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M. Fortunate senex, ergo tua rura manebunt,
Et tibi magna satis, quamvis lapis omnia nudus
Limosoque palus obducat pascua iunco !
Non-insueta gravis temptabunt pabula fetas,

50
Nec mala vicini pecoris contagia laedent.
Fortunate senex, hic, inter flumina nota
Et fontis sacros, frigus captabis opacum !

Hinc tibi, quae semper, vicino ab limite, saepes sustained. Tityrus goes to Rome with his the poet may be able politically to depremoney and asks his master to emancipate ciate his own good fortune. That the feelhim : his master answers, “You shall not being expressed is really the poet's, is likely turned out of your land by my veterans.' enough ; but it seems more natural to attri. • Submittere,'' to supply,' «produce,' and, in bute its expression not to artifice, but to farming idiom, to use for breeding or pro- simplicity. Virgil puts the praise of his pagation, both of animals and plants. Comp. happy lot into the mouth of a neighbour G. 3. 73. 159, and instances from the whose distresses enable him to speak feelScriptores Rei Rusticae in Forcell. It should ingly, and then goes on to dwell on his conperhaps be strictly submittite vitulos' as tentment in spite of drawbacks, forgetting in G. 3. 159; but taurus' for 'vitulus' that such an utterance of satisfaction would is a very slight impropriety of expression, come appropriately from himself alone. It and indicates, moreover, the reason for seems scarcely worth while with Keightley which they were bred. Feeding cattle and to connect the clause with what follows, breeding them is a very natural description quamvis ... non insueta,' &c., though of the grazier's business. Some have taken perhaps the change would be a slight gain. submittite' as submittite jugo,' i.e. 'do- 50.] • Temptabunt,' 'poison:' so of a mate,' and the line as an exhaustive descrip- disease, G. 3.441. The sense of fetus ' has tion of farming.

been doubted, as it may either mean “preg47–59.] · Yes, you are happy ; poor as nant' or just delivered :' but it appears your land may be, you can enjoy it un- to be fixed to the former meaning by the disturbed and be content. Your flocks will epithet .gravis,' which must be equivalent be healthy, and you will live in the shade to 'gravidas,' as in A. 1. 274. by the water, lulled by the hum of the bee, 51.] • Mala,' • malignant;' " malum the song of the vine-dresser, and the cooing virus,” G. 1. 129. So the Homeric κακή of the dove.

vóoos: “mala scabies,” Hor. A. P. 453, 47.] 'Tua' is a predicate, like “magna.' of a contagious disorder. Wagn. refers to the phrase “meum est,' 52.] • Flumina nota,' Mincio and the Po, as in 9. 4. But ‘manebunt'is also a pre- if we are to be precise. dicate, “It is yours and yours for ever.' 53.] • Fontis sacros,' from the pretty su

48.] You (Tityrus or Virgil) are content perstition which assigned a divinity to every with your farm, though it is all covered source and spring. So iepòv ödwp, Theocr. with stones, and full of pools and rushes 7. 136. “ Stratus ad aquae lene caput (so that no soldier need envy you its pos- sacrae," Hor. 1 Od. 1. 22. •Captabis,' 2. 8. session). Palus' is probably the over- 54.] The supposed perplexities attending flowing of the Mincio; comp. 7. 13. the construction of this sentence are all re"Omnia' can hardly be taken with pascua :' moved by Weise's suggestion of making it must mean the whole farm, while the quae semper ' an elliptical relative clause latter part of the description applies only in the sense of 'ut semper’ (6. 15), like to the pastures by the river. This dis- ' quae proxima, litoraA. 1. 167 (note). paraging clause presents a difficulty, which “Shall lull you to sleep as it has ever done.' some have got rid of by supposing the Quae' then will be used here for the corwords to refer to the condition not of responding adverb .quemadmodum,' like Tityrus' own property, but of the lands quo' A. 1. 8, for quomodo,' 'siquem,' about him, as in v. 12; while others, see- ib. 181, for «sicubi.' • Vicino a limite' is ing rightly that this was not the natural thus seen to be an epexegesis of hinc,' a meaning of the sentence, have fancied that mode of expression which Wagn. has supMeliboeus is made to speak in the cha- ported by various passages, e. g. A. 2. 18, racter of a half-jealous neighbour, that so * Huc ... includunt caeco lateri.”

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Hyblaeis apibus florem depasta salicti,

55
Saepe levi somnum suadebit inire susurro;
Hinc alta sub rupe canet frondator ad auras ;
Nec tamen interea raucae, tua cura, palumbes,
Nec gemere aeria cessabit turtur ab ulmo.
T. Ante leves ergo pascentur in aethere cervi,

60
Et freta destituent nudos in litore pisces,
Ante, pererratis amborum finibus, exsul

Aut Ararim Parthus bibet, aut Germania Tigrim, 55.] Keightley remarks on Hyblaeis,' solstitium caveto putes, nisi cum incuban. that it is a favourite practice of the Latin tem videris palumbum.” poets of the Augustan and later periods, to 59.] The Romans kept turtle doves on give things the name of the people or place their farms. Varro, R. R. 3. 8. Colum. 8. famed for them, e. g. 5. 27, 29., 9. 30., 9. Pallad. 1. 25. • Ulmo :' “ Nota quae 10. 59. It may be set down as one of the sedes fuerat columbis," Hor. 1 Od. 2. 10. characteristics of an artificial school, the 60—64.] “Yes, nature will change her writers of which recognize common places course, and nations their seats, before I foras such, and find the poetry of objects get my benefactor.' rather in external, especially literary, asso- 60.] 'Ergo’ is apparently resumptive, as ciations than in anything which they sug- in G. 4. 206 (note), Meliboeus' speech gest to the mind directly. “Salictum,' ab- forming as it were a parenthesis. One of breviated form of salicetum,' used in prose the inferior MSS. has in aequore' as a varias well as poetry. “Depasta' might very ous reading ; but this (besides its want of well be used for • depasta est,' but depasta authority) would not agree so well with “le. est' could not be used for • depascitur.” ves,' with which Wagn. comp. A. 5. 838., 6.

56.] The susurrus' comes partly from 16. Its origin is obvious. The main idea the bees, partly from the leaves, the latter of this passage is worked up again in a difas in Theocr. 1. 1, á dú TI filópioua ferent shape 5. 76, and, in heroic style, και α πίτυς, αιπόλε, τήνα, Α ποτί ταϊς Α. 1. 607. Its source, as Keightley reπαγαϊσι, μελίσσεται.

marks, is perhaps Hdt. 5. 92, 'H or 57.] The frondator' (Catull. 62 (64). 41) oúpavos forai žveple rñs yňs, kai ń yn dressed the trees by stripping them of their μετέωρος υπέρ του ουρανού, και οι άνθρωleaves, which were used for the fodder of που νομόν έν θαλάσση έξoυσι, και οι cattle. Comp. 9. 60, and the whole pas- ixoves Tòv apótepov å voow noi, ötɛ ye sage G. 2. 397-419. There is no need seis x.t.d. The last part of this passage to settle whether the leaves here meant may seem to favour the reading in aeare those of the 'arbustum,' as the same quore.' person would naturally strip all the trees 61.] · And fishes shall dwell on the land.' in a farm like that of Tityrus', though we The expression, as Keightley remarks, is may still illustrate • alta sub rùpe' by com- not very happy, as there is nothing wonderparing G. 2. 522, “ Mitis in apricis coqui. ful in the sea's throwing up the fish on tur vindemia saxis.” The words are perhaps the shore ; but Virgil doubtless means to from Theocr. 8. 55, áll ünÒ zợ térpą date the new life of the fishes from its comταδ' άσομαι. Canet ad auras,

fill the mencement. • Destituent' with 'nudos.' air with his song :' comp. A. 6. 561, “qui 62.] • Pererratis amborum finibus' is an tantas plangor ad auras ?” The description, obscure expression ; butó pererratis' seems as Spohn remarks, points to the month of to be i. q. perruptis' or 'superatis,' with August, from the mention not only of the a reference to the wandering character of frondatio’ (comp. G. 2. 400. Colum. the nations. ‘Amborum,' of both nations: A. 11. 2), but of the cooing of the wood. 7. 470,Se satis ambobus Teucrisque venire pigeons during incubation. See note on Latinisque.” Exsul' explains · bibet :'he

will live habitually as in his own country.' 58.] • Tua cura,' 'your delight;' 10. 63.] The Arar (Saone) is a river of Gaul, 22, “ tua cura, Lycoris.” Pliny makes the not of Germany : its source, however, in cooing of the wood-pigeons à sign that the high land connected with the Vosges autumn is coming on, 18. 28, “Pa- (Vogesus) is not very far from Alsace, which lumbum utique exaudi gemitus. Transisse in and before Virgil's time, as now, was in

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Quam nostro illius labatur pectore voltus.
M. At nos hinc alii sitientis ibimus Afros,
Pars Scythiam et rapidum Cretae veniemus Oaxen,
Et penitus, toto diyisos orbe Britannos.
En umquam patrios longo post tempore finis,
Pauperis et tuguri congestum caespite culmen,

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Post aliquot, mea regna videns, mirabor aristas?

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habited by Germans. It appears, moreover, opposed to Afri,' have taken Oaxes to be that the ancients sometimes confounded the a corruption of Oxus, or read 'Araxen,' the Germans and Celts. Dict. Geograph. Arar, latter hypothesis being favoured by a passage Germania, At all events the error, what- in Claudian, B. Gild. 31, where the MSS. ever it may amount to, is Virgil's own, and Auctuate between ‘Oaxem' and · Araxem,' not a dramatic touch of rustic ignorance. while, on the suggestion of Servius, they Those who make such defences should re- read · rapidum cretae' (not ‘Cretae'), i. q. member that a poet had better commit a 'rapacem cretae,' • laden with marl,' an use blunder in geography than a platitude. of rapidus’ with the gen. which has yet to

64.] 'Before I forget the gracious look be supported by examples. As in the case he gave me.' The notion seems to be that of Africa and Britain, Virgil appears to be of a god's benign countenance. •Cultus' thinking of a Roman province to which setis an ingenious, but by no means necessary tlers might conceivably be sent. Lands in conjecture.

Crete were given by Augustus to the ejected 65—79.] 'We have to make a change colonists of Capua. like that you speak of, wandering, it may be, 68.] Foren' in interrogations where it to the ends of the earth. Perhaps I may adds earnestness and emphasis, by invoking never see my old home again ; or, if I do, attention, see Hand's Tursellinus, ii. 368. it will be in the hands of a brutal alien. I The phrase "en umquam' recurs 8.7, “En have laboured for another, and I must now quid ago?" A. 4. 534. So ñv is used bid farewell for ever to the joy of a shep- before questions in Greek. herd's life.'

69.] "Tugurium' (supposed to be connect65.] The thought of migration, as Keight- with tego,' as the form tegurium apley remarks, is suggested by the mode of ex- pears in inscriptions) is defined by Festus pression just employed by Tityrus. “You and Pomponius (Dig. 50. 16. 180) to be a can talk of the migration of nations as a syno- rustic, as distinguished from a town, dwellnyme for impossibility; we have to expe- ing. rience it as a reality.' • Alii' answers to 70.) Claudian, iv. Cons. Honor. 372, ap. pars' strictly in sense, though not in form. parently takes • aristas ' as i. q. 'messes So “pars ... sunt qui,” Hor. 1 Ep. 1.77. .annos,' decimas emensas aristas.' This is

66.] Oaxus or Axus, the 0 representing harsh and apparently unparalleled. It also the digamma, as the ancient coins of the involves a very awkward repetition, if it is place show, is a town in Crete, still bearing not rather a contradiction of ideas :- longo the name of Axos (Dict. Geogr. Axus). It post tempore-post aliquot aristas.' There is mentioned by Hdt. 4. 154, where the is the objection, too, that aliquot’ would MSS. vary between the two forms of the naturally distribute "aristas,' whereas the

A river runs by it, which is doubt- equivalent to messis’is the plural "aristae,' less what Virgil intends by Oaxes here. not the singular • arista.' The other alterVibius Sequester mentions it, but he need native is to take 'post' for 'posthac,' which have had no autharity beyond the present is very awkward after longo post tempore,' passage, as he vouebies for the existence of and construe'aliquot mirabor aristas,' shall a German Arar to satisfy the exigences of I see with wonder a few ears of corn'-the V. 63. The eåxis is given to Crete soldiers being supposed to be bad farmers, by Apoll. R. 1131, and Varro Ata- as in fact they were, and therefore always cinus ap. Ser ranslating from him. “Cretae ready for new civil wars. This would greatly Oaxen? may be supported by the analogy complicate the line, aliquot aristas' being of the Greek gen. of locality, rñs Kpúrns in apposition to 'patrios finis,' and 'tuguri cic 'Oážnv. Some critics, thinking the con- culmen,' .mea regna,' to aliquot aristas.' text points to a northern river, which might It is, however, the explanation preferred by be coupled with Scythia and Britain, and the modern editors. `In that case we must

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Impius haec tam culta novalia miles habebit?
Barbarus has segetes ? en, quo discordia civis
Produxit miseros ! en, quis consevimus agros !
Insere nunc, Meliboee, piros, pone ordine vitis.
Ite meae, felix quondam pecus, ite capellae.

75
Non ego vos posthac, viridi proiectus in antro,
Dumosa pendere procul de rupe videbo;
Carmina nulla canam; non, me pascente, capellae,
Florentem cytisum et salices carpetis amaras.

T. Hic tamen hanc mecum poteras requiescere noctem 80 suppose that two feelings are mingled in for the ordinary operations of husbandry. Meliboeus' question, a longing to return to Both processes are described in G. 2. “In. his home, and a reflection that should he sere, Daphni piros," 9.50, is said seriously. ever do so, he will probably find it im- 75.] 'Ite capellae,' 10. 77. Meliboeus poverished. Mr. Campbell's notion, pro- is going. pounded in his Specimens of the English 76.] The farewell here resembles genepoets, that Meliboeus is speaking of his cot. rally, though not verbally, that of Daphnis tage standing behind’ a few ears of corn, in Theocr. 1. 115 foll. For goats browsing i. e. with a few ears growing before it, would in the thickets on the rocks, see G. 3. 315. hardly call for mention if criticism were not “Pendentis rupe capellas," Ov.de Ponto, 1.9. reduced to a choice of evils.

77.] With viridi proiectus in antro' 71.] • Impius,' rather generally 'wicked' comp. above, vv. 1, 4. than stained with civil war. The opposition, 78.] • Me pascente’ is merely 'me pasto. as the next lines show, is between the sol. re,' not, as Martyn thinks, that the goats diers and the citizens, as if the former were feed from his hand. an alien body. The adjective 'novalis' is 79.] * Cytisus' is the arborescent lucerne, used substantively both in the feminine which is con on in Greece and Italy, and and in the neuter. See G. 1. 71. It a favourite food of cattle and bees. Comp. varies, too, in sense, being sometimes ap- 2. 64, 10. 30, &c. Keightley remarks that plied to fallow land, which is Varro's defi. as the cytisus and sallows are plants of the nition of it (L. L. 5. 4, § 39), sometimes to plain, we may suppose that a different rural ground unbroken or ploughed for the first scene from the former is intended. Where, time. The latter seems to be its force here, however, we see Greek and Italian scenery so that there is a rhetorical contrast with mixed, we may be prepared for confusion

tam culta '-'the ground which I have and indistinctness in details. broken up for the first time and brought 80–84.] • You had best stay the night into such excellent cultivation.'

with me. Sleep on leaves and sup on apples, 72.] · Barbarus,' alluding to the Gauls and chestnuts, and cheese. Thesmoke announces other barbarians who were now incorporated supper, and the evening is setting in.' in the Roman armies. Julius Caesar had 80.] . Poteras' (similarly used in Hor. 2 taken Gauls, Germans, and Spaniards into S. 1. 16. Ov. Met. 1. 679) is explained as his service.

though Meliboeus were moving off (comp. 73.] The Vat. MS. has perduxit,' which v. 75); but it is rather to be compared with was the reading of the old editions. Heinsius 'tempus erat' (“ nunc Saliaribus Ornare restored produxit.' Wagn. justly says that pulvinar Deorum Tempus erat dapibus, there is an important difference in the mean sodales," Hor. 1 Od. 37. 2), and txpñv ing of the two words. • Perduxit’ would for xph. It seems more pressing than the be, to what a termination has it brought present— You might as well stay.' Perthem ;' 'produxit,' to what a point.' haps the account of the idiom is that it

74.] This sarcastic 'nunc,' with an im- treats the time for action as almost gone by, perative, is common enough, 'I nunc' being the wrong determination as almost formed, its most usual form, as in Hor. 1 Ep. 6. 17, and so implies urgency to change the one and many other passages referred to by and overtake the other. · Tibull. 3. 6. 53 Jahn on Persius 4. 19. • With this before has “longas tecum requiescere noctes.” The you go on doing as you have done.' Graft- old reading was 'poteris' and 'hac nocte,' ing pears and planting vines stand of course but the present text has been generally re

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Fronde super viridi : sunt nobis mitia poma,

:
Castaneae molles et pressi copia lactis ;
Et iam summa procul villarum culmina fumant
Maioresque cadunt altis de montibus umbrae.

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ceived since Heinsius, on externaland internal 82.] 'Molles,' mealy,' i. e. when they grounds. The invitation is from Theocr. are roasted. 1. 44 foll., άδιoν εν τώντρο παρ' εμίν 83.] The smoking roofs of the farmταν νύκτα διαξείς: 'Εντί δάφναι τηνεί κτλ. houses announce supper-time. 81.] «On a couch of green leaves.'

84.] Comp. 2. 67.

ECLOGA II.

ALEXIS.

A SHEPHERD gives utterance to his love for a beautiful youth, complaining of his indifference, urging him to come and live with him in the country, and finally upbraiding himself for his infatuation.

Parts of this Eclogue are closely modelled after the eleventh Idyl of Theocritus, where the Cyclops addresses Galatea in a similar manner. We should be glad to believe it to be purely imaginary, though even then it is sufficiently degrading to Virgil. Servius, however,

and the pseudo-Donatus have a story also referred to by Martial (8. 56, &c.) and Apuleius (Apol. p. 279, ed. Elmenhorst), that Alexis is intended for Alexander, a youth belonging to Pollio (Martial says Maecenas, who can hardly have been then acquainted with the poet), and given by him to Virgil, who supposed by Spohn to have written the Eclogue as a mark of gratitude to his patron.

Corydon and Alexis are probably fellow-slaves, though it is not easy to reconcile the various passages which seem to refer to Corydon's condition (vv. 2. 20—22. 57), and it is possible that Virgil may not have settled the point in his own mind, Corydon being in fact a mixture of the ordinary Theocritean shepherd and the Cyclops.

The beeches (v. 3) and mountains (v. 5) again point to Sicily, not to Mantua, and Sicily is expressly mentioned in v. 21.

This Eclogue is generally supposed to have been the first written ; but, as Keightley remarks, all that can be asserted is, that it was earlier than the fifth, and perhaps than the third (see Ecl. 5. 86, 87).

FORMOSUM pastor Corydon ardebat Alexim,
Delicias domini, nec, quid speraret, habebat.

Tantum inter densas, umbrosa cacumina, fagos 145.] • Corydon had a hopeless passion adulteri Crines.” There is a similar use of for Alexis. Here is one of his solitary love 'pereo' and 'depereo.' plaints.

2.] An instance of rivalry between a 1.] The pastor,' as Keightley remarks, slave and his master is mentioned Tac. was one of the farm-slaves. • Domini' then, Ann. 14. 42. Brunck read pec quod,' v. 2, will be the common master of Corydon without authority. “Non habeo quid speand Alexis. Corydon’ is a shepherd in rem differs from non habeo quod sperem,' Theocr. Idyl. 4. Heyne has. Alexin,' Wagn. as Madvig remarks (§ 363, obs. 2), .non ‘Alexim. Among other instances of ardere' habeo' in the former case having the force for perdite amare,' with an accusative, see of I do not know.' Hor. 4 Od. 9. 13, “Non sola comptos arsit 3.] • Tantum,' as his only solace.' “Ve

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