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Ipsae consident medicatis sedibus, ipsae
Intima more suo sese in cunabula condent.

Sin autem ad pugnam exierint-nam saepe duobus
Regibus incessit magno discordia motu ;
Continuoque animos volgi et trepidantia bello
Corda licet longe praesciscere ; namque morantis
Martius ille aeris rauci canor increpat, et vox
Auditur fractos sonitus imitata tubarum;
Tum trepidae inter se coeunt, pennisque coruscant,

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loquence, curiously contrasting with our the subject, and sympathizing with his use of the key and warming pan. The heroes. • Exierint' refers to what has reference is to the mythological story which been said previously (v. 58, &c.) about is indicated more fully v. 150 foll. The their leaving the hive, so that ad pugnam' ancients were divided on the question is emphatic, as is also shown by its posiwhether the bees were frightened or pleased tion. If it be for battle that they have by the sound, Varro (3. 16), Col. (9. 8. 12) left the hive;' .if their going out be for holding the former opinion, which is ac- battle.' cepted by Lucan (9. 288, 289), Pliny (11. 68.] • Regibus' is doubtless to be con20) and the writer in Geopon. (15. 3) nected with incessit,' as in Sall. Cat. 31, the latter. Aristot. (H. A. 9. 40) says “ mulieres, quibus ... timor insolitus inthat they appear to be pleased, but adds, cesserat,” and other passages quoted in έστι μέντοι άδηλον όλως εί ακούουσιν, και Kritz's note there. Other reasons for πότερον δι' ηδονήν τούτο ποιούσιν (as: these conflicts are assigned by ancient and semble after swarming) ή διά φόβον. modern autborities beside the claims of

65, 66.] Medicatis sedibus,' on the rival monarchs, such as rivalry in getting branches so rubbed. • Cunabula' probably honey (Pliny 11. 17) and actual want, refers to the hive to which the bees are to when the inhabitants of one hive will be transferred, as intima' seems to show. attack another (Aristot. H. A. 9. 40), and If the reference to the branches were con- if one nation loses its queen, the vantinued, 'more suo' might point to their quished will combine with the victors method of taking rest by clustering to- (London Encyclopaedia, “Apis'). The gether, “pedibus per mutua nexis” (A. 7. error of the ancients in supposing the 66), which would account for cunabula.' queen bee to be a king is well known.

67–87.] *When there are two kings in 69.] *Trepidantia bello :' “ alacritate pugthe hive there is a battle. First there are nandi; non timore," Serv., rather a bold hoarse murmurs, alarms as if of a trumpet: expression, so that in default of a parallel then the bees form round their king, issue it seems better to regard • bello as dative forth into the air, and the action begins, with Voss. Comp. A. 7. 482, “belloque and lasts until one or the other party is animos accendit agrestis.' routed. You may stop it however by 71.] Canor' occurs Lucr. 4. 181, where sprinkling a little dust among the com- it is applied to the note of the swan. batants.'

• Martius aeris canor' is explained by the 67.] Virgil evidently intended to give next line to mean a sound as of a trumpet. directions as to what should be done by Ille' seems to mean well known to warthe bee-keeper in the case of a battle, as riors,'not well known to bee-keepers.' This he has just now laid down a rule to meet noise is made by the bees not only when the case of swarming; but he strikes at preparing for a battle but before swarming once into a parenthesis which swells into a out, &c. Varro (3. 16) says, “ Hique duces regular description, forming a paragraph of conficiunt quaedam ad vocem ut imitatione itself, and we can only collect what the apo. tubae, tum id faciunt, cum inter se signa dosis would have been from w. 86, 87, and belli et pacis habeant." the following paragraph, where he returns 72.] Fractos' expresses the successive from the bees to their owner. This ir- short blasts of a trumpet. regularity of structure, as Forb. remarks, 73.] ‘Corusco' is used with an ablative, has doubtless a design of its own, the poet like .mico,' 3. 84, 439, to which it is throwing bimself into the enthusiasm of equivalent in sense. So Ov. M. 4. 494,

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Spiculaque exacuunt rostris, aptantque lacertos,
Et circa regem atque ipsa ad praetoria densae
Miscentur, magnisque vocant clamoribus hostem.
Ergo ubi ver nactae sudum camposque patentis,
Erumpunt portis : concurritur aethere in alto;
Fit sonitus ; magnum mixtae glomerantur in orbem,
Praecipitesque cadunt; non densior aere grando,
Nec de concussa tantum pluit ilice glandis.
Ipsi per medias acies insignibus alis
Ingentis animos angusto in pectore versant,
Usque adeo obnixi non cedere, dum gravis aut hos

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“linguaque coruscant” (of serpents), where 79.] • Orbis' is not infrequently used of another reading is . linguas.'

a mass of men (Forcell. s. v.): here it 74.] ‘Rostris,' probably i. q. rostrorum,' signifies the mêlée' of the two armies. Virgil expressing himself with intentional 80.] It matters little whether a verb or unintentional accuracy, as if the bees substantive be supplied for densior' or wounded by their bite (comp.' morsibus,' 'pluit' from the next line. Serv. opporv. 237). The words might also mean tunely reminds us that in the encounters of “they sharpen their stings against their bees slayers perish as well as slain. beaks,' which again would be a mistaken 81.] This line is apparently referred to statement, as Keightley says. • Aptant,' by Valerius Probus in Cathol. (p. 1444 and

get in order for action,' a word rather 1464 Putsch), when he says that Virgil common in Virgil for putting on arms, uses 'haec glandis' as a nominative; Pris. A. 2. 672., 11. 8, &c.

cian however (6. 96, Keil) rightly connects 75.] • Praetoria,' properly the general's 'tantum glandis,' TogoŬTOv Balávov, though tent in the Roman army, seems here to he admits there is a doubt. mean the royal cell, which would naturally 82.] Wagn. makes a difficulty here, be more sacred than even the person of the because nothing has been specified to which monarch, as being the abode of his privacy, 'ipsi' can be referred, unless it be regem,'

77.] •Sudum,' more commonly an epithet v. 75. But the whole paragraph turns of the sky, is here applied to the season, on the two rival chiefs (v. 68), who are which it distinguishes from “imbriferum further pointed out by the words “insig. ver,” 1. 313. Comp. " aestatem liquidam” nibus alis' = 'insignes alis' (comp. A. 5. above, v. 59. The bees avoid rain in- 130 foll., where the commanders are menstinctively, very few stragglers being caught tioned as distinguished from the rest by in showers. Camposque patentis,' A. 5. their accoutrements). Nor is there any 552, of the ground cleared for tilting, here thing harsh in .per medias acies,' as the of the air, the battle-field of the bees, notion of movement is easily supplied.

patentis' apparently meaning cleared from The real distinction between the wings of storms, like “ caelo aperto” A. 1. 155, the queens and those of the rest is that the and the expression in v. 52 above, “caelum former are shorter ; but Virgil can scarcely reclusit.” • Nactae’ is used as a finite verb, have meant this. Col. however (9. 10) not as a participle, as Heyne would have says that the reges' have wings "pulcri it. Wagn. comp. 3. 233," ubi collectum coloris.” robur viresque refectae."

83.] Virgil may have thought, as Serv. 78.] It is difficult to decide whether supposes, of Homer's description of Tydeus • aethere in alto' belongs to .concurritur' (II. 5. 801), perpos uèv ënv dépas, allà or to “fit sonitus,' either of which clauses maxntus.

Versant' need be no more might stand well alone, the former as in than a poetical equivalent for habent;' Hor. 1 S. l. 7, the latter as in v. 188 but it may also refer to the plans which below. Perhaps the former punctuation is the generals are supposed to form, like to be preferred, as more clearly differencing “animum per omnia versat,” A. 4. 286 ; this from ordinary encounters, as Virgil may partis animum versabat in omnis,” ib. have wished to do even while describing it 630. in regular military language.

84.] · Adeo ' with .dum,' as in Plaut.

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Aut hos versa fuga victor dare terga subegit.
Hi motus animorum atque haec certamina tanta
Pulveris exigui iactu compressa quiescunt.

Verum ubi ductores acie revocaveris ambo,
Deterior qui visus, eum, ne prodigus obsit,
Dede neci; melior vacua sine regnet in aula.
Alter erit maculis auro squalentibus ardens ;
Nam duo sunt genera; hic melior, insignis et ore,
Et rutilis clarus squamis ; ille horridus alter
Desidia latamque trahens inglorius alvum.

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Merc. 3. 4. 71, ib. prol. 75, cited by For- next clause • vacua' is emphatic, implying cell., who refers to other passages where the removal of the rival. Aula' is not to . adeo donicum,' and 'adeo usque ut,' are be pressed, as it evidently does not signify similarly used. • Aut hos,' "aut hos' are either the hive, which would not be' vacua, placed in the same way A. 10. 9, 10. The or the royal cells, of which each monarch meaning seems to be neither king will give would have one. way till his army is fairly routed by main 91.) He is beginning to distinguish the force. We might have expected sub- two as alter ... alter,' when he breaks off egerit.'

that he may do it more formally. Macu85.] · Fuga dare terga,' A. 12. 463. lis auro squalentibus,' spots rough with * Subegit' restored by Heins. from most gold, apparently meaning that the spots MSS. for • coegit.'

seem to be laid on like scales of gold : 86.) In this and the following line "tunicam squalentem auro," A. 10. 312. Virgil's humour breaks out, relieving what 'Erit’ implies that these two varieties will would otherwise be felt to be mere exaggera- be found to exist when there has been a tion. The rhythm of the present line is battle, and this agrees substantially with evidently intended to be ultra-heroic as well Varro 3. 16,“ Praeterea ut animadvertat, as the expression.

ne reguli plures existant: inutiles enim 87.) So Varro I. c., Pliny 11. 17. Serv. fiunt propter seditiones, et, ut quidam says that the dust frightens them as ap- dicunt, tria genera cum sint ducum in parently prognosticating a storm, and a apibus, niger, ruber, varius, ut Menecrates modern writer (Lond. Encycl.) thinks that scribit duo, niger et varius ; qui ita, melior ; they probably mistake the dust for rain. ut expediat mellario, cum duo sint eadem

Quiescunt,' Med. and others, preferred alvo, interficere nigrum, quem scit cum by Heyne to the old reading “quiescent.' altero rege esse seditiosum et corrumpere

88–102.] When they are dispersed, alvum, quod fuget aut cum multitudine kill the worse of the two rivals. The dis-' fugetur.” tinction is easy: one is bright, with gold 92.] • Insignis et ore' seems to refer to spots on his body, the other cumbrous and form, as distinguished from colour. dingy. This difference of race extends to 93.] Rutilis squamis' = 'maculis auro the common bees, so that in filling your squalentibus.' ' Ille... alter,' 2. 397, where hive you should look out for the better however ‘hic' has not preceded. In sort, which will give you superior honey.' introducing the pleonasm here, Virgil may

88.) •Revocaveris :' whether by sprink- have meant to point not only to the previous ling dust, or allowing the contest to have line, but to the unfinished contrast v. 91. its natural end.

• Horridus desidia' seems to express the 89.] • Deterior' is explained by v. squalor arising from inaction, its hair rough 92 foll., so that it has no reference to &c. Col. (9. 10) distinguishes the better inferiority in the contest. Prodigus' is sort as ó leves ac sine pilo,' from the worse, generally explained as opposed to parcus,' which are ‘hirsuti.' consuming honey without making any re- 94.] 'Latam ... alvum:' with an unwieldy turn, as he is not wanted as a king : per- paunch, and slow in its movements; con. haps however it may mean 'superfluous,' as sequently less adapted to lead the swarm to . prodigus ’ is used of things lavished prodi- victory or successful labour (' inglorius '). gally.

So Aristot. (H. A. 9. 4) makes the darker 90.] Dede neci :' see on 3. 480. In the monarch twice the size of the other.

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Ut binae regum facies, ita corpora plebis.
Namque aliae turpes horrent, ceu pulvere ab alto
Cum venit et sicco terram spuit ore viator
Aridus ; elucent aliae et fulgore coruscant,
Ardentes auro et paribus lita corpora guttis.
Haec potior suboles ; hinc caeli tempore certo
Dulcia mella premes, nec tantum dulcia, quantum
Et liquida et durum Bacchi domitura saporem.

At cum incerta volant caeloque examina ludunt,
Contemnuntque favos et frigida tecta relinquunt,
Instabilis animos ludo prohibebis inani.
Nec magnus prohibere labor : tu regibus alas

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95.] · Plebis : Heins. from Med. and supposing bim to hover between two modes many others, as well as the better MSS. of expression, 'nec tantum dulcia, sed in Col. 9. 10, for the old reading ' gentis.' liquida,' and non tam dulcia quam liquida.' It should be remembered, though Virgil This use of 'tantum' for tam' with was not aware of the fact, that the queens adjectives is not very common. are not only the monarchs, but the parents 102.] The reference is to 'mulsum,' for of their subjects. • Binae' seems to be the which see note on l. 344, and Dict. A. predicate.

• vinum.' 96.] Horrent’ is explained by 'hor- 103—115.] •If your bees are given to ridus,' v. 93. From the words of Col. I. c. flying far rather than working in the hive, “ Nam deterior sordido sputo similis, tam the remedy is to clip their chief's wings. faedus quam pulvere ... viator,it would There should be a garden to attract them, seem as if he doubted whether the comparison and you should not grudge planting near was to the dusty traveller or to his spittle. the hive the herbs and trees they like, nor The commentators seem to take the former yet tending and watering them.' view, but the latter is not impossible, in 103.] Incerta,' vaguely, without an spite of the harshness with which the simile object,' as opposed to their issuing forth to would then be worded, as there would then collect honey. So • ludunt,' of expatiating be some point in terram spuit,' which idly in the air, as explained by v. 105. otherwise is a needlessly offensive detail. 104.] • Frigida :' opp. to the warmth • Alto :' the dust rising as it were in a imparted to the hive by their presence column; “pulvere caelum Stare vident,” A. (“ fovere' v. 43) and their labour (í fervet 12. 407.

opus' v. 169). 97.] *Terram pulverem,' only with 105.] ‘Instabilis animos,' like coupovów v a further notion of solidity.

ópviowv, Soph. Ant. 343, where there seems 99.] ‘Auro et guttis :' drops of gold. a mixture of moral and physical lightness. * Paribus,' like “paribus nodis,” E. 5. 90, Comp. also Aristoph. Birds 169, äv pw nog symmetrical.

όρνις αστάθμητος πετόμενος, 'Ατέκμαρτος, 100.] • Caeli tempore,' like “caeli men- oudèv oudé tror' ¿v tajrý uévwv.

1. 335, “caeli tempore " 3. 327. The 106.] · Tu' gives force to the precept, seasons meant are spring and autumn, v. as in 2. 241., 3. 163. In the former pas231.

sage, as here, there may be a contrast 101.] • Premes :'the honey being strained between human labour and the natural through wicker work, before being put into result, do you act thus : nature will do jars, Col. 9. 15, Hor. Epod. 2. 15. So the rest.' * Alas eripe: this is to be perhaps v. 140 below. * Nec tantum done, according to Col. 9. 10, by first dulcia :' Virgil apparently means not to rubbing the hand with balm, which will disparage the sweetness of the honey, prevent the bees from flying off. Didymus otherwise he would hardly have called it (in Geop. 15. 4) and Pliny (11. 17) speak dulcia' in the first instance, but to extol merely of clipping the wings, which is all its clearness and adaptability for mixing with that Virgil need have meant, though Col. wine, so that we shall perhaps be right in (9. 10) says "spoliandus est alis.”

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Eripe; non illis quisquam cunctantibus altum
Ire iter aut castris audebit vellere signa.
Invitent croceis halantes floribus horti,
Et custos furum atque avium cum falce saligna
Hellespontiaci servet tutela Priapi.
Ipse thymum pinosque ferens de montibus altis
Tecta serat late circum, cui talia curae;
Ipse labore manum duro terat, ipse feracis
Figat humo plantas et amicos inriget imbris.

Atque equidem, extremo ni iam sub fine laborum

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107.] ‘Altum,' like caelo ludunt,'_ as keep up the general tone of the Georgics, opp. to flying near the flowers. The enforcing the necessity of personal labour, rhythm and language of this and the next and the dignity arising from it. So de line are an echo of 1. 456, 457, “ Non illa montibus altis,' a picture perhaps intended quisquam me nocte per altum Ire, neque a to remind us of the arrival of Peneus the terra moneat convellere funem,” though river god at the wedding of Peleus and there is no similarity in the subject. Thetis (Catull. 62 (64). 285 foll.) with

108.] Vellere signa’ may refer to a trees plucked up by the roots, which he battle like that described above, which the plants round the bridal dwelling. Comp. bee-keeper might wish to prevent; but it also l. 20. For the pine on the mounseems simpler to suppose that he is merely tains see A. 5. 449, for the pine in the speaking of an ordinary flight in military garden E. 7. 65, and below, v. 141. terms.

114.] Forb. comp. Lucr. 5. 1339 foll., 109.] Another way of keeping bees near “ Atque ipsi pariter durum sufferre laborem, the hive is to provide a garden for them. Atque opere in duro durarent membra • Croceis :' “coloured [and perfumed] manusque.” • Feracis plantas,' 2. 79. flowers, the def. for the indef.” (Keightley.) 115.] 'Inriget imbris :' like “ quietem

110.] . Let there be a garden, placed inrigat,” A. 1. 691. Keightley, comparing under the guardianship of Priapus,' seems Col. 10. 147, Primitiis plantae modicos to mean, Let there be a regular garden, tum praebeat imbris Sedulus inrorans olicomplete in its appointments,' the follow- tor," argues that the watering-pots of the ing verses also directing that no labour is ancients had probably roses like ours. to be spared. At the same time the bees 116–148.] Were my space less con. are of course meant to share in the protec. fined, I would gladly treat gardens as a tion extended to the garden, whatever that separate branch of my subject, telling of the may have been worth. The thieves might cultivation of roses, of endive and parsley, have an eye to the honey as well as to the of gourds, of narcissus and acanthus, of fruit, and the birds might carry off the bees, ivy and myrtle. I remember seeing an old v. 16.

• Custos' here with a gen. of the man in southern Italy, who had turned an thing guarded against, like pularni kacoû, otherwise impracticable spot into a garden, perhaps to be explained on the analogy of rearing his herbs and flowers, as happy as a tipyw and sipyw, keeping in’and keeping prince, and living on his produce. Every out' being correlative notions. The falx thing was in season with him, nay, he would saligna' was carried in the hand of the anticipate the season : his honey was ready figure.

the first: the blossoms on his trees all came 111.) 'Hellespontiaci :' comp. Catull. 18, to fruit : his largest trees were transplanted “ Hunc lucum tibi dedico consecroque,

with success. But I must leave the theme Priape,

to other pens. A graceful interposition, Qua domus tua Lampsaci est, quaque been a fifth Georgic, and connecting the

sketching the plan for what might have silva, Priape, Nam te praecipue in suis urbibus colit subject with his own personal observations.

116.] He recurs to the metaphor of 2. Hellespontia, ceteris ostreosior oris.”

41 foll. Equidem' refers to the precept

just given. As I recommend the bee112.] . Ipse' is meant to emphasize the keeper to cultivate flowers, I should myimportance of the direction given, and to self write on the subject.'

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