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Asper, acerba sonans, quo tota exterrita silvis
Diffugiunt armenta ; furit mugitibus aether
Concussus silvaeque et sicci ripa Tanagri.
Hoc quondam monstro horribilis exercuit iras
Inachiae Iuno pestem meditata iuvencae.
Hunc quoque, nam mediis fervoribus acrior instat,
Arcebis gravido pecori, armentaque pasces
Sole recens orto aut noctem ducentibus astris.

Post partum cura in vitulos traducitur omnis;
Continuoque notas et nomina gentis inurunt,
Et quos aut pecori malint submittere habendo,
Aut aris servare sacros, aut scindere terram
Et campum horrentem fractis invertere glaebis.
Cetera pascuntur viridis armenta per herbas.

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Roman name; but Virg. of course means draw vehicles. Before they are broken in, no more than that they gave the thing a they will want corn as well as ordinary name in their own language.

fodder. Young calves should have all their 149.] · Asper, acerba tuens,' Lucr. 5. mothers' milk. 34. In what follows Virg. had his eye on 157.] . Traducitur,' from the mothers, Od. 22. 299 foll.

as before from the fathers. • Furit mugitibus aether

158.] • Notas et nomina,' a hendiadys, cussus' is probably an imitation of dopltl. recurring A. 3. 444. • Nomina gentis' vartos aiông émipaivetai, Aesch. Theb. would naturally mean that the marks are 155, which Wund. comp. •The air is intended to distinguish the breed; but we stunned and maddened with their bellow- may doubt with Keightley whether such ings, the air and the woodland and the was really the practice. Perhaps Virgil banks of Tanager which runs dry in the confounds the breed with the property of sun.'

the breeder, meaning no more than that 151.] Sicci' adds a touch to the pic- the cattle are branded that it may be ture, heightening as it were the misery of known whose they are. For branding see the cattle.

on 1. 263. 152.] “Monstro,’1. 185. •Exercuit iras' 159.) A verb must be supplied from like 'vires exercet,' v. 229. In 4. 453 the "inurunt,' with the sense of distinguishing expression is varied, “Non te nullius exer- or setting apart. We need not suppose cent numinis irae." For Io and the gadily that they were actually branded according comp. Aesch. Prom. 567, 674, Supp. 307. to the purposes for which they were de

154.] •Mediis fervoribus, like 'aestibus signed. • Pecori habendo,' 1. 3. mediis,' v. 331, of the noonday heat, as 160.] The construction is changed, the context shows.

quos' being the object of servare,' the 155.] · Arcebis pecori' like pecori de- subject of scindere.'

Varro (2. 5) says of fendit,' E. 7. 47 (note). The future is the finest cattle "ad victimas farciunt (?) virtually equivalent to an imperative. See atque ad deorum servant supplicia.” 1. 167, where it is accompanied by a con- 161.] · Horrentem' doubtless expresses ditional clause.

the rough appearance of the upturned 156.] The stars are said to usher in the ridges, elsewhere called “terga,' just as it night, because they are seen before the is applied to a hog's back A. 1. 634. night has closed in.

162.] Martyn appears right in referring 157–178.] · After calving, you have to this line to what follows, not to what prethink mainly of the calves. Separate them cedes. Such cattle as were intended for according to the destination of each, and breeding or for killing would be left to treat them with a view to it. Those which graze, as their only object would be to get are not meant for labour may be left to fat; but those which were required for lagraze; those which are should be trained bour would have to be taken in hand. Heyne early and practised to bear the yoke and objects that the next line in that case

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165

Tu quos ad studium atque usum formabis agrestem,
Iam vitulos hortare, viamque insiste domandi,
Dum faciles animi iuvenum, dum mobilis aetas
Ac primum laxos tenui de vimine circlos
Cervici subnecte; dehinc, ubi libera colla
Servitio adsuerint, ipsis e torquibus aptos
Iunge pares, et coge gradum conferre iuvencos;
Atque illis iam saepe rotae ducantur inanes
Per terram, et summo vestigia pulvere signent;
Post valido nitens sub pondere faginus axis
Instrepat, et iunctos temo trahat aereus orbis.
Interea pubi indomitae non gramina tantum,
Nec vescas salicum frondes ulvamque palustrem,

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would have been more naturally introduced 170.] •Inanes rotae,' an empty cart, as by some adversative particle: see however the contrast in v. 172 shows. Varro and A. 9. 224-226. Perhaps it may be said Col. give the same direction, the latter rethat 'tu' here is quasi-adversative, standing commending that they should begin with a in a sort of illogical opposition to cetera. branch of a tree, to which a weight should • Pascuntur,' for which Voss reads "pas- next be attached. cantur from two MSS., denotes the 171.] · Vestigia' seem to be the ruts of custom.

the wheels. 163.] Here and in the two following 172.] Translated from Il. 5. 838, péya lines he borrows language from the educa- δ' έβραχε φήγινος άξων Βριθοσύνη. tion of youth.

173.] * Iunctos,' to the pole, which was 166.] Similar precepts are given by formerly plated with copper (aereus '), Varro 1. 20, Col. 6. 2. No other instance afterwards with iron. is quoted of the form .circlus, but it is 174.] Interea :' calves were not broken sufficiently supported by the analogy of in before they were three years old, so vinclum,' saeclum,' &c. Wakefield on Virgil probably means now to speak of Lucr. 6. 954 wished to read • circos,' which their treatment previously, though the want has the authority of the Vat. a m. pr. and of precision in his language leaves his inJulius Sabinus. The gradations of training tention in some uncertainty. • Fetae,' here specified seem to be-1. accustoming v. 176, points to a still earlier stage, before the calf's neck to a collar; 2. teaching it to the calves are weaned. Thus the order of step together with another ; 3. teaching time is exactly reversed. It is not clear two to draw a light weight; 4. a heavy one. whether 'gramina' means hay, or whether

167.) • Dehinc' dissyllable as in A. 5. it is to be understood as joined by a 722, Hor. A. P. 144.

zeugma to .carpes,' the meaning being 168.] The 'torques' are the same as that besides grazing they are to have corn the circuli,' 'ipsis' having virtually the gathered for them. force of isdem,' as Wagn. remarks. Per- 175.) The meaning of 'vescus' was a haps there may be an implied prohibition question in the time of Gellius, who speaks of a custom which, as Col. l. c. tells us, of it twice (5. 12., 16. 5), deriving it from was justly reprobated by most writers on ve,'. esca,' and attributing to it two oppoagriculture, of yoking bullocks together by site significations, eating much and eating the horns. Aptus' = 'aptatus,' as in little, the former supported by Lucr. l. A. 4. 482, &c.

" the latter 169.] The practice of teaching calves to by Lucilius (26. 52), “ fastidiosum ac vesstep together is still to be seen in the south cum [cum fastidio] vivere." Both would of France (Keightley). "Pares' may mean be reconciled by the sense 'macer,' assigned not only that two were to be yoked to- to it by Philarg., with whom Serv. virtually gether, but that they were to be of equal agrees, a sense which also suits the other strength, that being a point insisted on instances adduced of its use, Afran. (fr. by Varro and Columella in the case of • Sorores') v. 315, “vescis imbecillus viri. actual draught.

326, vesco sale saxa peresa,

bus;" Pliny 7. 20,

corpore vesco sed

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180

Sed frumenta manu carpes sata ; nec tibi fetae,
More patrum, nivea inplebunt mulctraria vaccae,
Sed tota in dulcis consument ubera natos.

Sin ad bella magis studium turmasque ferocis,
Aut Alphea rotis praelabi flumina Pisae,
Et Iovis in luco currus agitare volantis :
Primus equi labor est, animos atque arma videre
Bellantum, lituosque pati, tractuque gementem
Ferre rotam, et stabulo frenos audire sonantis;
Tum magis atque magis blandis gaudere magistri
Laudibus et plausae sonitum cervicis amare.
Atque haec iam primo depulsus ab ubere matris

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eximiis viribus” (speaking of a gladiator); connects studium ad bella.' This, which Ov. F. 3. 446 (where it occurs as seems the only natural construction, is supepithet of corn, and is explained by ported by the context, “praelabi’ and agiparva'), to which Serv. adds that it is tare' both referring to the breeder's aim applied to the webs of spiders. In Lucr. for himself. Virgil, as Wund. remarks, 1. c. accordingly we may render it ' lean’ or doubtless thought of such phrases as hungry' (comp. “tenuis argilla,' “ieiuna • studium conferre ad aliquid.' • Studere glarea,' 2. 180, 212). Neither the pre- in aliquid' is also found : see Forcell. sent passage nor 4. 131, vescumque pa- 180.] Virgil, writing from the inspirapaver,' is of much weight for fixing the tion of his Greek models, talks of the meaning, though the sense tenuis' will Olympic chariot races rather than of those agree with both. •Ulvam,' E. 8. 27. Fée of the circus. (quoted by Keightley) distinguishes the 181.] • Iovis in luco,' the Altis, where

ulva palustris' from the ordinary ulva,' the race-course was. Πρόκειται δ' άλσος making the former the .festuca fuitans,' sypuslaiwv šv Ý orádiov, Strabo 7, C. the latter the scirpus lacustris' of Lin- 353.

182.] 'Primus equi labor,' the first 176.] Serv. understands ‘frumenta sata' part of a horse's training. The Med. has of the farrago,' mentioned v. 205; but it equis.' evidently means growing corn. Varro's 183.] 'Gementem' is emphatic, as it is precept is (2. 5) “ Semestribus vitulis ob- the noise of the wheels that a foal is to be jiciunt furfures triticeos, et farinam hordea- taught to bear. ceam, et teneram herbam."

184.] So Varro 2. 7, “ eademque caussa 177.] The same advice is given by Varro ibi frenos suspendendum, ut equuli con2. 2, Col. 7. 4, the former intimating that suescant et videre eorum faciem et e motu different customs prevailed. See E. 3. 6. audire crepitus.” The sound is not merely

178.] 'Consument in natos,' as we talk the jingling of the bridles, but of the bells of spending on a person or thing. Forcell. which were frequently attached to them. adduces Prop. 5. 6. 55, “pondus pharetrae 185.] • Blandis,' caressing, as in v. 496, consumit in arcus;" Auct. ad Herenn. 1. 3, E. 4. 23. Magistri' may refer specially “ Inventio in sex partis orationis consumi- to the trainer (comp. Hor. 1 Ep. 2. 64) as tur."

distinct from the breeder, v. 118; but 179_208.] 'Foals intended for chargers there is hardly evidence that Virgil meant or racers should be accustomed from the to discriminate them. • Tum' seems to first to the sights and sounds of their come under 'primus labor,' not to be disfuture life. When their third year is past tinguished from it. they may be practised in the ring, and 186.] “Manibusque lacessunt Pectora afterwards put to full speed. When broken, plausa cavis," A. 12. 85. Gr. ποππύthey should be fed well: before they are ζειν. apt to be restiff.'

187.] Philarg., followed by Wakef., 179.] Heyne and others understand. for- makes primo' adverbial, but it is evimare' from v. 163, but Wund. justly com- dently an epithet of ubere,' though the plains of the unauthorized ellipse, and sense intended is that of primum.'

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Audeat, inque vicem det mollibus ora capistris
Invalidus etiamque tremens, etiam inscius aevi.
At tribus exactis ubi quarta accesserit aestas,
Carpere mox gyrum incipiat gradibusque sonare
Conpositis, sinuetque alterna volumina crurum,
Sitque laboranti similis ; tum cursibus auras,
Tum vocet, ac per aperta volans, ceu liber habenis,
Aequora vix summa vestigia ponat arena ;
Qualis Hyperboreis Aquilo cum densus ab oris

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188.] · Audiat' was the reading before pressing the meaning of aestas,' and supHeinsius, who restored 'audeat from the posing that the horse, being born in the best MSS., including the Med. (first read- spring, would only be entering his fourth ing), Rom., and Vat. Ladewig has gau- year when he saw his fourth summer. deat,' an ingenious conjecture, but inferior Aestas'

was restored by Heins. from some in sense to the text, which implies that good MSS. (including the Rom. and Vat.) natural timidity has to be overcome and for ' aetas,' the use of which in the sense of courage developed, while gaudeat,' besides 'annus' is doubtful. See A. 1. 267, 756, &c. being a repetition of 'gaudere,' v. 185, 191.] Gyrum :' v. 115. Carpere gywould hardly be appropriate to a colt's rum,' like carpere campum.' The horse first experiences. «Inque vicem'implies is to be taught his paces. • Sonare' is not that these experiments on his courage are merely ornamental, as the ring of the hoof to alternate with, or to be occasionally was esteemed a mark of its soundness. exchanged for, wearing the halter (Wagn.). Germ. quotes Xenophon de Re Equestri, So Trapp, 'now and then.' The capistra' c. 1, και το ψόφο δέ φησι Σίμων δήλους (Dict. Α.) were made of osiers, whence είναι τους εύποδας, καλώς λέγων· ώσπερ . mollibus.'

γάρ κύμβαλον ψοφεί προς τη δαπέδω η 189.] ‘Inscius aevi' might be taken as coilnoglý. = 'inscii aevi' (which seems to be Martyn's 193.] ‘Laboranti similis ’ implies that he view, of tender years'), like “integer aevi' is not to follow his own bent, but to be A. 2. 638., 9. 255, “aevi maturus’ 5. 73: trained. So Hor. 2 Od. 3. 11, “obliquo but ‘venturi inscius aevi,' A. 8. 627, is in laborat Lympha fugax trepidare rivo,” the favour of making aevi' the objective gen. stream not flowing straight on, but being A question still remains whether the sense forced to bend, like the horse here in the is 'unconscious of his powers, as Heyne ring. •Anhelanti similis' A. 5. 234; “ intakes it, or “ignorant of life,' which would dignanti similem similemque minanti" 8. agree equally well with the context. Virgil 649. however may well have contemplated both 194.] • Then let him try his full speed.'

Vocet,' challenge, more usually expressed 190.] Varro 2. 7 and Col. 6. 29 pre- by provocare,' or by something explanatory scribe that a horse should be broken in for in the context, such as vocare in certamen. racing when he has completed his third Comp. A. 11. 442; “ Solum Aeneas vocat : year; and this is evidently what Virgil et vocet oro.Cursibus' is probably the

Wagn. however maintains that instrumental abl., as in A. 12. 84, "ante• accesserit' would denote that the fourth irent cursibus auras,” though it might posyear was finished, and accordingly reads sibly be the dat., as if it had been ad cur• acceperit' from the Rom. and another sus vocet.

• Provocet' was the reading MS., as in E. 8. 39, “ iam tum me accepe- before Heins., but Med. and Rom. have rat annus." This however would only be 'tum vocet,' which is much more forcible. the case if we connected • tribus exactis' • Ceu liber habenis,' as if he were simply closely with accesserit,' whereas it is at following his own will, contrasted with .laleast as natural to understand the former boranti similis. Keightley thinks there is words abl. abs., and supply.equo' to 'ac- a reference to the weight of the rider. cesserit.' So Cic. Ep. ad Q. 1. 1 says,

195.] · Vestigia' may either be under. num tertium accessisse desiderio nostro et stood strictly, or as put for 'pedes.' See labori tuo,” meaning that his brother has on E. 6. 58. just been continued in office for a third 196.] This is a specimen of Virgil's siyear. Perhaps too Martyn may be right in miles, which, like those of Homer, when

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Incubuit, Scythiaeque hiemes atque arida differt
Nubila; tum segetes altae campique natantes
Lenibus horrescunt flabris, summaeque sonorem
Dant silvae longique urguent ad litora fluctus ;
Ille volat, simul arva fuga, simul aequora verrens.
Hic vel ad Elei metas et maxuma campi
Sudabit spatia, et spumas aget ore cruentas,

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they extend to any length, are generally natantes’ is from Lucr., where it seems to not constructed with much rhetorical or mean the space overflowed with water (see grammatical regularity, the description pass. 5. 488, where the formation of the sea is ing from the main point of the comparison described, and 6. 267, where he is speaking into collateral details, which are strung to- of a deluge), from which it comes to be a gether as co-ordinate sentences by particles periphrasis for the sea, like “campi lia of transition. Here accordingly the verb of quentes,” A. 6. 724. Comp. Lucr. 6. 1141, which qualis ' is the subject has to be sup- “Nam penitus veniens Aegypti finibus ortus plied from the previous context, and the (“morbus' Lachm.), Aera permensus muldescription then proceeds as if it were inde- tum camposque natantis, Incubuit tandem pendent, even v. 201 not being intended as populo Pandionis omni” (speaking of the a grammatical apodosis, though designed to plague), the first line of which and the word recal the reader to the real object of the incubuit’ show that the passage was in simile. Comp. A. 1. 148 foll., where the Virgil's mind. Here accordingly the water structure is very similar to that of the present must be meant, as Keightley rightly con. passage, though the comparison there is con- tends, remarking that Virgil may have had nected with the sentence that follows, not two conjoint similes of Homer in view, Il. with that which goes before. The fabled 2. 144 foll. Hyperboreans inhabited a sort of Elysium 199.] · Lenibus flabris' marks the beginbeyond the northern cold (Pind. P. 10. 47, ning of the gale. “ Tarde primum clePliny 4. 12), but here and elsewhere the menti famine pulsae (undae) Procedunt," epithet is used to signify the most northerly Catull. 62 (64).: 273, referred to by countries that were then known. Strabo Keightley. • Sonor' is a Lucretian word. 1, C. 62 notes the two notions attached to 200.] “ Resonantia longe Litora misceri, the word, treating one as poetical, the other et nemorum increbescere murmur as matter of fact. “Densus' with incu- among the prognostics of wind ). 358. buit;' strong, with all his force as it were 'Longi fluctus,' long waves, which denotes condensed and concentrated' (Keightley). the force of the winds, not, as Heyne ren

197.] “The wind scatters the clouds and ders it, “qui longe, e longinquo, veniunt” drives them before it.' “ Venti vis ... (Keightley). nubila differt,” Lucr. 1. 272. • Arida' be. 201.] Comp. 4. 174, “Illi inter sese cause it is a clear, sharp blast without rain magna vi brachia tollunt In numerum, ver(Wagn.). Comp. Sen. N. Q. 3. 28, “fluere santque tenaci forcipe ferrum ;" A. 1. 153, assiduos imbres et non esse modum pluviis, “Ille regit dictis animos et pectora mulcet,” suppressis Aquilonibus et flatu sicciore;" where the simile is concluded similarly by a Lucan 4. 50, “ Pigro bruma gelu siccisque return to the original subject of it. Aquilonibus haerens Aethere constricto plu- 202.] · Hinc,' the reading of the Med. a vias in nube tenebat."

m. sec., Rom., and Vat., was preferred by 198.] Whether 'tum' is correlative to Heyne, but Wagn. seems right in explain• cum,' v. 196, or merely a particle of transi- ing' hic'' a horse like this. The preceding tion, as apparently in other similes (e.g. A. simile, though its elaboration has but little 11. 724., 12. 591), is doubtful. The paral- to do with the horse, is supposed to have lel of A. 1. 148, 151, is in favour of the impressed the reader with his high qualities. former; there however the sentence intro- • Metas et maxuma campi spatia' seems to duced by 'tum constitutes the point of the be a kind of hendiadys, as if it had been comparison, which is not here the case. metas campi maxumis spatiis,' or, as it Perhaps it is safest to say that here “tum might have been expressed, 'ad metas per does not mean definitely either at that campum maxumis spatiis.' moment,' or .next,' but denotes generally 203.] · Sudabit' contains the notion of that the action which follows belongs to the sudans ibit.' Forb. comp. Prop. 5. 1. 70, same time as that which precedes. •Campi “ Has meus ad metas sudet oportet equus,'

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