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Belgica vel molli melius feret esseda collo.
Tum demum crassa magnum farragine corpus

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Crescere iam domitis sinito: namque ante domandum
Ingentis tollent animos, prensique negabunt
Verbera lenta pati et duris parere lupatis.

Sed non ulla magis viris industria firmat,
Quam Venerem et caeci stimulos avertere amoris,

210
Sive boum sive est cui gratior usus equorum.
Atque ideo tauros procul atque in sola relegant
Pascua, post montem oppositum, et trans flumina lata ;

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evidently an imitation, • Spatia,' I. 513. as “id quod ex pluribus satis (spelt, barley, • Spumas aget,' Lucr. 3. 488. • Cruentas:' vetches, pulse) pabuli caussa datur iu. from the bit against which he pulls, showing mentis,” so called because the spelt prehis spirit (Keightley). So Aesch. Ag. 1067, dominated in the mixture. These crops were πρίν αιματηρόν εξαφρίζεσθαι μένος, και sown together, as appears from Varro 1.31, metaphor from a horse being broken in.

who gives another orthography and ety. 204.] The essedum' was the British mology, " quod ferro caesa, ferrago dicta." war-chariot, mentioned repeatedly by Caesar It is called 'crassa from its effects, as (B. G. 4. 24, 33., 5. 16). This would be Pers. 3. 55 talks of grandi polenta.' • Tum naturally transferred to the Belgae by demum' is explained by • iam domitis,' Virgil, as it is to the Germans by Pers. 6. 47, which Wagn. accordingly marks off by and the poet may have thought it well to speak of the use of horses in war by the 207.] • Prensi :

prensos domitare formidable enemies of Rome, instead of re. boves," 1. 285 note. curring to Homeric precedents. As how- 208.] ‘Lenta,' a perpetual epithet. “Lu. ever it had been introduced into Rome, and patis :'" dicta lupata a lupinis dentibus, was used by the luxurious classes there in qui inaequales sunt,” Serv. So lúkoç is Virgil's time (Prop. 2. 1. 86., 3. 24.5), it is a used in Greek, and lupus' by Ovid and question whether Keightley is not right in Statius. Both lupatum' and lupatus supposing that he is speaking of the em- are found as substantives, and Hor. 1 Od. ployment of high-bred horses to draw the 8.6 uses · lupatis' as an epithet of “frenis,' carriages of the rich, äyalua tñs ÚTip- which, though perhaps a solitary instance, adoúrou xidñs, as Aeschylus calls them. was doubtless the original function of the The previous mention of battle in con- word. junction with racing as the two chief ob. 209—241.] The chief danger to the jects for breeding a horse, is in favour of strength both of bulls and borses is from the former view ; the words ' molli melius the excess of the passion of love. Thus feret collo,' which seem to indicate a more bulls have to be kept at a distance from the luxurious alternative, countenance the latter. cows. Rivalries often arise among them; An imitation by Sil. 3. 337, “ Aut molli they will fight for the same heifer, and the pacata celer rapit esseda collo,” also sup- beaten one will retire, and after a long inports the latter, as he is speaking of the terval, during which he has been practising Asturian jennet,“ parvus sonipes, nec Marti and collecting his strength, return and

The national epithet is used simi- renew the conflict.' larly in Prop. 2. 1. 86 (speaking of Maece. 211.] · Whether you prefer rearing bulls nas), “ Si te forte meo ducet via proxima or horses.' busto, Esseda caelatis siste Britanna iugis." 212.] The political word relegant' is in * Bellica,' the reading of Med. a m. p. and keeping with the language of the paragraph three others, is less likely in any case. generally, where the bulls are spoken of in • Feret' seems to refer to the wearing of the terms appropriate to men, and so invested yoke on the neck and to drawing the car. with a kind of heroic dignity. So the If the war-chariot is meant, ' molli’ must horses, v. 163. There is also a special fitbe taken of the easy management of a well- ness in the word, as the essence of retrained horse, with Serv., who well comp. legatio' was confinement to or exclusion A. 11. 622,“ mollia colla reflectunt." from a particular place. Dict. A. · Banish

205.] ‘Farrago’ is explained by Festus ment.'

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Aut intus clausos satura ad praesepia servant.
Carpit enim viris paulatim uritque videndo

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Femina, nec nemorum patitur meminisse nec herbae.
Dulcibus illa quidem inlecebris et saepe superbos
Cornibus inter se subigit decernere amantis.
Pascitur in magna Sila formosa iuvenca:
Illi alternantes multa vi proelia miscent

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Volneribus crebris; lavit ater corpora sanguis,
Versaque in obnixos urguentur cornua vasto
Cum gemitu ; reboant silvaeque et longus Olympus.
Nec mos bellantis una stabulare ; sed alter
Victus abit, longeque ignotis exsulat oris,

225
Multa gemens ignominiam plagasque superbi
Victoris, tum, quos amisit inultus, amores;

Et stabula adspectans regnis excessit avitis. 213.] The intervening bill excludes the with the passage in the Aeneid, represent view : the breadth of the stream prevents the object of the combat as here. All of crossing

the passages seem to be modelled, those of 214.] • Satura,' to keep up their strength the later poets especially, on the fight beand divert them.

tween Hercules and Achelous, Soph. Trach. 215.] “Caeco carpitur igne,” A. 4. 2. 517 foll. • Videndo :' see on E. 8. 71. Here it = 222.] ήν δε μετώπων όλόεντα πλή'visu,' by the sight of her.'

γματα και στόνος αμφοίν, Soph. 1. c. 217.] 'Et,' even. “Nay, they are often 223.] ‘Longus,' though found only in driven to fight with each other.'

Med. and a quotation in Macrob. Sat. 6. 219.] All the MSS. give silva,' v how. 4, was rightly restored by Burm. for the ever being marked as if for omission in

common reading 'magnus.' It is of course Med. Sila' is mentioned as a various read. a translation of Homer's μακρός "Ολυμing by Serv., comparing A. 12. 715, where toç: Virgil however, as Heyne remarks, a fight between two bulls is described in a merely means "Olympus' as a synonym simile as taking place " ingenti sila sum- for heaven, so that • longus' is to be exmove Taburno,” though he does not think plained by reboant.' In A. 7. 288 ex it is needed. Heyne was the first to restore aethere longo' refers to the length of the it, and there can be little doubt that he is prospect. right, as the specification is quite after 224] “Stabulare,' intrans. like 'stabu. Virgil's manner, and is particularly in place lor.' * Centauri in foribus stabulant,” A. here, announcing as it were by a change of 6. 286. Varro 1. 21 uses the word actively. tone that a narrative description is going to The elevation of the language leads Keightbegin. This is a sufficient vindication of the ley to suggest that Virgil may have had in line itself against the objections of Heyne his mind the withdrawal into banishment of and Wagn., who wish it away ; but we may some defeated public man. Lucan 2. 601 also say with Keightley that it points a con- foll. and Stat. Theb. 2. 323 foll., who imi. trast between the heifer feeding uncon- tate the passage, use the image as a simile cerned and the bulls fighting furiously for for the retirement of their heroes, Pompey her love. For a similar contrast comp. E. and Polynices. 6. 52 foll. Perhaps Horace had this line 227.] · Amores,' of the beloved object, in view, 1 Ep. 3. 36, " Pascitur in vestrum as in Catull. 43 (45). 1, “ Acmen ... suos reditum votiva iuvenca."

amores." 220.] The language in A. 12. 720 foll. 228.] The action of this line of course is very similar. The conflict there is not precedes that of v. 225, which is marked for a particular heifer, but for the sove- by the change of tense. Thus Keightley is reignty of the herd. The imitations in wrong in connecting “amores with 'adOv. N. 8. 46 foll., Stat. Theb. 6. 864, spectans,' as the use of tum’ shows. With while in their general detail agreeing rather the image comp. E. 6. 80 (according to one

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230

Ergo omni cura viris exercet, et inter
Dura iacet pernox instrato saxa cubili,
Frondibus hirsutis et carice pastus acuta,
Et temptat sese, atque irasci in cornua discit
Arboris obnixus trunco, ventosque lacessit
Ictibus, et sparsa ad pugnam proludit arena.
Post, ubi collectum robur viresque refectae,
Signa movet, praecepsque oblitum fertur in hostem;
Fluctus uti medio coepit cum albescere ponto
Longius, ex altoque sinum trahit; utque volutus

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interpretation) and with regnis avitis' E. lyze the expression, or to be certain that 1. 70. “A wistful look at his stall, and the Eur. and Virgil meant exactly the same king has quitted his ancestral domain.' thing: eis képaç might be explained as

230.) Pernox' is the reading of a few denoting the object, siç páxnv kepátwv: MSS. including perhaps the Pal., and of 'in cornua' may be framed on the anathe Schol. on Juv. 7. 10, and is noticed logy of in speciem,' &c., as a sort of modal by Philarg. and the Dresden Serv. Pernix,' accusative, so that 'irasci in cornua' would the other reading, can only be supported virtually = 'irasci cornibus.' by an appeal to the etymology, 'pernitor,' 233.] Obnixus,' butting, as in v. 222. its usual sense being active,' not.perti. "Ventos :' so' ventilare' is used of a fencer's nacious, and is less suited to the context, flourishes (Lemaire). where iacet' and `cubili' plead strongly 234.] “ Iam cornu petat et pedibus qui for pernox.' • Instrato'

presents great spargat arenam,” E. 3. 87. difficulty. The frequent use of insterno' 235.] · Refectae' was restored by Heins. of spreading a couch, and the evident pa- from Med. and other MSS. The old read. rallel of Lucr. 5. 987, “ instrata cubilia ing receptae’ is to a slight degree supfronde,” are strongly in favour of making ported by the imitations in Lucan and Sta. it a participle here, but we should then tius above referred to. have to understand it spread on (the 236.] See on v. 212. rocks) not. spread with,' which is the usual 237.] Virgil shows his judgment by callmeaning of the word. If we could connecting off the reader's attention to a simile instrato saxa,' as Forcell. does, the objec- instead of following the animals through a tion would be obviated, and the passage second encounter. The comparison is from would gain greatly in force ; but this does Il. 4. 422 foll., where the thing to be illus. not seem possible with inter dura' pre- trated is the march of the Greeks. It ceding. Thus there is some plausibility in recurs in a briefer form A. 7. 528 foll., the view of Germ., Heyne, and others, who where the quarrel with the Italian rustics is make “instratus' an adjective, as if it were swelling into a battle. Here probably the non stratus.' Virgil must then be sup- likeness is in the roar as well as in the posed to have wished to translate äotpw- rush of the water. With regard to the TOS, which is applied both to the rough latter, two points are evidently meant to be ground, Eur. H. F. 52, and to persons noted, the appearance in the distance and who sleep without a bed, Plato, Politicus the final collision. • Uti medio' Rom., ' ut 272 A. Wakef.'s proposal to connect 'in- in medio' Med. Wagn. prefers the former strato' with 'frondibus hirsutis' cannot be on the ground that the preposition is maintained.

omitted by Virgil, when he uses medius' 231.] His fare is hard as well as his loosely, signifying 'in' rather than ‘in the couch.

centre. 232.] “Irasci in cornua temptat,” A. 12. 238] I have followed Martyn in con104, where the two next lines are repeated. necting 'longius' with the preceding line. The words are translated from Eur. Bacch. To suppose with Heyne and Wagn. that 732, raūpol ... siç képas Oupovjevou, 'que' couples .ex alto’ with longius' and are probably to be explained with Voss either involves an awkward asyndeton, or as if the bull were throwing his anger into obliges us to make trahit’ the apodosis, his horns. So Ov. M. 8. 882, “ viris in which can hardly be the case, as there cornua sumo." But it is not easy to ana- seems to be no apodosis in the second divi

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Ad terras inmane sonat per saxa, neque ipso
Monte minor procumbit; at ima exaestuat unda 240
Verticibus, nigramque alte subiectat arenam.

Omne adeo genus in terris hominumque ferarumque,
Et genus aequoreum, pecudes, pictaeque volucres,
In furias ignemque ruunt. Amor omnibus idem.
Tempore non alio catulorum oblita leaena

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Saevior erravit campis, nec funera volgo
Tam multa informes ursi stragemque dedere
Per silvas ; tum saevus aper, tum pessima tigris ;
Heu, male tum Libyae solis erratur in agris.
Nonne vides, ut tota tremor pertemptet equorum 250

Corpora, si tantum notas odor attulit auras ? sion of the comparison, utque .

242—283.] 'In fact, the maddening nam.” On the other hand Wagn. seems effects of passion are universal throughout right in asserting on 1. 142 that Virgil is animal nature, but none undergo so much not in the habit of joining .que' with any as mares.' but the first word in a clause, except where 242.] · Adeo :' see on E. 4. 11. the first word is a preposition, or in the 243.] • Pecudes, pictaeque volucres,' A. case of ' iamque' and 'namque.' 'Ex alto,' 4. 525. * Pictae’ is supposed by Forb. to * from the main sea,' answering to medio be an imitation of variae volucres,' which ponto.' "Omnis ab alto Frangitur inque occurs frequently in Lucr. (e. g. 2. 344, a sinus scindit sese unda reductos,” A. 1. passage not unlike this), but it may be 160. “Sinus' here is the curve of the doubted whether the epithet there has that wave, as in 4. 362. •Trahit'expresses not neaning. • Pecudes :' added because not only forward motion but the gradual in- included in ‘ferarum' (see v. 480), though crease of the sinus.' . Utque' is parallel that word might easily be pressed so as to to uti.'

include all quadrupeds, as might . pecudes' 239.] • Ipso monte:' the mons' being itself (A. 6. 728). the whole of which the . saxum' is a part. 246.] The perfects are explained by “ Saxum, Haud partem exiguam montis,' non alio tempore.' See on 1. 374. “ Dare A. 10. 127. Here mons' is probably the funera,” A. 8. 571 ; “ dare stragem," v. 556 crag against which the sea breaks. The below. • Edere' is also used with both, same comparison occurs 4. 361, A. 1. 105. A. 9. 526, so that the meaning is probably

241.] Subvectat' is found in Med., to put forth or produce. Rom., and other good MSS., but it does 247.] •Informes,' on account of their not suit the sense, being used of carrying size, as well as their appearance, great bulk freights, upheaving burdens, &c. Sub- being itself a deformity, as involving a iectat,' on the other hand, is supported by departure from symmetry. So probably Lucr. 6. 700, “Saxaque subiectare, et turpe,' v. 52. arenae tollere nimbos,” which Virgil plainly 248.] • Pessima,' as malus' is used of imitated. * Arenam' is the sand at the serpents, v. 416, 425. bottom which the sea casts

up,

the κελαιναν 249.] “ Heu, male tum mitis defendet θινα και δυσάνεμον, heaved up βυσσόθεν, pampinus uvas,” 1. 448.

• Male erratur' of Soph. Ant. 590. Comp. A. l. 107, like male creditur,' Hor. 2 S. 4. 21. “ furit aestus arenis," where the same "Solis,' though grammatically belonging to thing is described. Like a billow which •agris,' really points to the traveller. begins to whiten far away in the mid sea, 250.] ‘Nonne vides,' 1. 56. • Pertemptat,' and draws up from the main its bellying which is found in three MSS., would agree curve; like it too, when, rolling to the better with attulit,' and is supported by shore, it roars terrific among the rocks, and • mittit' in the passage just referred to, bursts, in bulk as huge as their parent cliff, where see note. *Tremor pertemptat’ocwhile the water below boils up in foaming curs Lucr. 6. 287. eddies, and discharges from its depths the 251.] Heyne remarks that we might murky sand.'

rather have expected aurae odorem at.

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Ac neque eos iam frena virum, neque verbera saeva,
Non scopuli rupesque cavae atque obiecta retardant
Flumina, correptosque unda torquentia montis.
Ipse ruit dentesque Sabellicus exacuit sus,
Et pede prosubigit terram, fricat arbore costas,
Atque hinc atque illinc humeros ad volnera durat.
Quid iuvenis, magnum cui versat in ossibus ignem

255

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tulere. As the scent comes with the gale, 256.] · Prosubigit:' a rare word, used Virgil chooses to make it the bearer, not by Val. Fl. 4. 288, of the Cyclops forging the borne, for the sake of variety.

the thunderbolt, and by Prudentius, nepi 252.] Iam’ implies that the fury has Otep. 3. 129, in the same sense as here, riseа beyond control. Virum,' because with “pede.' Subigere' is frequently used other than human obstacles are mentioned of breaking up land (1. 125., 2. 50), and in the next verse. • Verbera saeva’ is this may be the reference here, with the questioned by Keightley, who remarks that addition of pro’ to denote the forward no one would beat a run-away horse to action of the feet, as in “proculco,' prostop him; so he suggests that either the tero.' Serv. says, fodit, et pedibus imhorse is beaten in the stable to frighten pellit alternis.” • Arbore' may be either him, or that Virgil wrote without any clear the instrumental or the local ablative. conception.

Aristot. 1. c. speaks of boars as após álln253.] Macrob., Sat. 6. 2, cites a line from lous uèv TOLOŪVTES páxus Davuaotas Varius, which Virgil is supposed to have θωρακίζοντες εαυτούς και ποιoύντες το imitated, “Non amnes illum medii, non dépua ws Taxúratov čx a apaokevñs, tipos ardua tardant."

τα δένδρα διατρίβοντες και το πηλό 254.] I have restored correptosque,' as polúvovtegnolláris kai Enpaivovies only one MS. omits the copulative. Its aurous. insertion is probably to be defended not 257.} If atque . . atque' are for .et .. by distinguishing between the breadth of a et,' as in E. 5. 23, we had better connect river and its violence as two kinds of 'atque . . illinc' with what goes before, and obstacles, with Jahn and Ladewig, but by read humerosque' with the Rom. and appealing to other instances where Virgil many other MSS. But 'hinc atque illinc' couples things not strictly co-ordinate, as would be feeble if understood of the boar's A. 2. 86, “comitem et consanguinitate rubbing himself backwards and forwards, or propinquum . .. misit;" 12. 305, “ Pas- against more trees than one; while in contorem primaque acie per tela ruentem. nexion with durat' they answer to 'ar* Torquentia montis' is a heightening of bore' in the previous line, being intended the picture of Lucr. l. 288, “volvitque no doubt to indicate his rolling himself in sub undis Grandia saxa.' Unda' may be the mud. On the whole then it seems connected with either correptos' or 'tor- best to take the first atque' as coupling quentia.'

durat' with the other verbs, and read 255.] The wild boar has been already • humeros' with Med, and some other named v. 248, so Serv. and others have copies. supposed that Virgil here means the tame 258.] He glances at the story of Leander one, which they think explains the force of to show what love can make

men do. ipse.' Ladewig quotes Varro 2. 1, from Martyn remarks on the judgment which which it would appear that the name leads him to avoid mentioning it expressly, was restricted by some to the tame sort. thereby representing the action as what the But the dignity of the language would pass whole species would do. • Versat' merely into burlesque if applied to the domestic expresses the motion within, as probably in swine, and the facts mentioned here agree 4. 83, “ Ingentis animos angusto in pectore with Aristotle's description of the wild versant.” Some such verb as ' facit’ is proboar, H. A. 6. 17. 'Ipse' is apparently bably to be understood with quid,' as also meant to prepare the reader for something in v. 264. Comp. Hor. 1 Ep. 2. 10, exalted, and the monosyllabic ending (comp. “Quid Paris ? ut salvus regnet vivatque Lucr. 5. 25, “horrens Arcadius sus”) is beatus Cogi posse negat.'

We should say, doubtless intended to be in keeping. Sa- What of the youth whose marrow the bellicus' too has a similar object, recalling fierceness of love has turned to flame?' the woods and mountains of Samnium.

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