Billeder på siden
PDF
ePub

6

6

Martis equi biiuges, et magni currus Achilli.
Talis et ipse iubam cervice effudit equina
Coniugis adventu pernix Saturnus, et altum
Pelion hinnitu fugiens inplevit acuto.
Hunc quoque, ubi aut morbo gravis aut iam segnior annis

,
Deficit, abde domo, nec turpi ignosce senectae :

96
Frigidus in Venerem senior, frustraque laborem
Ingratum trahit; et, si quando ad proelia ventum est,
Ut quondam in stipulis magnus sine viribus ignis,
Incassum furit. Ergo animos aevumque notabis 100
Praecipue ; hinc alias artis, prolemque parentum,
Et quis cuique dolor victo, quae gloria palmae.

Nonne vides, cum praecipiti certamine campum 91.) Martis equi :' see Hom. Il. 15. 119. abdaturque domo' for ' be sent away from The notion of Serv. that Asiuoc and poßos home, but his authority is of less weight were the names of the horses rests on a than the_analogy of Horace's 'abditus mistranslation. • Currus Achilli :' Xanthus agro,' 1 Ep. 1. 5, where, as Keightley and Balius. Hom. Il. 16. 148. • Currus' remarks, the mention of the horse immefor equi :' comp. 1. 514. The ortho- diately after looks like a reference to the graphy fluctuates between · Achilli’ (not present passage. There is some doubt Achillei,' which Wagn. on A. 1. 80 about the meaning of 'nec turpi ignosce rejects) and Achillis. I have followed senectae.' Serv., who has been generally Wagn., as a reference to A. 1. 30., 2. 406, followed, proposes to take .nec turpi' as seems to show that he is right in deciding ‘non turpi.' It seems better to take his the question in each case by euphony. other way, 'nec ignosce senectae,' suffer

92.] ‘Iubam effudit,' in flight, as is him not to disgrace himself in his old age.' shown by 'pernix' and 'fugiens.'

• Turpis’ seems to be equivalent to doxy93.] Coniugis,' Rhea, or Ops, to hide uwv. Ladewig comp. Sil. 15. 651, “ turpi from whom his amour with the nymph finem donate senectae. Philyra, Saturn changed himself into a 98.] 'Ingratum,' fruitless. Comp. ). horse and the nymph into a mare. The 83, “nec nulla interea est inarata gratia idea is taken from Apoll. Rhod. 2. 1234, terrae.” • Proelia' of course is to be ex. where Saturn is described galloping off on plained from the context. being surprised with the nymph by Rhea. 99.] “Sine viribus,' because the straw is

95—122.] • The first thing is to see its only fuel. that they are young and vigorous, then to 100.] The emphatic word is 'aevum.' You inquire into their peculiar qualities and must first see that he is young and vigorous. antecedents, their successes and defeats, 101.] ‘Hinc,' afterwards, that is, not till and how they have borne them; for you you have looked to the age. “Artis,' quahave only to look at a race to see how lities. • Prolem parentum,' the breed of thoroughly a spirited horse enters into the his sire and dam; comp. Col. 7. 6. 7, “Pacontest. Whether for driving or riding, rit autem, si generosa est proles, duos.” I repeat, youth and vigour are what you 102.] Cuique,' in each case, whenever have mainly to look to.'

you choose a horse to breed from. These 95.] •Hunc quoque,' even this perfect lines may be taken in a different way, 'prohorse.

lem parentum' being rendered the other 96.] · Abde domo' has been taken by offspring of his sire and dam,' and 'cuique' Heyne and others to mean "remove him as each of these offspring, into whose racing from home,' 'send him off;' but it more qualities the breeder is to inquire. The probably means ' take him up,' • leave him words quis dolor, quae gloria’ denote a no longer out with the mares.' The Latin twofold inquiry; what have been his vicwill bear either, domo' being in the tories and defeats, and what spirit has he former case the ablative, in the latter pro- shown in each. On the latter the poet bably the dative, and equivalent to in proceeds to expatiate. domum. Nemesianus, Cyneg. 141, has 103.] *Nonne vides,' see on 1. 56. The

6

6

6

6

[ocr errors]

6

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

6

105

Corripuere ruuntque effusi carcere currus,
Cum spes arrectae iuvenum, exsultantiaque haurit
Corda pavor pulsans ? Illi instant verbere torto
Et proni dant lora ; volat vi fervidus axis ;
Iamque humiles, iamque elati sublime videntur
Aera per vacuum ferri, atque adsurgere in auras;
Nec mora, nec requies; at fulvae nimbus arenae
Tollitur ; humescunt spumis flatuque sequentum :

110

6

tion :

66

[ocr errors]

6

[ocr errors]

6

[ocr errors]

6

[ocr errors]

to

[ocr errors]

viescription is imitated from Il. 23. 362— connexion with nonne vides. We have 372. "I would offer the following transla- had a similar instance in l. 187–189,

• Who has not watched the headlong Contemplator item ... si superant fetus," speed of a race, the chariots swallowing the • Instant' seems to include the notion of ground before them as they pour along in insistunt rotis' (v. 114) as well as that of a torrent from their flood-gates, when the keeping up the speed, and being always drivers' youthful hopes are at their height, ready to put in the whip. Verbere torto' and the bounding heart is drained by each is best taken as the ablat. instrum. not eager pulsation ? there are they with their as dat. for 'verberi.' Comp. A. 8. 250., ever ready lash circling in the air, bend- 10. 691, the latter of which passages ing forward to let the reins go : on flies proves the use of the ablat. as the dat. of the wheel, swift and hot as fire : now they the person occurs in the same sentence. ride low, now they seem to tower aloft, • Verbere' = 'flagello.' "Torto,' circling,' shooting through the void air and rising not •twisted.' Comp. 1.319, “Stuppea toragainst the sky: no stint, no stay, while quentem Balearis verbera fundae." the yellow sand mounts up in a cloud, and 107.] The reins were passed round the each is sprinkled with the foam and breath body of the driver, so that he naturally of those behind him : that is what ambition leant forward when at full speed. See can do; that is the measure of their zeal Dict. A. s. v. • Circus.' • Axis :' this was a for success.'

very conspicuous part of the ancient chariot, 104.] 'Campum corripuere:' have started. because the car was so small and light. •Vi’ Corripio ' in this and similar expressions, is of course to be taken with “volat;' not, e. g. .corripere viam, spatia,' seems as Wakefield thought, with • fervidus.' express the sudden hold laid as it were on 103, 109.] Hom. (II. 23. 368, 369) has that over which the progress is made, and

"Αρματα δ' άλλοτε μεν χθονί πίλνατο also the annihilation of the space, the 'vo.

πουλυβοτείρη rare viam' of Catullus. •Effusi carcere :'

"Αλλοτε δ' άΐξασκε μετήoρα: τοι δ' έλαsee on 1. 512.

τήρες 105.] Spes arrectae,' a poetical variety "Εστασαν εν δίφροισι, for • animi arrecti spe.' So A.5. 138, which is a partial repetition of this passage, 'lau- so that Virgil refers to the bounding of the dumque arrecta cupido.' •luvenum,' the cars, and the corresponding rising and sinkdrivers, the word being of course chosen to ing of the charioteers, not to any motion of bring out the enthusiasm of youthful hopes. the charioteers themselves. · Haurit' seems rightly explained by 109.] The words . sublime-auras' are a Heyne, exhausts the heart by stopping case of zeugma, being connected grammathe breath. Those who think this too re- tically with both humiles' and `elati,' condite may compare with Servius, A. 10. though in sense with elati' only. Sub314, “ Latus haurit apertum," the notion lime' may be taken with either .elati' or in each case being that of rapidly devour. “ferri.' * Vacuum' has nearly the same ing, so that here they may render, 'thrills meaning, denoting a certain height above through and through. “Pulsans, as well the ground. Comp. Hor. 1 Od. 3. 34, ashaurit,' may go with corda.' Virgil “ Expertus vacuum Daedalus aera.” Pind. borrowed the expression from Il. 23. 370, 01. 1. 10, épnuas oi' aidépos. Comp. also A. where however rútaoge is intrans.

5.515., 12. 592. 106.] •Illi instant:' the apodosis seems 110.] •At'is continuative, not adversative. to begin here. Strictly speaking however ill.] Comp. Il. 23. 330 and Soph. El. the words form the commencement of a 718, which passages show that this of new sentence, there being no grammatical Virgil's is literal, not rhetorical.

[ocr errors]

6

[ocr errors]

6

6

Tantus amor laudum, tantae est victoria curae.
Primus Erichthonius currus et quattuor ausus
Iungere equos, rapidusque rotis insistere victor.
Frena Pelethronii Lapithae gyrosque dedere
Inpositi dorso, atque equitem docuere sub armis
Insultare solo, et gressus glomerare superbos.
Aequus uterque labor ; aeque iuvenemque magistri

115

[ocr errors]

6

[ocr errors]

6

6

112.] This connects the preceding de- munere' 1.7) than by understanding dare' scription, rather inartificially, with v. 102, as edere.' from which the poet digressed, forming as it 116.] Sub armis': ='armatum.' were a sort of object-clause for ‘nonne vides.' 117.] It is difficult to fix the exact mean* This will show you what ambition can do.' ing of glomerare;' but from the epithet With the language comp. 1. 147.

.superbos ’ it seems to denote the gathering 113.] Pliny 7. 56 has the same legend, up of the legs in prancing or high action,

Bigas primum iunxit Phrygum natio, not, as might otherwise be suggested, wheelquadrigas Erichthonius.” Cic. (N. D. 3. 23) ing round in the ring. Gellius (17. 5) and says that the Arcadians attributed the in- Macrobius (Sat. 6. 9), with Philargyrius on vention of the four-horse car to a Minerva, this passage, have attempted to give 'equidaughter of Jupiter and Coryphe, whom tem' the sense of equum,' on the strength they worshipped under the name of Coria. of a doubtful passage in Ennius (Ann. 237), Erichthonius was turned into the constel- an anomaly which, if justified, would only lation Auriga. See Dict. B. •Erichtho- produce a platitude. Here as in Hor. Epod. nius.' 'Currus et quattuor iungere equos' 16. 12, “Eques sonante verberabit ungula," ' currui quattuor iungere equos :''he first the rider is evidently said to do what the thought of putting together the two, the car horse does. So 'sub armis' points to the and the four horses,' as if they had before weight on the horse. existed separately.

118.] In v. 102 it was said that, after 114.] The majority of the MSS. have the age, the racing qualities of the stallion • rapidis.' “Rapidus’ however is supported should be looked to ; and this led to a diby Med. a m. p., Rom. and Servius, gression on racing. We now return to the and is much more poetical. Insistere' original point, that youth and vigour are refers to the practice of standing upright indispensable ('iuvenem calidumque aniin the car, and is perhaps intended to be mis' answering to animos aevumque'). contrasted with rapidus' (comp. Hom. 'Labor,' the difficuity of providing a good cited on vv. 108, 109). “Victor' either stallion (which is throughout the upperof conquest in battle or a race, or merely most notion in the poet's mind), is ' aequus' of success in his invention. • Erichtho- in both cases, that is, whether you wish to nius was the first who rose to the feat breed racers or chargers. Comp. 2. 412, of coupling a car and four horses together, “Durus uterque labor;" where, as here, standing erect above the wheels that swept the meaning of labor' is implied rather him on in triumph,'

than expressed by the immediate con115.] · Pelethronii,' from the Pelethro. text. Aeque' with what follows explains nian wood on Mount Pelion. "Gyros,' the

aequus.'

Calidum animis et cursibus ring for breaking horses in. Comp. Pseudo- acrem are the signs of youth and undiTibull. 4. ). 91, “ equum Inque vicem minished vigour, and therefore it is in point modo directo contendere cursu, Seu libeat to mention them in the case of a stallion, curvo brevius compellere gyro.” Hence whereas it would be a truism in the case of the frequent use of 'gyrus’ metaphorically a racer. The whole passage may be parafor a narrow space, as in Prop. 4. 3. 21, phrased: It is equally difficult to breed “Cur tua praescriptos evecta est pagina chargers and racers, and in either case the gyros ?” The Greek name for it was rúk- breeder requires a young and fresh stallion, λος, and Pollux has κυκλοτερής ιππασία and must not take one that is aged and for riding in the ring. Virgil, as Keightley worn out, even though in the one case he thinks, instead of rationalizing the fable of may have been a capital charger (v. 120), the Centaurs, attributes the introduction of or in the other may be of the highest racing riding horses to their rivals the Lapithae. breed of Greece. But the brevity of Virgil's • Dedere ' seems better explained by regard- language, and his tendency to substiing the inventor as the giver (comp. 'vestro tute poetical ornament for regular logical

6

6

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

6

120

125

Exquirunt calidumque animis et cursibus acrem,
Quamvis saepe fuga versos ille egerit hostis,
Et patriam Epirum referat, fortisque Mycenas,
Neptunique ipsa deducat origine gentem.

His animadversis instant sub tempus, et omnis
Inpendunt curas denso distendere pingui,
Quem legere ducem et pecori dixere maritum ;
Florentisque secant herbas, fluviosque ministrant
Farraque, ne blando nequeat superesse labori,
Invalidique patrum referant ieiunia nati.
Ipsa autem macie tenuant armenta volentes,
Atque, ubi concubitus primos iam nota voluptas
Sollicitat, frondesque negant et fontibus arcent.
Saepe etiam cursu quatiunt et sole fatigant,
Cum graviter tunsis gemit area frugibus, et cum

130

6

6

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

6

sequence, render the passage obscure, and tion; mares, on the other hand, sometimes it is possible that Voss may be right in re. require to be kept thin by denial of food ferring · labor’ to the training for driving and severe exercise.' and riding, the toil however being that of 123.] · His animadversis,' i. e. “moribus the horse-breaker, not of the horse. In et aetate deprehensis,” Serv. Comp. 2. 259. that case the connexion will be, as the two 124.] •Denso,' firm, as the flesh of a horse objects are equally important and equally should be when in high condition. Pliny difficult of attainment, it is of equal moment (11.37) distinguishes pingue' from 'adeps. to attend to breeding for each. To under- 125.] Pecori' is to be taken both with stand uterque labor' with Heyne of breed- ducem' and 'maritum.' ing and driving or riding seems out of 126.] · Florentis” is the reading of all the question : nor can Wagn. be right in the best MSS. Others have pubentis,' referring 'aeque' to -quemque,' aeque which is adopted by Heyne: but, as he iuvenem ac calidum et acrem.' Vv. 120- himself suggests, it may have been intro. 122 apparently refer back to v. 102, re- duced from A. 4. 514, and it does not seem minding the reader that such considerations to be exclusively or especially appropriate are to be attended to only in the second here. • Florentis' is not, as Wagn. seems place. There is some carelessness also in to think, an ornamental epithet, but seems the use of “ille' v. 120, which is introduced rather to indicate the kind of herbage so as to leave it doubtful whether Virgil spoken of, e.g. vetches (“ervum, Col. 6. meant to say they look to the youth of a 27) or clover. • Secant' and `ministrant' horse first, whatever may have been his imply that the stallion or bull is kept up. past services,' or 'they look for a young • Fluvios' for. aquas fluviales. Comp. A. 2. horse, though the other candidate for their 686, “Sanctos restinguere fontibus ignis." choice may have been distinguished in past 127.] Nequeat superesse' desit.' times.' Probably there is a confusion be- Comp. Ter. Phorm. 1. 3. 10, “ Aliis quia tween the two. A friend of Warton's, who defit quod amant aegre est, tibi quia observed this, wished to place the lines after superest, dolet.” The meaning in each pasv. 96.

sage appears to be that of abundance, not, 121.] 'Epirum,' comp. 1.59. “Mycenas' as in other passages where the words are for Apyog in topórov. Neptuni origine' contrasted, of excess, refers either to the story of the birth of the 129.] •Ipsa armenta,' the herd itself as horse Arion (Dict. B.) or to that of the distinguished from its dux' and . maritus;' production of the horse in the contest of that is, the mares, Neptune with Pallas. See on 1. 12. For 132.] Gallop and sweat them.' gentem' the Rom. has ‘nomen,' perhaps, 133.] Comp. 1. 298. Col. 2. 21 (22) as Wagn. suggests, from A. 10. 618.

mentions the west wind as the best for 123-127.] •After choosing a stallion, the winnowing. It seems hard to disconnect next thing is to get him into good condi. sole fatigant' from 'cursu quatiunt,' and

[ocr errors]

6

6

6

6

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

Surgentem ad Zephyrum paleae iactantur inanes.
Hoc faciunt, nimio ne luxu obtunsior usus
Sit genitali arvo et sulcos oblimet inertis,
Sed rapiat sitiens Venerem interiusque recondat.

Rursus cura patrum cadere, et succedere matrum
Incipit. Exactis gravidae cum mensibus errant,
Non illas gravibus quisquam iuga ducere plaustris,
Non saltu superare viam sit passus et acri
Carpere prata fuga fluviosque innare rapacis.
Saltibus in vacuis pascunt et plena secundum
Flumina, muscus ubi et viridissima gramine ripa,
Speluncaeque tegant, et saxea procubet umbra.
Est lucos Silari circa ilicibusque virentem
Plurimus Alburnum volitans, cui nomen asilo
Romanum est, oestrum Graii vertere vocantes,

145

[ocr errors]

6

6

6

[ocr errors]

refer it to the cows, with Trapp and Keight- 1. 17; and Virg. seems to have had his eye
ley, as if the recommendation were to exer- on the whole of that passage. • Rapacis'
cise them in threshing. On the other hand, is not without point, because the mares
mares are put to horse in spring, long would have to struggle to avoid being car-
before corn is cut and threshed, so that ried away by the stream.
this description of hot weather as the time 143.] Rom., the first reading of Med.,
for cutting and threshing the corn must be and others have pascunt;' but many,

inconsidered as inappropriate. "Gemit' seems cluding Pal., read . pascant.' It is doubtful to suggest the notion that he threshing whetherpascant' would be good Latin, as floor cries out under the tritura.'

it can hardly be understood except of the 138 – 156.] • After conception the dams herds, and this use of “pascere' for 'pasci' require attention rather than the sires. appears to rest only on Tibull. 2. 5. 25. They should be kept from work and violent The participle pascens' in such places as exercise, and allowed to graze in the shade E. 3. 96 may be from the deponent. near water, and this in the morning and Vacuis,' where they will be undisturbed. evening rather than at midday, for fear of Plena,' says Serv., that they may not have the gadfly. Virg. seems gradually to be to stoop ; rather, to scramble down the sliding from the subject of horses to that steep bank of a torrent. The whole picture of oxen, v. 140 referring rather to cows, is a contrast to that in the preceding line. vv. 141, 142 to mares. The mention of the 144.] Where (there is) moss, and where gadfly appears to make the final transition, the bank is greenest with grass; viridisand accordingly in the next paragraph we sima gramine' being the predicate. Med. hear exclusively about calving.

has 'gramina ripae.' 138.] No exact parallel for this use of 145.] Philargyrius says that .saxea um• cadere' is given. • Cadere' and succe- bra' and procubet' are nove.' 'Procubo' dere' may possibly be a metaphor from the only occurs again in Claudian, Consul. Prob. setting and rising of stars.

et Olyb. 119, and there in the sense of 140.] Varro (2. 7. 10) cautions his breeder lying down. The conjunctives will depend against working his mares too much when on .ubi,' if pascunt’ is read v. 143. they are near foaling. “Non' for ' ne,' as 147.] “Volitans,' a participle used sub. in 1. 458 (note). * Plaustris' seems to be stantively, a usage more commonly found the ablative, as if it had been 'iuga gravium in the plural, as in 2. 152, &c., except in plaustrorum,' not, as Forb. and Keightley the case of a word like 'amans,' which has think, the dative.

come to be fairly naturalized as a noun. 141.] It is hard to fix the exact sense of Besides «asilus,' the Romans called the saltu superare viam;' but it is probably to gadily tabanus,' Pliny II. 28, as the be coupled with what follows, and taken as Greeks had another name, uuwy. clearing, i. e. leaping out of, the road.

148.] Strictly speaking, 'vertere vocantes' 142.] ‘Fluviosque rapacis' is from Lucr. would imply that the Greeks translated the

[ocr errors]

6

6

6

« ForrigeFortsæt »