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120

Vela traham et terris festinem advertere proram,
Forsitan et, pinguis hortos quae cura colendi
Ornaret, canerem, biferique rosaria Paesti,
Quoque modo potis gauderent intiba rivis
Et virides apio ripae, tortusque per herbam
Cresceret in ventrem cucumis ; nec sera comantem
Narcissum aut flexi tacuissem vimen acanthi
Pallentisque hederas et amantis litora myrtos.
Namque sub Oebaliae memini me turribus altis,
Qua niger humectat flaventia culta Galaesus,
Corycium vidisse senem, cui pauca relicti

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125

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117.] *Trahere,' of furling the sails, climate the narcissus Aowers about the like contrahere. For the confusion of autumnal equinox : uerà áprtoūpov . tenses, traham canerem,' Forb. Kai Tepi ionuepiav, Theophr. H. P. 6. 6. comp. Tibull. 1. 8. 22, et faceret, si non 123.] Comp. E. 3. 45 (note),

" molli aera repulsa sonent." The force of the acantho." present seems to be to bring out more 124.] · Pallentisque hederas,' E. 3. 39 vividly the clause containing the condition, note. Amantis litora myrtos,' 2. 112, 113. by representing the conditioned action as 125.] • Oebaliae,' a name of Laconia, having anticipated that on which it depends, usually derived from a mythical king Oebaand so being prevented when it has already lus, is given here, as in Claud. Prob. et Ol. begun.

Cons. 260, to Tarentum, which was founded 118.] Colendi’ is almost pleonastic. by a Laconian colony. Heyne, supposing Virgil probably intended to combine the that it could not be so used, changed altis? phrases quae cura hortos ornaret,' and into arcis' from a quotation of the line by

quae esset cura hortorum colendorum,' or Arusianus Messius. hortis colendis.'

126.] Niger :' “Though the course of 119.] The rosaries of Paestum are a the Galaesus is short, it is of some depth, commonplace among the Latin poets. Ov. and its waters are clear : hence he calls it M. 15. 708, Prop. 5. 5. 61. Tenore, quoted dark,' in opposition probably to the flaby Keightley, says that as he has never met Tibris, and other rivers of Italy with any twice-blowing roses in the country which were usually turbid” (Keightley). A round Paestum, it is probably of cultivated contrast is of course intended between roses that Virgil speaks. * Rosaria' may "niger' and 'flaventia.' Some of the old depend either on ornaret' or on.

editions read piger,' from a correction of 120.] •Intiba' here is not succory, Scopa. Propertius apparently refers to this oépıç áypia, as in 1. 120, but endive, gépis passage, 3. 26. 67, where he describes KYTTEUTÝ, as being a garden plant.

Virgil himself as producing his Eclogues 121.] • Apio,' E. 6. 68. The endive re- “umbrosi subter pineta Galaesi," an epijoices in the water it drinks, the banks of thet which may partially account for • niger' the stream rejoice in the parsley. Wund. here, though Forb. thinks otherwise. comp. 2. 112, “ litora myrtetis laetissima." 127.] Corycium' from Corycus in Ci• Tortus per herbam,' winding along the licia, which was famous for saffron (Hor. grass. From this and from cresceret in 2 s. 4. 68), as Cilicia was for the art ventrem’ Tenore (in Keightley) supposes of gardening (“Cilicum pomaria,' Mart. 8. that Virgil refers not to the common cucum- 14. 1). This old man may have been a her, but to the cocomero serpentino,' which freedman, or one of the Cilician pirates is twice its length, has a crooked neck and whom Pompey transplanted into Calabria swollen belly, and tastes like the melon. (Suet. ap. Serv.). • Relicti,' not inherited

122.] With cresceret in ventrem’ Forb. (Burm.), which would not agree with the comp. Ov. M. 2.479, “ crescere in ungues, old man's being from Cilicia, but land unof Callisto's hands in her transformation appropriated, not marked out in the assigninto a bear; ib. 5. 547, “inque caput crés- ments, either from its undesirableness, as cit," of Ascalaphus when changed into an here, or for some other reason.

Forb. reowl. "Sera comantem :' in a favourable fers to Frontin. de Limit. p. 42, Goes., and

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Iugera ruris erant, nec fertilis illa iuvencis,
Nec pecori opportuna seges, nec commoda Baccho.
Hic rarum tamen in dumis olus albaque circum 130
Lilia verbenasque premens vescumque papaver,
Regum aequabat opes animis, seraque revertens
Nocte domum dapibus mensas onerabat inemptis.
Primus vere rosam atque autumno carpere poma,
Et cum tristis hiemps etiamnum frigore saxa

135 Rumperet et glacie cursus frenaret aquarum, quotes Cic. Agr. 1. 1, “ Utrum tandem majority of MSS., including the best, hanc silvam in relictis possessionibus, an in should, I think, be retained, as against censorum pascuis invenistis ? ” where see · animo,' the sense being, not, as Wagn. Long's note.

supposes, he matched in his own imagi128.] Contrast 2. 221 foll., which Virgil nation the wealth of kings' = he thought may have had in mind, and for the general himself as rich as a king, but he ma characteristics of the country about Taren- the wealth of kings by his spirit' (for tum, ib. 197. Fertilis iuvencis' is perhaps aequare' with abl. see A. 3 671, and to be explained like Hor. 2 Od. 15. 8, probably A. 2. 362), i. e. he was as proud “ olivetis Fertilibus domino priori,” of bis riches as a king, or his spirit was as yielding produce to or under ; but iuvencis' high as if he had a king's wealth (Hor. may be virtually equivalent to “arando' (as 2 Od. 10. 20, “rebus angustis animosus Heyne takes it, though apparently regard. atque Fortis appare ''). Ladewig keeps ing it as an ablative, explaining it iuven- • animis, but connects it, very unnaturally, corum labore, aratione '), fruitful for pur. with regum,' he thought his wealth as poses of ploughing.'

great as the pride of kings,' i. e, as that 129.] Commoda,' if not opportuna,' which kings are proud of. may be transferred from human qualities : 133.] • Dapibus inemptis' is imitated see on 2. 223, “ facilem pecori et patientem by or from Hor. Epod. 2. 48, “dapes invomeris unci." • Seges' is equally ap- emptas apparet.” 'Onerabat' is to be noted, plicable to land sown and land intended for as expressing the abundance of the produce. sowing. Here it will mean the latter, being 134.] The infin. is not historical, as applied properly to iuvencis' and 'Baccho' Heyne and Forb. take it, but depends on as corn-land and vineyard, improperly to primus,' as in Sil

. 1. 160 (quoted by . pecori,' as pasture-land. For the aptitude Forcell.), “ Primus inire manu, postremus of the neighbourhood of Tarentum in gene. ponere Martem.” ral for pasturage and vines see Hor. 2 Od. 135.] •Etiamnum’ is restored by Wagn. 6. 10. 18.

from Med. and the Gudian MS. for etiam 130.] ‘Hic' seems to be the pronoun nunc.' Various accounts are given of the rather than the adverb. “Rarum :' panc- distinction between them : Wagn. thinks tile' (pango), Serv.; planted in rows or

etiam nunc' refers to present, etiam drills,' Keightley. "In dumis' is probably num'to past time: Forb., following Kritz. an exaggerated expression, showing the on Sall. Cat. 2. 1, says that in ' etiam num tendency of the soil against which he had the stress is laid on etiam,' 'num' being to struggle. “Olus' is the garden-plants enclitic, while in 'etiam nunc' both words that were used for food, ' garden-stuff' in have their proper force; an explanation the language of our peasantry (Keightley), which, though advanced against Wagn.'s, • Circum,' round the beds of garden-stuff seems virtually coincident with it; while (Heyne).

Hand, Tursell. 2. 580 foll., considers them 131. j • Verbenas,' E. 8. 65, perhaps used to be used indiscriminately. here specially of vervain, as in Pliny 25. 9. 136.) • Rumperet :' Voss. comp. Afran. It would then be planted for the sake of (fr. Epistula) v. 106, “silices cum findit the bees (Heyne), and also for medicinal gelus.” Virgil is thinking rather of the purposes (Martyn). • Premens,' 2. 346 effect of the cold in other places than at note. • Vescum : see on 3. 175. The re- Tarentum, where the winter was unusually ference here is probably to the smallness of mild (Hor. 2 Od. 6. 17), as Keightley obthe poppy's seeds.

serves. "Glacie... aquarum : Germ. comp. 132.] Animis,' the reading of the great Lucr. 6. 530, “Et vis magna geli, mag

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Ille comam mollis iam tondebat hyacinthi,
Aestatem increpitans seram zephyrosque morantis.
Ergo apibus fetis idem atque examine multo
Primus abundare et spumantia cogere pressis
Mella favis ; illi tiliae atque uberrima pinus ;
Quotque in flore novo pomis se fertilis arbos
Induerat, totidem autumno matura tenebat.
Ille etiam seras in versum distulit ulmos

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num duramen aquarum, Et mora, quae flu- which appears in one Ms., meant the old vios passim refrenat euntis."

man to be the subject of the verb, under137.] The old reading was iam tum standing matura'

The tree is tondebat acanthi,' which would hardly suit said induere se pomis,' the fruit being the sense, the "acanthus' being semper regarded as there potentially, that the frondens' (2. 119), whereas the point here reader may understand that the promise is that the old man got his plant to flower was fully given and fully redeemed. At the before the season. This was pointed out same time .in flore novo' serves to explain by Heyne, who restored • iam tondebat in what sense 'poma’ is used, while it also hyacinthi’ from Med. and some others, is virtually equivalent to 'vere novo,' and a reading previously maintained by Achilles so answers to 'autumno' as well as to Tatius. The commentators explain co- .matura.' mam' of the flower and tondebat' of 144.] •Differo' as applied to trees, gathering (“ nunc violas tondere manu plants, &c. means to plant out, implying a Prop. 4. 13. 29).

removal from a confined space, such as a 138.] «Taunting the spring for its lazi. nursery garden, to a more open one where ness,' as a master might a dilatory servant, there is room for growing. Thus it is virwhose work he had been obliged to do bimself. tually synonymous with transfero,' though 139.] ‘Fetis'

may be either pregnant or in strictness it has a different sense. See just delivered (see on E. 1. 50). Either Col. 11. 3, where the word frequently reway the sense is the same, the old man curs, and comp. the use of digero' G. having a swarm of young bees before his 2. 54, 267. Hence it appears that Serv. neighbours, and either way Virgil is incon- and Philarg. are right with Martyn and sistent with what he says afterwards of the others against Wagn. and Forb. in undergeneration of bees. • Examine multo’ is standing Virgil to be speaking of transplanexplained by “fetis.'

tation here, a sense which accords admirably 140.] • Pressis' may refer to the strain- with the epithets attached to the several ing of the honey (v. 101 note), as well as trees, 'seras,' eduram,' .iam pruna ferentis,' to collecting it by squeezing the combs (v. • iam ministrantem,' &c. The peculiarity 231 note).

was that he could remove trees and plant 141.] The lime-tree is known to be a them out when they had arrived at mafavourite with bees: Col. (9. 4) recommends turity, from which we may infer that in it among other trees, as also the pine. For such cases they had been transplanted once . tiliae' Med. gives tilia,' which hardly already. Wagn.'s objection that we want seems worth adopting on its single authority. to know not what the old man did but • Uberrima' might refer either to the luxu- what he had is frivolous, as the former imriance of the individual trees, or to the num- plies the latter and something more, and bers in which they grew; but the use of the his doings have been already spoken of vv. sing. seems to point rather to the latter. 133, 137, while the counter interpretation, Philarg. says that Virgil left a choice of two which takes • distulit' ='dilatas habuit,' and readings, pinus' and 'tinus,' the latter supposes the meaning to be that the gardener being a kind of wild bay-tree.

had trees in his garden arrived at maturity 142, 143.] It seems more idiomatic to take which he had planted in his youth, by no in flore novo' of the tree than of its fruit. means comes up to the studied force of the • Matura’ accordingly will belong to ‘arbos,' poet's expressions. •In versum

= 'in not to 'poma.“Tenebat' means retained,' ordinem,' like 'versu' A. 5. 119, quoted • kept possession of,' not a single blossom by Serv. • Versus' is said to be properly being lost, but all turning to fruit in due a furrow, 'a vertendo aratro,' whence it time. The author of the reading legebat,' comes to be used of a written line. In two

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145

Eduramque pirum et spinos iam pruna ferentis
Iamque ministrantem platanum potantibus umbras.
Verum haec ipse equidem spatiis exclusus iniquis
Praetereo atque aliis post me memoranda relinquo.

Nunc age, naturas apibus quas Iuppiter ipse
Addidit expediam, pro qua mercede, canoros

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of its senses at any rate it answers to far as can be judged from a quotation στίχος.

in Martyn's note, with greater success, 145.] 'Edurus,' a strengthening of du- though Heyne, after mentioning Columella rus, asegelidus,' A. 8. 610, of gelidus.' with apparent respect, says, “ Nam Rapini *Spinos :' whether · the "

spinus' is the hac de re insipidum opus in hunc censum thorn, or, as Martyn takes it, the plum-tree, non venit.” (Mr. Hallam, Literature of and if the former, whether the 'pruna' are Europe, vol. 3, pp. 481, 482, judges very sloes, or plums engrafted on it, seem to be favourably of Rapin's work.) Pliny (14, doubtful points.

prooem.) intimates that the real reason why 146.] So Ov. (M. 10.95) calls the plane- Virgil did not write on flowers was the humtree genialis.'

bleness of the subject; but this seems a 147.] Excludi tempore (temporibus)' mere arbitrary guess. It is at least as is quoted by Forcell. from Cic. 2 Verr. likely that he thought a rural poem could 3. 56, Caes. B. G. 7. 11, in the sense of not be extended beyond four books without being prevented by time (or, as we should weariness to himself and his readers, that say, by shortness of time) from doing this he recoiled from the difficulty of minute or that. In the same way Virgil here com- botanical description. A model he might plains of being cut off by the narrowness apparently have found in Nicander : see of his limits from dilating or expatiating. Introductory Essay. • Spatio iniquo' occurs A. 5. 203 of sailing, 149 – 169.) “The nature and habits of so that we need not suppose the metaphor bees are unique-a privilege which they of the chariot race to be resumed, unless owe to their ancient services to Jupiter. the plural be thought to make a difference. With them, and with them alone, the com• Iniquus' here of injustice by defect, as in munity is every thing. Hence their division 1. 164 of injustice by excess.

of labour, some seeking food abroad, some 148.] The reading here is not quite cer- at home making combs, some training the tain, some MSS. giving 'post me memo. young, some storing honey, some keeping randa, others post haec memoranda,' watch, some taking in burdens, some exothers post commemoranda,' which was pelling drones—all working to one end.' adopted by the older editors; others again, 149.] •Nunc age :' a Lucretian formula among them Med., ' post memoranda.' It of transition (e. g. 1. 265, 921). Natura :' seems probable that the first is right, as of the natural constitution, as in Cic. ad «me' might easily slip out before 'memo- Q. F. 2. 16, “ quos situs, quas naturas reranda,' and those who had the imperfect rum et locorum," so that it is virtually text before them, such as that of Med., equivalent to indoles,' 'mores,' or 'inwould supply the missing word "ex in- genium.' The plural is probably used begenio.' The reference in Col. 10 praef. cause the word is meant to be taken disproves nothing, except that he read “me. tributively, as in the passage just cited, moranda,' not * commemoranda.' *Serv. though from Cic. N. D. 2. 57, quod his says that in aliis ' Virgil pointed to Gar- naturis relatus amplificatur sonus," it would gilius Martialis, who however is quoted by seem that it might express natural qualino earlier writer than Palladius, so that, as ties, as predicated of any one bee. “Ipse :' Martyn remarks, he can hardly have been see on l. 121. intended unless Virgil were prophet as well 150.] · Addidit' need mean as poet. The task was undertaken by Colu- than 'indidit;' it seems however from the mella, who accordingly wrote the tenth book context to be used in our sense of add,' as of his De Re Rustica in verse, at the in- if the bees had not had their nature ori. stance, as he tells us, of his friend Silvinus; ginally, but received it afterwards as wages. but though his prose often runs into poetical So “virus serpentibus addidit” (1. 129). phraseology, his poetry is apt to be prosaic. Naturas' is the object of expediam,' À later writer, the Jesuit Rapin, made a quas' being simply relative, not quasisimilar attempt at greater length, and so interrogative, which accounts for the indica

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Curetum sonitus crepitantiaque aera secutae,
Dictaeo caeli Regem pavere sub antro.
Solae communis natos, consortia tecta
Urbis habent, magnisque agitant sub legibus aevum,
Et patriam solae et certos novere penatis ;
Venturaeque hiemis memores aestate laborem
Experiuntur et in medium quaesita reponunt.
Namque aliae victu invigilant et foedere pacto
Exercentur agris; pars intra saepta domorum

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tive . addidit.' On .pro qua mercede,' for thinks they were so called when they did which in more simple writing we should have not divide the hereditas' but kept it in had. mercedem, propter quod paverant,' or common. Keightley observes that Virgil something of the kind, Keightley well re- in his anxiety to exalt the bees must have marks, “he makes the bees, like men, with forgotten the ants, which the ancients, whom all through he assimilates them, to though erroneously, thought no less examlabour with a view to the reward, instead of ples of social prudence. See on 1. 186. the reward being a thing of which they had 154.] · Magnis,' ornamental, like rõv po previous conception, and which was given yeyálwv Ozouwv Soph. Ant. 797, "magin consequence of their labours.'

num fas nefasque”. Hor. Epod. 5. 87. 151.] The story is told by Callimachus, •They live under the majesty of law.' Hymn to Zeus, v. 50, and is referred to Agitare aevum,” A. 10. 235. See on 2. by Col. 9. 2, who, in discussing the origin 527 above. of bees, says An, ut Euemerus poeta 155.] • Patriam' and

• penatis' are dicit, crabronibus et sole genitas apes, coupled 2. 514, according to the reading quas nymphae Phryxonides educaverunt, I have there adopted.

“ Certi penates, mox Dictaeo specu Jovis exstitisse nutrices, A. 8. 39, like “certa domus" A. 6. 672. easque pabula munere dei sortitas, quibus Thus 'novere' is more than a mere syno. ipsae parvum educaverant alumnum.; As nym of 'habuere,' apparently including in the next sentence he talks of Virgil's both the recognition of the principle of allusion to the story, it seems possible that patriotism and domestic life, and familiarity the words "pabula munere dei sortitas' with the things themselves. may be founded on a misunderstanding of 156.] · Hiemis memores,' A. 4. 403. the present passage; but the loss of Eue- 157.] • In medium :' apparently with merus' work will not allow us to speak quaesita,' as l. 127 would seem to show, with certainty. For the Curetum sonitus' though it might also be constructed with see Lucr. 2. 629 foll., who gives a different, 'reponunt.' but not inconsistent account of the sound, 158.] So Aristot. H. A. 9.40, diýpnurai as intended to drown the cries of the infant δε τα έργα ... και αι μεν κηρία εργάζονται, Jupiter. So Hygin. Fab. 132. For the αι δε το μέλι, αι δ' έριθάκην και αι μεν effect on the bees, see v. 64 above. The Aláttovoi anpia, ai dè ö8wp pépovoiv office of feeding Jupiter was by others εις τους κυττάρους και μιγνύουσι τη attributed to doves, which carried him am. μέλιτι, αι δ' επ' έργον έρχονται. The brosia, and were as a reward turned into division of labour is of course a clear proof stars, the Pleiades. See Od. 12. 63, and of a common purpose, consciously or unthe commentators there.

consciously realized. So .foedere pacto.' 153.] The reference is to a community“ Venatu invigilant,” A. 9. 602. of children, like that desired by Plato in 159.] · Exercentur agris,' like “exerhis Republic, to which Serv. appositely centur equis,” A. 7. 163, except that the refers. This is accounted for by the fact ablative here seems to be local. 'Saepta that the ordinary bees are not parents, as domorum,' like “tuta domorum,” A. ll. will be seen below. Wagn. restores the 882. So perhaps“ tecta domorum,” A. 8. form.natos' for 'gnatos' from Med. a m. 98., 12. 132. See Madv. § 284, obs. 5, who sec. and Vat. Consortia tecta urbis' seems rightly observes that the neuter in such to mean dwellings united into a city, the expressions is sometimes used partitively, latter being the emphatic word. Techni. sometimes denotes the quality, if indeed it cally consors means a co-heir (Festus s. is not better to say generally that the vv. disertiones,' • sors '), though Mr. Long shades of meaning are nearly as various as

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