarunt di quoque silvas 60
Dardaniusque Paris. Pallas, quas condidit arces,
Ipsa colat; nobis placeant ante omnia silvae.
Torva leaena lupum sequitur; lupus ipse capellam;
Florentem cytisum sequitur lasciva capella ;
Te Corydon, o Alexi: trahit sua quemque voluptas. 65
Aspice, aratra iugo referunt suspensa iuvenci, ,
Et sol crescentis decedens duplicat umbras :
Me tamen urit amor; quis enim modus adsit amori?
Ah, Corydon, Corydon, quae te dementia cepit!
Semiputata tibi frondosa vitis in ulmo est.

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Quin tu aliquid saltem potius, quorum indiget usus,

rocco

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is reproaching himself for having just made runtur aratra,” Ov. F. 5. 497, quoted by a comparison which must be disadvan. Trapp. * Suspensa,' not going into the tageous to him.

ground ( depressa '), but carried so as not 59.] ‘I have let in the scorching Sci- to touch the ground, as in the expression

to my blossoms, and wallowing 'suspenso gradu '-probably the same thing wild boars to my clear spring '-no doubt, as Horace's ‘vomerem inversum,' though as Voss says, a proverbial expression. The Keightley makes a distinction. Scirocco, Horace's 'plumbeus Auster,' is 68.] My love does not cool with evenspoken of in Aesch. Eum. 938—40 as dev- ing, or end with the long summer-day.' δροπήμων βλάβα-φλoγμός όμματοστε- Both notions seem to be implied. With pris putāv.

the first comp. vv. 8—13, where, as here, 60.). 'Quem fugis? may be for .cur me it is hinted, not directly expressed, with the fugis ?' (see on 1. 54), or the meaning may second, Hor. 2 Od. 9. 10 foll.“ nec tibi be ‘You know not whom you avoid in avoid - Vespero Surgente decedunt amores, Nec raing me, like “nec qui sim quaeris,” v. 19. pidum fugiente Solem.”

61.] Athens was the only city that Mi. 69–73.] “This is madness. I will renerva founded, though in the elder Greek turn to my neglected business, and trust to mythology it seems she was the goddess of find another love.' fortresses in general, and hence called époi- 70.] Both the half-pruned vine and the πτολις, άλαλκομενηίς, πολιάς, πυλιού- over-leafy elm would be signs of negliχος, ακραία, ακρία, κληδούχος, πυλαίτις. gence. Comp. G. 2. 410, « Bis vitibus See Dict. Biog. Athena. Corydon prefers ingruit umbra.” An unpruned vine was the country to Athens, the noblest of cities. a great scandal in ancient husbandry. Hor. We should remember that he is a Greek. 1 S. 7. 31. Voss, reviving a notion of

62.] • Ipsa colat,' • let her have them to Serv., sees an allusion to an alleged superherself.' • Placeant,' let me love the stition, that to drink of the wine of an country,' for “let me enjoy it;'- -a natural unpruned vine caused madness, Numa having expression, since the love is essential to the forbidden libations to be made from such enjoyment. It occurs again G. 2. 485, wine, to show that the gods did not approve “ Rura mihi et rigui placeant in vallibus of the slothful husbandman—so that this amnes, Flumina amem silvasque inglorius.” would be another rustic proverb; but what

63.) •Every creature pursues that for ever may be the value of the illustration, which it hungers : I pursue thee.' Theocr. not only the context, but the words them10. 30, Α αϊξ τον κύτισον, ο λύκος των selves show that Corydon is simply taxing αιγα διώκει, “A γέρανος τώροτρον εγώ δ' επί himself with a neglect of common duty. Tiv usuávnuai. Ipse,' . in his turn.' 71.] • At least try to do some basket

66.) For similar versions or variations of work;' one of the home occupations of the Bovlurós, see Hor. 3 Od. 6. 43, and Epod. husbandman, G. 1. 266. These lines are 2. 63, “ Videre fessos vomerem inversum copied from Theocr. 11. 72 foll. • Saltem, boves Collo trahentis languido." "Iugo re- ' at least,' if you cannot go about harder ferunt,' draw home.' «. Versa iugo refe. work. So in 10. 71, the poet makes a

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Viminibus mollique paras detexere iunco ?
Invenies alium, si te hic fastidit, Alexim.

basket while he is singing of his friend's unam_togam detexere,” Titin. ap. Non. passion. Usus,' G. 2. 22, note.

1. 3. Forcellini. 72.] •Detexere,' 'to plait out,' i. e. to 73.] Εύρησείς Γαλάτειαν ίσως και καλfinish. “Quae inter decem annos nequisti líov' allav, Theocr. 1. c.

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This Eclogue is a specimen of a rustic singing-match, such as occurs in several of the Idyls of Theocritus, the fifth being that which Virgil had here chiefly in view. The somewhat coarse banter which precedes it is studied partly after the fifth, partly after the fourth Idyl. Other imitations will be found noticed in their places. The match itself is technically called Amoebaean singing (rendered by Virgil 'alternis,' or alternis versibus,' v. 59, 7. 18), the general principle of which seems to be that the second of the competitors should reply to the first in the same number of verses, and generally on the same or a similar subject. For further varieties see the Introduction to Eclogue 8. Here the challenger begins, as in Theocr. Idyls 6 and 8, though in Idyl 5 the contrary is the case.

Vives found an allegory in this Eclogue, Damoetas standing for Virgil and Menalcas for one of his rivals; but the poem is now universally agreed to be imaginary, in spite of the awkward introduction of the historical names of Pollio, Bavius, and Maevius. If any. thing, Menalcas is to be identified with Virgil, as would appear from the fifth and ninth Eclogues ; but this cannot be pressed, nor need we follow those who, like Cerda, attempt to establish a difference in Menalcas' favour, contrary to Palaemon's verdict.

The date, like that of Eclogue 2, can only be determined relatively to Eclogue 5.
The scenery is again Sicilian, at least in part.

M. Dic mihi, Damoeta, cuium pecus ? an Meliboei ?
D. Non, verum Aegonis; nuper mihi tradidit Aegon.
M. Infelix o semper, ovis, pecus ! ipse Neaeram

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1-31.] M. Whom are you keeping curs in Plaut. and Ter., but was obsolete sheep for? D. Aegon. M. Poor sheep! in Virgil's time, as Cornificius' parody their owner is hopelessly in love, and his shows. It is used by Cic. Verr. 2. 1. 54, hireling steals the milk. D. As if you where the language is apparently that of a had any right to taunt me ! M. Of legal formula. The question implies that course not; I cut Micon's vines. D. Damoetas is a mere hireling, alienus cus. Broke Daphnis' bow and arrows, you tos,' v. 5.

M. Well, I saw you steal Damon's 2.] Aegon's name is a taunt, because he goat. D. It was mine; I won it at a is the rival of Menalcas, v. 4. singing match. M. You ! when you can't 3.] Theocr. 4. 13. With the order of the sing. D. I'll sing against you now for a words Burmann comp. G. 4.168, “ Ignavum, calf.'

fucos, pecus a praesepibus arcent.' • Ipse,' 1.] Theocr. 4. 1, 2. •Cuius,' -a, -um, oc- your owner, Aegon. Catull. 3. 6, “ Nam

mean.

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Dum fovet, ac, ne me sibi praeferat illa, veretur,
Hic alienus ovis custos bis mulget in hora,
Et sucus pecori et lac subducitur agnis.
D. Parcius ista viris tamen obiicienda memento.
Novimus, et qui te, transversa tuentibus hircis,
Et quo—sed faciles Nymphae risere—sacello.
M. Tum, credo, cum me arbustum videre Miconis
Atque mala vitis incidere falce novellas.
D. Aut hic ad veteris fagos cum Daphnidis arcum
Fregisti et calamos : quae tu, perverse Menalca,
Et, cum vidisti puero donata, dolebas,
Et, si non aliqua nocuisses, mortuus esses.
M. Quid domini faciant, audent cum talia fures !
Non ego te vidi Damonis, pessime, caprum

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mellitus erat (passer), suamque norat Ipsam 2. 365. The word is a technical term in tam bene quam puella matrem.”

rural economy, being used in later Latin 4.] · Fovet,' courts,' repeatedly used by substantively for a young vine, while 'noCicero in the sense of paying attention to a vello' means 'to plant young trees' (Suet. person: comp. its use in the sense of Dom. 7), and 'novelletum,' 'a nursery.' * constant attendance,' e. g." castra fovere, 12.] · Ad veteris fagos :' the same scenery A. 9. 57.

as in 2. 3., 9. 9. The bow and arrows 5.] •Twice an hour, when twice a day naturally belonged to a shepherd: see 2. would have been full measure, as Serv. 29 note. remarks. The phrase is of course exagger- 13.] Perverse' equivalent to prave.' ated : but the offence of secret milking was The passage is imitated from Theocr. 5. 12, a common one, punished by Justinian, το δ', ώ κακέ, και τόκ' έτάκευ Βασκαίνων, Emmen. says, with whipping and loss of Kai vũv ue loiolla yuuvòv čOnkas, wages. The taunt is from Theocr. 4. 3. which accounts for the repetition of 'et,'

6.] · The ewes are exhausted and the vv. 14, 15. lambs starved. Perhaps, as Voss thinks, 14.] The puer' is evidently Daphnis, he may mean the time before the lambs not, as Heyne thinks, some boy to whom he were weaned, when the ewes ought not to gave the bow and arrows. have been milked at all. Subducere' need 15.] Comp. 7. 26. only mean “to withdraw,' as in Cic. Tusc. 2. 16.] • Fures’ is comic for servi.' Comp. 17, “subduc cibum unum diem athletae ;" Hor. 1 Ep. 6. 45, “ Exilis domus est ubi non here however the additional notion of et multa supersunt Et dominum fallunt et stealth is suggested by the context.

prosunt furibus.” Comp. also the double 10.] •Tum (' risere') :' credo,' ironical. meaning of the English ‘knave' and 'villain,' A. 7. 297. Menalcas affects to charge though the process of change there has been himself with what Damoetas did. • Arbus. reversed. • What will the master do if the tum,' a vineyard in which the vines were man talks at this rate ?' It seems to be a protrained on trees, opposite to 'espaliers :' verbial expression : at any rate the sense is here the trees on which the vines were clear, in spite of the objections of Wagn. and trained. • Miconis vitis' are from Theocr. Forb., as the whole form of the line shows 5. 112.

that 'domini' and fures' are meant to be 11.] 'Mala falce,' like .dolo malo,' mala correlative terms. •Fures,' in fact, involves fraude,' malicious.' Tibull. 3. 5. 20, “ Et “servi,' and something more, preparing us modo nata mala vellere poma manu. Pliny, for Menalcas' new charge.

• Faciant,' 17. 1, says that the laws of the Twelve what would they do if they were to come Tables imposed a heavy fine for cutting on the scene?' the case being a supposed another man's trees, ʻiniuria.' *Novellas' is one, the substitution of Aegon for Damoeemphatic, as the young vines ought not to tas; so that there is no occasion to adopt have been touched with the knife at all, G. ' facient,' the reading of some inferior MSS.

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Excipere insidiis, multum latrante Lycisca ?
Et cum clamarem : Quo nunc se proripit ille ?
Tityre, coge pecus; tu post carecta latebas.
D. An mihi cantando victus non redderet ille,
Quem mea carminibus meruisset fistula caprum ?
Si nescis, meus ille caper fuit; et mihi Damon
Ipse fatebatur; sed reddere posse negabat.
M. Cantando tu illum ? aut umquam tibi fistula cera
Iuncta fuit ? non tu in triviis, indocte, solebas
Stridenti miserum stipula disperdere carmen ?
D. Vis ergo, inter nos, quid possit uterque, vicissim
Experiamur ? ego hanc vitulam-ne forte recuses,

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Bis venit ad mulctram, binos alit ubere fetus-
Depono : tu dic, mecum quo pignore certes.

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18.] •Excipere' as in A. 3. 332. Hor. 3.Indoctus’ implies want of skill in any parOd. 12. 10. Lycisci' were mongrels be- ticular art, as in Hor. A. P. 380, “ Indoctween wolves and dogs, Isid. Orig. 12. 2. tusque pilae discive trochive quiescit.” See Pliny 8. 40.

27.] - Stridenti,' i. q. stridula,' as Spohn 19.] 'Quo nunc se proripit ille ?' •What remarks, '-i' being the adjectival terminais yonder rogue darting at ?' Damoetas tion. Bentl. on Hor. 1 Od. 2. 31., 25. 17. was just rushing out of his ambuscade. • Stipula,' a single reed, opposite to . fistula • Tityrus' is the shepherd of Damon. cera juncta.' Miserum disperdere carmen,'

20.] Coge,'«muster your flock,' which 'to play a vile and wretched strain.' 'Diswas straying in supposed security, as in 1. perdere carmen,' meaning to play a bad 9. Carecta :' in Catull. 19. 2. tune, not to spoil a good one. The dis' is joined with vimen iunceus,' so that the is intensive, as in . dispereo.' Milton, Lyfeatures of the country appear to be the cidas 123, “ And when they list their lean same as in 1. 49.

and flashy songs Grate on their scrannel 21.] · Redderet,' because the question pipes of wretched straw.” Dryden (Essay refers to past time. “Was he not to restore?' on Satire) refers to this line as showing Plautus, Trinummus 1. 2. 96, “Non ego that Virgil might if he pleased have made illi argentum redderem ? Non redderes.” himself the first of Roman Satirists-rather It is the ordinary use of the conjunctive in a large conclusion. questions, answering, when found in the 28.] The general rule seems to be that present, to the deliberative conjunctive in 'vin' or visne’ simply asks for informaGreek, but employed less restrictedly. So tion, while' vis 'commands. Bentl. on Hor.

quid facerem ?” 1. 41 ; " eloquar an 2 Sat. 6. 92. “Vicissim,' referring to the sileam ? " A. 3. 39.

manner of proceeding, while inter nos' 23.] Heyne comp. Ov. Heroid. 20. 152, merely expresses that there is to be a contest. “Si nescis, dominum res habet ista suum. • Vicissim' may be meant as a translation of The phrase is not an uncommon one. åpoißaiws, but its use in 5. 50 shows that

25.] • Cantando tu illum :' the verb is of it need not be understood so strictly. course to be supplied from cantando vic- 30.] Theocr. 1. 26, “A δύέχoισ' ερίφως tus,' v. 21. The ellipse suits the colloquial Totapéagetal és dúo Téllas. Theocr. style. What follows is imitated from speaks of a goat with twins; and Keightley Theocr. 5. 5.

remarks that it is not usual for cows to 26.] •In triviis,' i.e. to vulgar ears. have twins. Keightley also remarks that Juvenal 7. 53:

Virgil, in slavishly following his original,

has made Damoetas, a hireling, stake a “ Sed vatem egregium cui non sit publica heifer from the herd which he is keeping:

• Vitula' is apparently used for "juvenca,' Qui nihil expositum soleat deducere, nec as Spohn remarks. qui

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31.] ' Depono :' Theocr. 8. 11, 12, kataCommuni feriat carmen triviale moneta.θείναι άεθλον. • Quo pignore,' the modal

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M. De grege non ausim quicquam deponere tecum :
Est mihi namque domi pater, est iniusta noverca ;
Bisque die numerant ambo pecus, alter et haedos.
Verum, id quod multo tute ipse fatebere majus, 35
Insanire libet quoniam tibi, pocula ponam
Fagina, caelatum divini opus Alcimedontis : :
Lenta quibus torno facili superaddita vitis
Diffusos hedera vestit pallente corymbos.
In medio duo signa, Conon, et-quis fuit alter,

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Descripsit radio totum qui gentibus orbem,

Tempora quae messor, quae curvus arator haberet ? ablative, which is really the same with the facilis,' which was altered because of the ablative absolute.

rule forbidding the use of two epithets with 32–59.] ‘M. I dare not wager any of the same noun. my cattle; but I have a better stake, two 39.] · Hedera pallente corymbos' is procups of Alcimedon's making. D. I have bably for “hederae pallentis,' a use of the two by the same hand; but they are no- material ablative for the genitive not unthing to the heifer. M. No put-offs : I'll common in Virgil, e. g. A. 7.354, “ Ac, dum accept any terms. Palaemon shall be um. prima lues udo sublapsa veneno Pertentat pire. D. Come on then: I'm not afraid: sensus,” for “lues udi veneni.' It is a pecuonly pay attention, Palaemon. P. The liarity-perhaps an affectation. Spohn congrass is soft to sit on, and the country nects the ablative with diffusos,' and so Forb. lovely: so begin, Damoetas, first.'

and Keightley. In any case Virgil cannot be 32- 34.] Theocr. 8. 16, 17. "Tecum,' acquitted of obscurity, as the ablative at ' like you.' Wagn. comp. Plaut. Cas. Prol. first sight seems clearly to belong to vestit,' 75, “Id ni fit, mecum pignus, si quis volt, which is scarcely possible, though Trapp dato."

thinks that the vine may be said to do what 33.] From Theocr. 1. c. xaletós e' ó is really done by the ivy, to show how narno uev járnp, it would seem as if closely they are united. The vine is inter'injustus were to be supplied from `in- twined with the ivy (both emblems of Bacjusta,' and both construed as predicates; chus, and so fit ornaments for a drinking but it is simpler to render I have a father cup), as in Theocr. the ivy with the flowers at home, and a harsh stepmother.'

of the helichrysus. "Hedera pallens' is 34.] Bisque die,' not merely in the eve- probably that kind the leaves of which are ning, as in 6. 85. * Haedos :' besides count. marked with white, or rather with light ing the whole flock, one or other of them yellow; “ hedera alba,” 7. 28.

One or counted the kids separately.

two MSS. give 'palante,' rather a plausible 35.] In Theocr. I. c. Menalcas offers to variation. wager a pipe in default of a lamb, and 40.] • In medio,'' in the fields,' the spaces Daphnis, like Damoetas here, says he can inclosed by the vine and ivy. Keightley. match it, but, unlike him, agrees to the Conon was a famous astronomer in the time terms.

of Ptolemy Philadelphus : the .alter,' whose 36.] Theocr. 1. 27 foll. Pocula,' a kind name the shepherd in his simplicity forgets, of dual, a pair of cups, as in v. 46, two was probably Eudoxus, whose · Phaenobeing generally set before each guest, Hor.

mena'

was versified by Aratus. Totum 1 S. 6. 117. Ponam' = 'deponam.' orbem'apparently means the whole circle

37.] Cups of beechwood belong to primi- of the heavens. Comp. A. 6. 830, “ caelitive country life, as Wagn. remarks, com. que meatus Describent radio et surgentia paring Tibull. 1. 10. Ov. M. 8. 669. Al. sidera dicent." * Radius' is the rod with cimedon is not heard of elsewhere. It is which the geometrician drew figures on suggested (Sillig, Catal. Artif. p. 36) that his abacus, but here and in A. 6.descri. he may have been a contemporary artist bere radio ' seems to be a figurative phrase whom Virgil meant to compliment.

for scientific delineation. Gentibus,' .for 38.] “Torno’foróscalpro,' the graving tool, mankind ;' explained by the mention of not the lathe. Serv., on A. 2. 392, has an messor' and · arator' in the next line. improbable story that Virgil originally wrote 42.] ‘Curvus,'«bending over the plough.'

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