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Narcissi lacrimam et lentum de cortice gluten
Prima favis ponunt fundamina, deinde tenacis
Suspendunt ceras; aliae spem gentis adultos
Educunt fetus ; aliae purissima mella
Stipant et liquido distendunt nectare cellas.
Sunt, quibus ad portas cecidit custodia sorti,
Inque vicem speculantur aquas et nubila caeli,
Aut onera accipiunt venientum, aut agmine facto
Ignavum fucos pecus a praesepibus arcent.
Fervet opus, redolentque thymo fragrantia mella.

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in the other uses of the genitive after a observed. If Virgil has any distinct meansubstantive.

ing, he may probably intend that the sentry160.] See on v. 39. * Lacrimam' is work falls by lot to the class, but is taken used like kovov in Aristot., there quoted, in turn by the individuals (in vicem). of that which exudes from flowers, as in There may however be a distinction in. Pliny 11. 6., 21. 5., 23 prooem., of the tended between the 'custodes,' who watch exudations of trees, lilies, and vines. Pliny against enemies (such as those mentioned 1. c. and Theophr. Caus. Pl. 1. 4 (referred v. 13 foll.), and the speculatores,' who to by Keightley) assert that lilies are pro- look out for showers, perhaps flying abroad pagated by these tears, There may be for the purpose. also a reference, as Serv. and Cerda think, 166.] See v. 191. The bees always conto the fate of the mythological Narcissus. trive to avoid rain, scarcely any of them Martyn compares Milton's “ daffodillies being ever caught in a shower, unless from fill their cups with tears," where however some accidental disablement (Lond. Enc.). the tears, if not a mere development of the • Aquas' with .caeli,' like “

aquae caeimage of the cup, may refer to rain or dew. lestis,” Hor. 3 Od. 10. 19, 2 Ep. 1. 135.

161.] “Fundamen' is a variety for Aristot. I. c. says apoyivborovol cai fundamentum,' like 'augmen’ for aug- Xelpūva kai őowp ai méiittai. mentum,' &c. It is twice used by Ovid. 167.] Virgil may mean, as Keightley

162.] ‘Suspendunt:' “ This term is pro- thinks, that the sentinels have also the perly used; for bees commence their work in charge of receiving the burdens and driving the top of the hive” (Sheridan). The latter away the drones; but this looks too like part of this line, the two which follow, and refining. 'Aut ... aut' doubtless belongs vv. 167–169, are repeated with two or grammatically to 'sunt qui,' inferred from three slight changes A. 1. 431 foll.

sunt quibus;' but the most natural sense 163.] 'Educunt,' lead out, teach to fly, is, that while some are keeping watch, to gather honey, &c. It can hardly be, others are receiving, others again exas Heyne understands it, to lead out pelling. swarms (Keightley). Servius explains it 168.] • Ignavum pecus,' like “matum “educendo adultos faciunt,” which would et turpe pecus Hor. 1 S. 3. 100, be quite possible in itself; but the context vum pecus” 1 Ep. 19. 19, possibly sugseems to point to some single act rather gested here, like 'praesepibus,' by the than to a long continued process.

subject of the preceding book. The drones 164.] The honey is called . nectar,' like are not expelled, but massacred after the the sweet wine E. 5. 71.

swarms have left the hive. Varro however 165.] • Sorti' is probably the archaic (3. 16) and Col. (9. 15) agree with Virgil ; form of the ablative, like “parti,' 'ruri,' and Aelian (1. 10) says that the drone is &c., as " sorti evenisset” is quoted from first chastised gently for stealing honey, Livy 29. 20, “sorti victus” from Plaut. and afterwards, on repetition of the offence, Cas. 2. 7. 6. Otherwise, as Heyne re- put to death. With the order of the words marks, it might very well be the dative, in the line comp. v. 246 below, and E. as their charge.' Cerda tinds fault with 3. 3. the word, which of course cannot strictly be 169.] This sums up the description, applied to the bees, alleging that the directing the attention from the various Roman sentinels were not appointed by parts to the whole effect. So at the conclu. lot, but succeeded by rotation; but Emm. sion of the similar description of the ants, A. shows in reply that both principles were 4. 407,“ opere omnis semita fervet." With

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170

Ac veluti lentis Cyclopes fulmina massis
Cum properant, alii taurinis follibus auras
Accipiunt redduntque, alii stridentia tinguunt
Aera lacu; gemit inpositis incudibus Aetna;
Illi inter sese magna vi bracchia tollunt
In numerum, versantque tenaci forcipe ferrum :
Non aliter, si parva licet conponere magnis,
Cecropias innatus apes amor urguet habendi,

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redolent . . . mella,' we may compare the cluding both metal and slag. “Stringere concluding clause of other descriptions, e. g. venas Ferventis massae crudo de pulvere the similes A. 7. 466, 590, 701, where a iussit,” Pers. 2. 68. The thunderbolts here fact of sight or hearing, as here of smell, is seem to be formed of iron or some other singled out and briefly specified as indicative metal, not, as in A. 8. 426 foll., which of the general result. For .fervet,' Philarg. should be compared, of less ponderable read fervit.'

materials. 170—196.] · Like the Cyclopes in Aetna, 171.] Properant:' because unremitting some blowing the bellows, some tempering industry is part of the point of the comthe metal, each bee is zealous in his own parison. We may suppose the Cyclopes to work; the old stay at home, building up be labouring to meet a sudden demand from the combs, the younger fly abroad, gather Jupiter. The rest of the line and the four honey all day, and return laden at night: that follow are repeated almost verbally A. all rise together to work : all return toge- 8. 449 foll., where the Cyclopes set themther, and sleep simultaneously. In storrny selves to making armour for Aeneas with weather they do not fly as usual, but remain unusual speed, dividing the labour. “Conabout the hive or try short flights, ballasting clusas hircinis follibus auras,"Hor. 1 S. 4. 19. themselves with little pebbles.'

172.] Perhaps from Od. 9. 391, ws 8 or' 170.] This simile is defended against the άνήρ χαλκευς πέλεκυν μέγαν ήε σκέπαρνον charge of exaggeration by Pope (Postscript Eίν ύδατι ψυχρώ βάπτη μεγάλα μάχοντα. to Odyssey) on the ground that the sense Forb. refers to Lucr. 6. 148, where the of disproportion is moral as well as intellec- phenomenon is described. tual, and so is applicable only to the in- 173.] It seems better to understand flated vanity of rational beings, not to lacus' of a trough standing by for the irrational animals, which cannot be made purpose than to suppose it with Heyne to be objects of censure ; by Heyne, with the used poetically for • aqua,' like • fons.' See remark that the point of the simile lies in Forcell., who shows that it was used not only the work done, and that the bees are in the vineyard but in the oliveyard. But intended to gain by the juxta-position. Nei. Ameis may be right in giving it its ordinary ther criticism appears satisfactory: the first sense, as if nothing smaller than a lake or seems to assume, what is certainly not the pool would suit such gigantic operations. case, that in order to condemn the poet we * Inpositis ’ is explained by Voss, placed on must feel a personal resentment against the the block, a'ruočetov, but it is far better objects which he exaggerates, as being and simpler to suppose Virgil merely to mean "participes criminis :' the latter ignores the that the mountain groans beneath the fact that it is the comparison of bees to weight of the anvils. For • Aetna' Vat. and Cyclopes under any circumstances that is several MSS. give .antrum,' seemingly objected to, because the sense of what they from A. 8. 45). have in common is borne down and over- 174.] The description seems to be from whelmed by the sense of their utter differ. Callim., Hymn to Artemis, v. 59–61,

It is true that the similarity of bees where the Cyclopes are represented oidnpov and men is a thought which, judiciously or 'Außoladis TETUTÓVTES. The appropriateinjudiciously, is made to run throughout the ness of the rhythm need hardly be adverted poem; but the step from human labour to the gigantic exertions of demigods is a con- 176.] Comp. E. 1. 23. siderable one,

and is only to be excused by 177.] Non aliter urguet,' acts similarly supposing, as has been already intimated as a stimulus, i. e. makes them work as on v. 86, that Virgil here and elsewhere hard. “Cecropias' is a literary epithet, is more or less consciously mock-heroic. but it is applied intentionally, to invest the • Massa’ seems to be the lump of ore, in- bees with the dignity of the old mythical

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180

Munere quamque suo. Grandaevis oppida curae,
Et munire favos, et daedala fingere tecta.
At fessae multa referunt se nocte minores,
Crura thymo plenae ; pascuntur et arbuta passim
Et glaucas salices casiamque crocumque rubentem
Et pinguem tiliam et ferrugineos hyacinthos.
Omnibus una quies operum, labor omnibus unus :
Mane ruunt portis ; nusquam mora ; rursus easdem
Vesper ubi e pastu tandem decedere campis
Admonuit, tum tecta petunt, tum corpora curant ;
Fit sonitus, mussantque oras et limina circum.
Post, ubi iam thalamis se conposuere, siletur

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and historical associations of one of the 182.] ‘Salices,' E. 1. 55. 'Casiam,' 2. chief honey-making countries, the reference 213. *Crocum,' called 'rubentem' bere, being to Hymettus, and so to show that the xpvoavyng by Soph. Oed. C. 685, referred comparison, for which an apology bas just to by Cerda. The three divisions of the been made, is not altogether extravagant. style, Martyn remarks, are of the colour of * Amor habendi' again exalts the bees by fire. Col. (9. 4) directs it to be planted near attributing to them a human passion, the hive to colour and scent the honey. though one which is more generally blamed 183.] . Tiliam,' v. 141, here called 'pinthan praised (A. 8. 327).

guem' from the gluten on its leaves. 178.] Munere suo' seems to be a * Ferrugineos,' note on I. 467. modal abl., belonging not so much to any 184.] Some MSS. connect 'operum thing expressed in the sentence as to the with · labor,' but 2. 155, A. 1. 455, where notion of working implied in ‘non aliter the combination occurs, are, as Forb. reurguet.' •Grandaevis :' the same division is marks, not in point. “Mors laborum ac noticed by Aristot. 1. c. twv uelettwy miseriarum quies est,” Cic. 4 Cat. 4. αι μεν πρεσβύτεραι τα είσω εργάζονται, 185.] • Ruunt portis' again recalls mili. kai daosiai ciou õià ciow pévelv. ai tary associations. 'Jacobs comp. Livy 27.41, νέαι έξωθεν φέρoυσι, και εισί λειότεραι. equites peditesque certatim portis ruere.' There is also a reference, as Serv. remarks,

186.]

*E pastu decedere,' 1. 381. to the custom of setting the old men to man 187.] ‘Corpora curant,' referring to the the walls while the young go out and fight. evening refreshment, A. 3. 511, Hor. 2 S.

179.] • Munire' for · fabricari,' to keep 2. 80 ; “curare corpora cibo somnoque," up the image of a town. This seems simpler Livy 3. 2. Serv. observes that as applied than to suppose the reference to be to the to men it includes bathing as well as eating; fencing of the hive, or to the closing of as applied to bees, only the latter. the cells with wax so as to preserve the 188.] Musso,' the frequentative of winter-stores. For • fingere' one MS. has ‘mutio,' a verb formed from the sourd, like 'figere:' see on v. 57. The epithet .dae. the Greek utsw, is here applied to the dala' is well known to the readers of Lucr. humming of bees, as in A. ll. 454 to the

180.] . Multa nocte' must mean when murmuring of the old men of Latium. In the night is far advanced, an inappropriate A. ll. 345., 12. 657, 718, it has the expression here, as the bees, like all other notion of hesitation, the implied contrast animals, hasten home before it is dark. being with articulate utterance, and as such Keightley. Stat. Ach. ). 555, quoted by it takes in the former passage an infinitive, Cerda, expresses himself more accurately, in the two latter a subjoined clause. Oras' " quales iam nocte propinqua E pastu re- of the entrances : see on v. 38.- Aristot. I. feruntur apes ;'' and so Virgil himself v. 186. c. adds a circumstance to Virgil's descrip

181.] • Plenus' has here rather the force tion: ¿QuŪoal hálı Popußovoi apuof repletus,' as Keightley remarks, compar- τον, κατά μικρόν δ' ήττον, έως αν μία ing Hor. 1 Ep. 20. 8., 2. 1. 100. Pascuntur, περιπετομένη βομβηση, ώσπερ σημαί3. 314. Pascuntur in order of time would νουσα καθεύδειν' είτ' εξαπίνης σιωπώσιν. precede “referunt.' The sense is merely 189.] • Thalamis :' Jacobs comp. Antithat the old bees stay at home, the young phil. Ep. 29, jealoowv avto aykis Balápar: gather honey abroad,

Nicias Ep. 7, κηροπαγής θάλαμος,

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In noctem, fessosque sopor suus occupat artus.

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Nec vero a stabulis pluvia inpendente recedunt
Longius, aut credunt caelo adventantibus Euris ;
Sed circum tutae sub moenibus urbis aquantur,
Excursusque brevis temptant, et saepe lapillos,
Ut cymbae instabiles fluctu iactante saburram, 195
Tollunt, his sese per inania nubila librant.
Illum adeo placuisse apibus mirabere morem,
Quod neque concubitu indulgent, nec corpora segnes
In Venerem solvunt, aut fetus nixibus edunt;
Verum ipsae e foliis natos et suavibus herbis

200
Ore legunt, ipsae regem parvosque Quirites

Sufficiunt, aulasque et cerea regna refingunt. 190.] 'Sopor suus' is probably to be 197—209.] • Bees do not generate like explained like vere suo,' v. 22, 'the sleep other animals, but find their young among they love,'kindly sleep,' the chord being the flowers. Their ardour in their honeyas it were struck by the epithet ‘fessos, getting work is such, that they often expose though it is conceivable that suus’ may themselves to accidental death while engaged have a distributive force, as if it had been in it. In any case they are short-lived, * cuique suus.' With the former interpreta- seven years being their limit, yet the race tion Forb. well comp. Ov. M. 6. 489, ever goes on.' “ placido dantur sua corpora somno,” where 197.] This or a similar opinion on a very the relation is reversed.

vexed question was held by others of the 191.] Nec vero' seems to mark a ancients : see Aristot. H. A. 5. 21, Pliny transition, as in 2. 109, there being no 11. 16. · Adeo apparently emphasizes particular connexion of this and the follow- “illum :' see on E. 4. 11. ing notices of the babits of bees with the 198.] Quod neque' is restored by preceding description, or with each other. Wagn. from Rom. and other MSS. for

Stabulis,' v. 14. Aratus (Diosem. 296) • Quod nec,' as more in accordance with mentions the indisposition of bees to fly Virgil's usual practice in the latter part of far among the signs of rain.

the first foot of a hexameter, the only un192.] Credere' is understood by Serv. doubted instance on the other side being and Keightley, as if it were 'se credere ' A. 5.783, "Quam nec longa dies, pietas nec like "ausus se credere caelo," A. 6. 15; mitigat ulla,” where, as he thinks, the slow“ dubio se credere caelo," Quinct. Decl. 13. ness of the measure suits the feeling of the 17; but it is simpler to understand it in the passage. ordinary way, of trusting to the aspect of 199.] Fornixibus' Med., Rom., and the sky, like “ caelo et pelago confise sereno, others give 'nexibus,' but Wagn. rightly A. 5. 870.

observes that Virgil is speaking in this 193.] Circum,' round the hive, explained clause of the female alone. We shall find by .sub moenibus urbis.' Some MSS. of a similar variety in A. 1. 448. Priscian 8. 79 read' pro moenibus,' but ‘sub' 200.] 'Ipsae,' without the male. “Suais given from others by Keil, and is supported vibus,' the plants from which they gather by Non. s. v. 'aquari,' an older authority. honey. Aristot. (l. c.) says that of those

194.] The fact of bees ballasting them- who held this opinion some said the young selves with stones is mentioned by Aristot. bees were found in the cerintha, some on H. A. 9. 40, and other ancient writers. reeds, some on olive-blossoms.

196.] The spondee tollunt,' followed 201.] 'Quirites' is a step further than by a pause, expresses the difficulty of rising the poet has yet taken, investing the cominto the air so ballasted, as Wagn. remarks. monwealth of bees not merely with the *Inania' is an ordinary epithet, used here dignity of men, but with the glories of the to account for the need of ballast. Voss Roman people. Seneca (Thyest. 396) makes well compares “nubes et inania captet,” Hor. his chorus of Argives speak of a country A. P. 230, though he erroneously under- life as “ nullis nota Quiritibus.” stands the epithet here to mean rainless 202.] •Sufficiunt,' 3. 65. • Refigunt’is clouds.

the reading of Med. and other MSS., but

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205

Saepe etiam duris errando in cotibus alas
Attrivere, ultroque animam sub fasce dedere:
Tantus amor florum et generandi gloria mellis.
Ergo ipsas quamvis angusti terminus aevi
Excipiat; neque enim plus septuma ducitur aestas;
At genus inmortale manet, multosque per annos

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refingunt' has considerable support, and moreover the interpretation is confessedly seems intrinsically the better word, though open to the objection that it supposes vv. Forb. gives only one other instance of its 206 foll. to be unconnected with what preuse, from Apuleius. The preparation of cedes. “Errando :' so Chapman's Homer, new cells or renewal of the old ones seems to Il. 2. 40) : “ thick as swarms of flies Throng be mentioned as a natural pendant to the then to sheep-cotes, when each swarm his renovation of the race, so that the process erring wing applies To milk dew'd on the which brings about the latter is associated milkmaid's pails.” with the former also.

204.] · Ultro’ is explained by Wagn. as 203—205.] Sir Daniel Molyneux sug- = 'insuper' or adeo,' a sense easily regested to Martyn that these three lines ought concilable with its etymology, and apto follow v. 196, and Schrader, Heyne, plicable to its use elsewhere. But it may Forb., and Keightley incline to agree with be doubted whether it is not rather to be him. Wagn. thinks they did not belong to understood here, as in E. 8. 52, and many the original draught, but were written after- other passages in Virgil, “gratuitously,' . of wards—a theory which he applies to other their own accord,' which is as readily conpassages in the Georgics. There is certainly nected with the derivation from ‘ulter,' the great apparent awkwardness in the pre- action being beyond what was expected. sent passage as it stands ; but either of the The death of the bees may be considered two hypotheses would be very hazardous. as gratuitous, or what is the same thing, Wagn.'s other instances appear to break generous, being encountered in the public down, the only cases made out as probable service. (So also Ameis.) The death is being such as 2. 171 foll., 3. 32, where the doubtless meant to be the result of the ininsertion, if it be an insertion, is not an ex- jury to the wings, so that 'sub fasce' may crescence on the poem, but carefully ren- express not only the effect of the load in dered homogeneous with it: while it may helping to destroy life, but the constancy be doubted whether there is any other in- of the sufferer in refusing to part with his stance in Virgil, the general integrity of burden. • Fasce,' 3. 347. •Animam dewhose text is quite beyond suspicion, where dere:' vitam dare' occurs A. 9. 704,' edere it can be shown to be really likely that animam' Cic. Pro Sest. 38. lines have been transposed. Perhaps we 205.] Comp. 2. 301., 3. 112. are wrong in seeking for any close con- 206.] 'Ergo' seemingly calls back the nexion in a context like this, where, as has mind to the main thought of the preceding been remarked on v. 191, the various notices context, the propagation of the race of of the habits of bees seem to be rather bees. See instances of a similar use of the isolated from each other. If it is necessary word in Hand, Turs. 2. 462, 463. “Ipsas' to discover a link, it may be suggested that distinguished from genus. A former readthe mention of the constant succession ing “angustus ' has little or no authority. reminded Virgil of the accidents which carry 207.] · Excipiat' is explained by Heyne, off bees before their time, in themselves a probably enough, after the analogy of laproof of the energy of the race, and that Beiv and laxciv used of fortune as befallthence he was led to observe that in spite ing a person, the force of the preposition of the frequency of such accidents and the being that the fortune in question succeeds scanty lives enjoyed by individuals in any to some supposed previous state; but it case, the line was inextinguishable. Bryce may have a distinct reference to the term of supposes the connexion to be, that though their life as receiving them at their birth, a they have not the ordinary inducement to sense illustrated in note on 2. 345. In A. provide for their young, they still work in- 3. 317, 318, to which Heyne refers, the defatigably, risking and even sacrificing succession is not implied, but expressed their lives, a thing only to be explained by in the words “deiectam coniuge tanto.” their love of their occupation. But Virgil Aristot. (H. A. 5. 22) gives six or seven evidently supposes them to rear their young, years as the ordinary limit of their life, whether they generate them or no; and nine or ten as the extreme, 'Plus sep

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