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445

Dulcibus idcirco fluviis pecus omne magistri
Perfundunt, udisque aries in gurgite villis
Mersatur, missusque secundo defluit amni ;
Aut tonsum tristi contingunt corpus amurga,
Et spumas miscent argenti vivaque sulfura
Idaeasque pices et pinguis unguine ceras
Scillamque elleborosque gravis nigrumque bitumen.
Non tamen ulla magis praesens fortuna laborum est,
Quam si quis ferro potuit rescindere summum
Ulceris os : alitur vitium vivitque tegendo,
Dum medicas adhibere manus ad volnera pastor

450

455

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445.] Comp. 1. 272 note.

Marius Victorinus, and Macrob. Sat. 5. 14. 446.] “

Ipse aries etiam nunc vellera Many other copies, including Med. and siccat,” E. 3. 95, where accidental immer. Rom., have et sulfura viva,' which looks sion is spoken of.

like a correction to avoid the hypermetric 447.] Missus 'like'missa Pado,' 2. 452 dactyl, such as has been introduced elsenote. For this sense of defiuit' Forcell. where in similar cases. See further on instances Curt. 9. 8, “sumtis ducibus 2. 69. • Viva,' ãtupov, native sulphur, as amnis peritis, defluxit ad insulam;" Suet. opposed to 'factitium' or 'mortuum,' 78Nero 27,“ quoties Ostiam Tiberi deflueret.” Truowjévov. The use of sulphur is menKeightley suggests that the detail may be tioned Geop. 18. 15. meant to convey a precept of washing the 450.] •Idaeas,' because of the pines on sheep in running water rather than in pools. Ida, A. 5. 449., 10. 230. The use of

448.] · Amurga,' 1. 194. Cato (96) says pitch for the scab is recommended by Pliny the ointment should be a compound of 24 7, and by Didymus in Geop. 18. 8, and amurga,' water in which lupines have been Col., for cuts received in shearing. “ Pin. boiled, and lees of wine, to which Col. (l. c.) guis unguine,' soft and yielding. Wax adds white hellebore, if the ointment is can only be made so by the addition of oil ” used as

cure,
not as

a preventive. (Keightley). They add that the sheep are to be left in 451.] • Gravis :' see on v. 415. Both black this condition two or three days, and then and white hellebore are recommended by washed in the sea or in salt water. Varro the various writers. • Bitumen : Pliny re(2. 11) prescribes wine and oil, mixed, commends a mixture of bitumen and pitch, according to some, with white wax and πισσάσφαλτος. hogs' lard. Virgil's list of ingredients is 452.] The sense seems to be, ' a favourmuch more formidable than either. Many able crisis in the disease is never so nigh at of them, Keightley remarks, are needless, hand,' the language being worded so as to as in nearly all the receipts to be met with combine the notion of a remedy with that of in ancient writers, and in those among a turn in the complaint. “Fortuna laborum' ignorant people with ourselves. Comp. occurs again A. 7. 559 in a similar sense, Dict. A. s. v. “Theriaca.' Virgil does not • any crisis in the work before us. Germ. say whether he means the ointment as a pre- quotes Prop. 1. 17. 7. Nullane placatae ventive or as a cure; the mention of helle. veniet fortuna procellae ?” where however bore and the omission of the subsequent the addition of placatae’ makes it an direction about washing would lead us to attributive genitive. infer the latter, if any reliance could be 453.] • Potuit seems merely a poetical placed on his precision of expression. amplification, though the context speaks of Contingunt:' see on v. 403.

unwillingness to perform the operation. 449.] 'Spumas argenti,' litharge of “Rescindere :' “ Ense secent lato volnus, silver, i. e. as Keightley explains it, the oxide telique latebram Rescindant penitus,” A. or scum that forms on the surface of silver, 12. 389. or of lead containing silver, when in fusion. 454.] Tegendo :' see on E. 8. 71. See Pliny 33. 6. Vivaque sulfura' is the Germ. comp. Lucr. 4. 1068, “Ulcus enim reading of various MSS., apparently in- vivescit et inveterascit alendo.” cluding Pal., and is acknowledged by Serv., 455.] *Adhibere manus,' xelpovpytiv,

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460

Abnegat, aut meliora deos sedet omina poscens.
Quin etiam, ima dolor balantum lapsus ad ossa
Cum furit atque artus depascitur arida febris,
Profuit incensos aestus avertere et inter
Ima ferire pedis salientem sanguine venam ;
Bisaltae quo more solent acerque Gelonus,
Cum fugit in Rhodopen atque in deserta Getarum
Et lac concretum cum sanguine potat equino.
Quam procul aut molli succedere saepius umbrae
Videris, aut summas carpentem ignavius herbas,
Extremamque sequi, aut medio procumbere campo
Pascentem, et serae solam decedere nocti:

465

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which, according to Diog. L. 3. 85, con- ferred exclusively to the · Gelonus,' who sisted of τέμνειν and καίειν.

however has really only to do with the 456.] Heins. restored aut' for et' from deserta Getarum,' Rhodope belonging the best MSS. For omina’ Med., Rom., to the Thracian Bisaltae. Fugit' seems and others have omnia,' wbich may pos- merely to express the migratory habits of sibly be defensible on the analogy of such the people, who, as Keightley reminds us, expressions as “omnia fausta precari,” and were horsemen. Horace's “ Siccis omnia nam dura Deus 463.] *They drink (mares') milk coaguproposuit" (1 Od. 18. 3); but no instance lated with horses' blood.' This custom is is quoted for the combination meliora recorded of the Massagetae by Stat. Ach. omnia,' and in any case omina' is less 1. 307. Horace (3 0d. 4. 24) attributes the colloquial and more poetical. The con- practice of drinking horses' blood to the fusion is a frequent one; see on A. 2. 182. Spanish Concani. Pliny (18. 10) says that With the general sense comp. Soph. Aj. the Sarmatians mixed millet with the milk 581, ου πρός ιατρού σοφού θρηνείν επωδάς or the blood of mares. The milk of mares πρός τομώντι πήματι.

is a common beverage of savage tribes, from 457.] Dolor' apparently of the sca- Homer's Hippemolgi downwards. Virgil bies,' which has become aggravated and is likely enough to have mistaken the peoviolently inflamed, so as to produce fever, ple, even if he be right about the custom. though it is possible that Virgil may have 464—477.] 'If you observe a sheep fond passed without notice to another complaint. of shade, languid in feeding, loitering, given Col. (1. c.), referring to this passage, merely to lying down, kill it before it infect the says

- febricitantibus ovibus." • Balantum, rest. The spread of disease is fearfully 1. 272 note ; “ venit ... pigris balanti. rapid, sweeping off not individuals but bus aegror,” Lucr. 6. 1132.

whole flocks. Witness what took place 458.] ‘Artus depascitur,' A. 2. 215. in the Alpi district of Noricum and Ti.

459.] 'Incensos aestus :' comp. the Greek mavus, where the pastures are still desoκαύσος, πυρετός.

late.' 460.] ‘Inter ima ... pedis,' from the ankle 464.] The epithet “molli' marks the or between the hoofs, according to Col. 1. c., reason why the shade is sought, and so rewho adds that blood is also taken from flects back, as Voss remarks, on the seeker. under the eyes or from the ear (“maxime 465.] •Summas' may be meant to mark de capite,' Varro). It is not clear, nor the daintiness of the feeder, though it would does it much signify, whether inter ima be sufficiently appropriate in any case to the pedis' is to be connected with 'ferire' or grazing of cattle. with 'salientem.' • Salientem' is trans. 466.] He uses nearly the same words to ferred from the blood to the veins, as the express the effect of disease which he had veins are said 'currere,' Pers. 3. 91. employed E. 8. 87, 88 to denote that of

461.] The first syllable of · Bisaltae’ is love. lengthened also by Ov. M. 6. 117, Claudian 467.] •Solam 'may mean that it retires Laud. Stil. 1. 134, shortened by Gratius alone, or it may really refer to nocti,' as 523.

the only thing that has the power to make 462.] The line is expressed as if it re- it retire.

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Continuo culpam ferro compesce, prius quam
Dira per incautum serpant contagia volgus.
Non tam creber agens hiemem ruit aequore turbo, 470
Quam multae pecudum pestes. Nec singula morbi
Corpora corripiunt, sed tota aestiva repente,
Spemque gregemque simul, cunctamque ab origine gentem.
Tum sciat, aerias Alpes et Norica si quis
Castella in tumulis et Iapydis arva Timavi

475
Nunc quoque post tanto videat desertaque regna
Pastorum et longe saltus lateque vacantis.

Hic quondam morbo caeli miseranda coorta est
Tempestas totoque autumni incanduit aestu,

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468.] Instead of introducing the ante- occurs A. 1. 642 of the foundation of a cedent to .quam' he changes the sentence. people. Here it seems to mean that the Serv. and some of the old editors under- destruction is root and branch, sweeping off stood culpam' of the fault of neglect all generations alike. against which the shepherd was to guard, 474.] • Sciat,' 'let him know,' i. e. let remarking “habere morbum culpa non est.” him bear witness from his knowledge to Virgil however evidently expects his shep- the fact I speak of, like otw in Greek, herd to feel with Henry Taylor's huntsman, Aesch. Choeph. 602. “The dog that's lame is much to blame; It 475.] • Castella' are the fortified dwellis not fit to live.” The meaning of course ings of the Alpine tribes, Livy 21. 33, Hor. is that the sheep is to be killed, not, as the 4 Od. 14. 11, referred to by Forb. The Delphin editor thinks, that the disease is to Timavus (E. 8. 6, A. 1. 244) is called be exterminated by cutting.

* Iapys' from the neighbouring country 469.] So 'volgus' of the common herd Tapydia. of deer, A. 1. 190. •Incautum' is doubt- 476.] ‘Regna pastorum,' E. 1. 70. less meant to suggest the notion of a reck- 478-497.] This district less mob, at the same time that it expresses visited by a pestilence which destroyed the danger of the sheep. Lucr. (2. 920) talks beasts of every kind, wild and tame. The of " volgum turbamque animantum.” Forb. symptoms were various; at one time the

470.] The comparison seems to be not animals were parched up, at another they between the frequency of storms at sea and melted away. The victim died at the the number of the diseases of cattle, but altar, or when slaughtered its body was between the quick rush of a storm-wind found useless for augurial purposes. Calves and the rapid spread of each of the vari- died grazing or in their stalls : dogs went ous diseases. Creber' then will be taken mad and swine were choked.' closely with “agens hiemem,' like “creber- 478.] We know nothing of the epidemic que procellis Africus,” A. 1. 85. • Aequora,' described, or the time at which it happened, the reading of one MS., approved by Heins. but it seems to have left a sufficiently terrible and Heyne, is rightly condemned by Wagn. recollection behind it to induce Virgil to as disturbing the comparison. Aequore' select it as a subject for a companion picmay mean either along the ocean, or from ture to that of the great plague of Athens it, like “ruit oceano nox,” A. 2. 250. at the end of the sixth book of Lucr. Serv.

472.] · Aestiva, military summer-quar- supposed the pestilence to be the same as ters, is transferred to sheep, because they that of Athens, which he declares spread were frequently pastured in different places into Italy, evidently an entirely gratuitous in summer and in winter. “Mihi greges supposition. Other poets attempted simiin Apulia hibernabant, qui in Reatinis lar descriptions, e. g. Ov. M. 7. 523 foll., montibus aestivabant," Varro 2. 2. So who treads in the steps of Lucr. and Virgil, Pliny (24. 6) speaks of “montium aestiva.” Lucan 6. 80 foll. • Morbo caeli,' like 'vitio Here the quarters are further put for their aeris,' E. 7. 57. Miseranda' occurs as an occupants.

epithet of “lues' A. 3. 137, which more or 473.] • Spemque gregemque :' agnos less resembles this passage. cum matribus," Serv. Ab origine gentis' 479.] • Tempestas' is explained by

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480

Et genus omne neci pecudum dedit, omne ferarum,
Corrupitque lacus, infecit pabula tabo.
Nec via mortis erat simplex ; sed ubi ignea venis
Omnibus acta sitis miseros adduxerat artus,
Rursus abundabat fluidus liquor omniaque in se
Ossa minutatim morbo conlapsa trahebat.
Saepe in honore deum medio stans hostia ad aram,

485

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morbo caeli,' the complaint being ascribed partly doubtless as associated with “tabes,' to the season. Comp. letifer annus,' A. partly, as Keightley remarks, to express 3. 138, and the preliminary passage to the the analogy between the corruption of the description in Lucr. (6. 1090—1137), where juices of the herbage and that of human diseases are referred to the state of the air. blood in death or disease. • Toto ... aestu:' the full force of an un- 482 ] In the following lines Virgil appausually hot autumn, a time proverbial for rently means to describe the disease as sickness, was brought to bear on the atmo- going through two opposite stages, parchsphere, causing or aggravating the distemper. ing fever being succeeded by a sort of lique

480.] Perhaps Ladewig is right in sup- faction. Nec via mortis erat simplex ' posing “Neci' to be personified in such then will mean generally that the course of passages as the present, 4. 90, A. 2. 85, &c. the disease was not uniform, as Keightley (a remark extending to 'Morti,' A. 5. 691., takes it, rather than that there was more 10, 662, Leto,' A. 5. 806, &c.), as if than one way, as a comparison of 2. 73 • Orco' or · Plutoni' had been used; but would seem to suggest. There is still howthe use of dare exitio ' in Lucr. 5. 95, ever room for difference about via mortis,' 1000, shows that the supposition is not which might either mean the path by which necessary (comp. also id. 6. 1144, “ morbo death approaches, or that which leads to mortique dabantur," which Virgil doubtless death. Other passages where similar exhad before him here). Where the personi- pressions occur (e. g. Ov. M. 11. 792, Tibull. fication is little more than a metaphor, not 1. 3. 50., 10. 4, Prop. 4. 7. 2) are in favour much is gained by attempting to discrimi- of the latter sense. nate it from a metaphor of the ordinary 483.] The fever is called ' sitis' from its sort. It is possible that it may have been effect. Venis omnibus acta, more vividly present to a writer's mind at through every vein.' 'Adduxerat artus :: one time than at another, even where the from the shrinking of the skin in fever. expression employed is precisely the same; Heyne quotes, "adducta cutis " from Ov. but criticism in such cases is apt to lose M. 3. 398, Forb. “macies adduxerat artus itself in over refinement, especially when from Ov. Heroid. 11. 27, and “ossaque nonexercised on a poet like Virgil, who is dum Adduxere cutem ” from Lucan 4. 288. always in search of some artistic variety, “In manibus nervi trahere,” Lucr. 6. 1190. and has no definite muster-roll of mytholo- 481.] • Rursus ' of a change, as in v. 138. gical personages or philosophical abstrac- For a similar description comp. Lucr. 6. tions as part of his general belief.

1203, “ Corruptus sanguis expletis naribus 481.] So Lucr. 6. 1126, speaking gene- ibat : Huc hominis totae vires corpusque rally of diseases, “ Aut in aquas cadit, aut fluebat," and the rhetorical account of death fruges persidit in ipsas, Aut alios hominum from the bite of a 'seps, Lucan 9. 767 pastus pecudumque cibatus.” The absence foll. of the copulative after “infecit,' of which 485.] *Minutatim'occurs Lucr. 2. 1131., Wagn. complains, is doubtless meant to 5. 1384., 6. 1191. Here it means literally mark the close connexion of the two parts of 'piecemeal.' the verse,

the falling of the pestilence on 486.] ‘In honore deum medio,' in the the drink and food of the animals being middle of a sacrifice.“ Inter sanctos ignis, coupled as a single event with that which in honore deorum,” A. 3. 406. This techniit aggravated and partly caused, the death cal sense of honos' is frequent in Virgil, of the animals themselves. Virgil has imi. A. 1. 49, 630, &c. Whether the hostia' tated the structure of a line which is simi. was a bull, as Heyne thinks, or a sheep, larly placed at the opening of the description according to Voss, there seems nothing to in Lucr. (6. 1140), “Vastavitque vias, ex- determine. • Stans ad aram,' 2. 395 note. hausit civibus urbem." • Tabo' is used

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· Vitta' may

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Lanea dum nivea circumdatur infula vitta,
Inter cunctantis cecidit moribunda ministros.
Aut si quam ferro mactaverat ante sacerdos,
Inde neque inpositis ardent altaria fibris,

490
Nec responsa potest consultus reddere vates,
Ac vix suppositi tinguuntur sanguine cultri
Summaque ieiuna sanie infuscatur arena.
Hinc laetis vituli volgo moriuntur in herbis,
Et dulcis animas plena ad praesepia reddunt ; 495
Hinc canibus blandis rabies venit, et quatit aegros
Tussis anhela sues ac faucibus angit obesis.
Labitur infelix studiorum atque inmemor herbae

Victor equus fontisque avertitur et pede terram 487.] ‘Circumdatur' is probably to be Lucr. 6. 1198. taken strictly, “is being put round the head.' 496.] “Catulorum blanda propago,” Lucr. For the difference between infula' and 4. 997. The epithet here is in contrast to • vitta,' see Dict. A. s. vv.

• rabies.' be either abl. of quality with infula,' or of 497.] The angina,' váyxn or Bpáyxos, the instrument with circumdatur,' though is a disease of swine, Aristot. H. A. 8. 21. the latter would be awkward, as suggesting 'Obesis’ seems to express the swelling of another construction.

the throat, as Serv. takes it, though appli. 488.] Ministros,' the attendants who cable enough to the natural state of the had the charge of the victim, as in Lucr. l. animal. 90, called in Greek ão Sou (Aesch. Ag. 231). 498–514.] 'Racers fell sick, lost their • Cunctantis ’ is explained by . ante' in the appetite, and became restle

their ea next line. The same picture is given by drooping, and breaking out into cold sweat, Ov. M. 7. 593 foll.

their skin parched ; afterwards as the dis490.] • Inde,' from that victim, con- ease advanced, their eyes glared, they nected with inpositis fibris.' Fibris,' 1. breathed with difficulty, gore flowed from 484 note. The refusal of the flame to their nostrils, and their throats swelled. kindle, here arising from the state of the The only remedy was a draught of wine ; animal, was a bad omen. Comp. Soph. but in time this maddened them, and they Ant. 1006.

tore their own flesh in death.' 491.] This seems to introduce a new 498.] ‘Infelix studiorum' seems to be thought, the deficiency or corruption of an expression of the same kind as those some part of the interior of the animal, mentioned on 1. 277, but it is not easy to what was called "exta muta' (Heyne). fix its exact meaning. A horse might be Cerda comp. Ov. 1. c. (v. 600), Fibra called “felix studiorum' either as feeling quoque aegra notas veri monitusque deo- pride in his occupation, or as having atrum Prodiderat,"

tained success in it, and the negative of 492.] ‘Suppositi,' because the throat was either would suit the sense here, as though cut from beneath. “ Supponunt alii cul- already a victor, he might still be unhappy, tros,” A. 6. 248. The present line is as having been cut off from further trialmost repeated by Ov. (v. 599).

umphs. Anyhow there seems more force 493.] The thin gore (* ieiuna,' opp. pin. in taking the words together than in acguis ') just dyes the surface of the sand.

cepting the punctuation of Heyne, who 494.] The herbage was tainted, as Wagn. connects • studiorum' with inmemor.' remarks, so that "laetis’ merely denotes Comp. “seri studiorum” Hor. 1 S. 10. luxuriance, answering to 'plena ad prae- 21. Inmemor herbae,' E. 8. 2. Ov. M. sepia.' The misery of the scene is indefi- 7. 543, imitating this passage, has “ Denitely heightened by their dying in the generat palmas, veterumque oblitus honomidst of plenty.

rum Ad praesepe gemit, fato moriturus 495.] « Linquebant dulcis animas," A. inerti.” 3. 140, the μελιώδεα Or μελίφρονα θυμόν 499.] ‘Fontisque avertitur :' a rare conof Homer and Hesiod. “Reddebant vitam," struction, perhaps modelled on the Greek

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