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Fidentemque fuga Parthum versisque sagittis,
Et duo rapta manu diverso ex hoste tropaea
Bisque triumphatas utroque ab litore gentis.
Stabunt et Parii lapides, spirantia signa,
Assaraci proles demissaeque ab Iove gentis
Nomina, Trosque parens, et Troiae Cynthius auctor.
Invidia infelix Furias amnemque severum
Cocyti metuet tortosque Ixionis anguis
Inmanemque rotam, et non exsuperabile saxum.
Interea Dryadum silvas saltusque sequamur

Intactos, tua, Maecenas, haud mollia iussa. 775, mention a river of that name, possibly, netan and Selinuntian marbles. When the as the commentators suggest, from a mis- deeds of Augustus are commemorated, the understanding of this passage. See note on mythical glories of his ancestors are also to 1. 490, and consult Macleane on Hor. 2 Od. be introduced. 10. 20, where there is the same doubt about 35.] · Assaracus was the son of Tros, Niphates as here. If the figure is to be from whom Aeneas and the Julian house pressed, “pulsum' would be more applicable were sprung. to a river, which may be poetically feigned to 36.] Nomina,' the great names. Comp. be driven backward to its source (Ladewig Sil. 17. 492, “ Jamque ardore truci luscomp. A. 11. 405), than to a mountain; so trans fortissima quaeque Nomina obit ferro." that we must suppose Virg. to have thought "Troiae Cynthius auctor :' comp. Hor. of the mountaineers rather than of their 3 Od. 3. 65, 66, “Ter si resurgat murus dwelling. Representations of mountains aeneus Auctore Phoebo."

Apollo is perwere carried in the triumphal procession, haps introduced as the tutelar god, and Dict. A. • Triumph.'

reputed father of Augustus (Keightley). 31.] The Parthian mode of warfare is too 37.] • Invidia' probably refers to political well known to need illustration. If these malcontents, not to the rivals of the poet. lines do not refer to the triumphal progress • Severum :' comp. Lucr. 5. 35, “pelagique of Octavianus in the East after the battle of severa," where sonora seems a needless Actium, we must either regard them, with conjecture. Heyne, as prophetic, or suppose that they 38.] Metuet,' shall quail at,' that is, were added after the completion of the Geor. shall be represented as quailing at the torgics, B.c. 20, the last year of Virgil's life, when tures of the infernal regions, as inflicted, Augustus received the submission of the not on others, but on itself. “Tortosque Armenians and recovered the standards from Ixionis anguis' is to be taken in close the Parthians, an event referred to in the connexion with the next clause. Virgil same strain by Hor. 2 Od. 9. 18 foll. alone speaks of Ixion as bound to the wheel

32, 33.] These lines refer to the double with snakes; whence some have preferred triumph of Augustus in the East and the the reading of the Rom. *orbis.' Tortos' West. It is hard to say what this Western would then refer to the whirling of the victory can be, unless it be that gained over wheel, in which the torture consisted. the Cantabri, B.c. 26, which would agree 39.] •Non exsuperabile saxum' is prowith the hypothesis of a subsequent inser- bably on the analogy of exsuperare labotion mentioned in the previous note. Bri.

Serv. however understands 'exsutain, of which Serv. speaks, never furnished perabile’ actively, “ quod superare non valet any triumph to Augustus. The language summum montis cacumen. Gell. 17. 2 looks almost too specific for prophecy, quotes from the Annals of Q. Claudius the which moreover in a case like this is less expression “operam fortem atque exsuperasublime than actual historical fact.

bilem." 33.] «Utroque ab litore' is to be taken 41] • Intactos :' this attribute seems to with * gentis.' • Bis triumphatas,' once be dwelt on for two reasons: first, as deover each. Some take it, twice apiece; but noting the untried nature of the subject this will not agree so well with ‘duo tropaea.' (comp. Lucr. 1. 927, 'integros fontis'), and,

34.] · Stabunt,' either on separate pe- secondly, because it is of pasture land that he destals, or on the pediment, like the Aegi. now comes to speak. • Pursue wethe Dryads'

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Te sine nil altum mens inchoat: en age, segnis
Rumpe moras ; vocat ingenti clamore Cithaeron
Taygetique canes domitrixque Epidaurus equorum,
Et vox adsensu nemorum ingeminata remugit.
Mox tamen ardentis accingar dicere pugnas
Caesaris, et nomen fama tot ferre per annos,
Tithoni prima quot abest ab origine Caesar.

Seu quis, Olympiacae miratus praemia palmae,
Pascit equos, seu quis fortis ad aratra iuvencos,
Corpora praecipue matrum legat. Optuma torvae

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woods and glades, virgin as they.' Iussa' regards as inconsistent with the previous may = 'pensa,' the thing or subject com- allegory, and partly on their position as manded, in apposition to saltus ;' or it may interrupting the main subject just resumed be a cognate accus. after sequamur,' sale by a recurrence to the digression. The tus' being the ordinary accus. of the object. last objection is of some weight, as the The union of the two in the same instance whole passage would be improved by their does not seem usual in Latin, but is fre- absence. Virgil however may have felt quent in Greek, e. g. Aesch. Ag. 1419, 1420, bound to give his patron a distinct and retoŨTOV éx yñs rñooe xeñv o ávoon- peated assurance of his intentions. The darkiv Miaquátwv å noiva ; It seems un- lines, if genuine, directly negative Hurd's necessary to suppose that Maecenas actu. theory, that the subject of the previous ally urged him to undertake this part of allegory is the Aeneid, which indeed the the subject. No more need be meant than structure of the allegory itself, if carefully that it forms a necessary part of the work considered, will sufficiently refute. The which Maecenas seems to have prompted. promise, which seems to have been evaded

42.] •En age,' &c. : these words are by most of the Augustan poets, was doubtevidently addressed to Maecenas, who is less fulfilled in the composition of the called upon to plunge with the poet into Aeneid; but the manner of its performance the subject, as in 2. 39.

was very different from any thing sketched 43.] 'Clamore' is the clamour of the here; indeed the method proposed was hunt. • Cithaeron’ was a wild mountain, exactly reversed in practice, the mythical abounding in beasts, as the stories of Oedi- ancestors of Rome and the Julian family pus and Pentheus prove.

being made the central figures, and Augus44.] Taygeti' is the gen. of “Taygetus,' tus and his exploits only accessory. the masc. being the form used in the sing. 49—59.] • Whether in breeding horses Spartan dogs are mentioned below, vv. 345, or oxen, the great thing is to choose the 405. ' Epidaurus', for Argolis, "Apyos intó- mother well.' Then follow the points of a Borov, though.domitrix equorum' seems good breeding cow. to be a translation of ιππόδαμος.

49.] • Miratus' has in effect the sense of 46.] ‘Accingar' with the infin. is to be desiring, as in Hor. 1 Ep. 6. 18 (comp. v. noted. The word is of course metaphorical, 9). Comp. also the use of 'stupet,' Hor. but perhaps used with some sense of its 1 S. 4. 28, and note on · inhiant,' 2. 463. special appropriateness in connexion with 50.] It is hard to say whether . ad arapugnas.' I will gird my loins to sing of tra’ should be taken with 'fortis' or 'pas. the battle, as now for the chase.'

cit.' Instances of both are common, e.g. 48.] . Tithonus’ was not one of the Prop. 2. 10. 3, “ Fortis ad praelia turmas,' mythical ancestors of the Caesars in the and Ter. Andr. 1. 1. 30, “alere canes ad direct line, as he belonged to the other venandum.” But fortis aratris' (v. 62) is branch of the royal house of Troy; but this decidedly in favour of the former. may be merely a poetical licence. Hurd 51.] Corpora matrum :' comp. A. 7. thinks these three lines are spurious. His 650, excepto Laurentis corpore Turni.” view is grounded partly on alleged difficul. The requisites for a cow are given at length ties in the expression, such as “accingar by Varro 2. 5, and by Col. 6.1, and Pallad. dicere, ardentis pugnas,' and the unautho- 4. 11, who appear to have imitated Varro. rized introduction of Tithonus, partly on * Torvae,' grim-looking. Col. 6. 20, “ Huic their matter-of-fact character, which he (sc. ‘tauro') torva facies est.”

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Forma bovis, cui turpe caput, cui plurima cervix,
Et crurum tenus a mento palearia pendent;
Tum longo nullus lateri modus; omnia magna,
Pes etiam ; et camuris hirtae sub cornibus aures.
Nec mihi displiceat maculis insignis et albo,
Aut iuga detrectans interdumque aspera cornu,
Et faciem tauro propior, quaeque ardua tota,
Et gradiens ima verrit vestigia cauda.
Aetas Lucinam iustosque pati hymenaeos
Desinit ante decem, post quattuor incipit annos;
Cetera nec feturae habilis, nec fortis aratris.
Interea, superat gregibus dum laeta iuventas,
Solve mares; mitte in Venerem pecuaria primus,

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52.] “Turpe,' ugly, as in 4. 395, “turpis mon form is supported by Med., and in phocas." See below on v. 247, and comp. the other passages referred to by the com. aloxpós. The word seems to comprise mentators, such as Prop. 2. 3. 47, there several characteristics given by Varro I. c. appears good authority for both, it seerns "latis frontibus'—' conpressis malis’— sub. hardly worth while to make a change. •Insimi (-mae ?)'apertis naribus. Plurima terdumque aspera cornu’ is to be closely cervix' denotes both thickness and length. connected with 'iuga detrectans' as de Comp. Varro I. c. cervicibus crassis et noting the temper of the animal, and not, longis.”

as in most editions, to be separated by a 53.] • Palearia,' dewlaps. Col. 1. c. “pa- semicolon. Aspera cornu,' • apt to butt learibus amplis et paene ad genua promis- angrily.'

58.) • Faciem tauro propior,' probably 54.] The oblongae et amplae' of Varro = 'latis frontibus,' Varro 2. 5. 1. c. The more length a cow has, the pression has been already specified by greater room she will have for her calf to torvae.' • Ardua tota :'

probantur altissimae formae longaeque,” 55.] Pes etiam :' Varro l. c. says, “pe- Col. 6. 21. dibus non latis;" but Col. and Pallad., 59.] Comp. Varro 1. c. speaking of oxen, have magnis ungulis,' fusam usque ad calces ut habeant." speaking of cows, ungulis brevibus' or tigia' may be either the footsteps or the modicis.' • Pes etiam,' put thus emphati- feet, as in A. 5. 566, “ Vestigia primi cally, may be a special contradiction of the Alba pedis,” and in Catull. 62 (64). 162. opposite view • Hirtae aures,' so Varro l. c. 60 -71.) “The age for breeding is be“pilosis auribus." Camuris,' curving in

tween four and ten years. It best to be wards. “Camuri boves sunt qui conversa early: if the first days are let slip, disease introrsus cornua habent; quibus contrarii or death may intervene : such is the lot of patuli qui cornua diversa habent; laevi, mortality. Be attentive, and supply fresh quorum cornua terram spectant; his con- breeders as the others fail.' trarii licini, qui cornua sursum versum re- 60.] ‘Iustos,' regular ; as in iustum flexa habent” (Philarg.). Servius says this praelium,''iustus exercitus.' Comp. Varro is the same word as

camera.'

Pallad. 4. i. c. “Non minores oportet inire bimas, 11 says, “ cornibus robustis ac sine curva- ut trimae pariant; eo melius si quadrimae. turae pravitate lunatis.”

Pleraeque pariunt in decem annos, quaedam 56.j • Maculis et albo'='albis maculis.' etiam in plures.” Varro, on the other hand, (2. 5) says,

62.] Cetera,' sc. ' aetas.' lore potissimum nigro, dein robeo, tertio 63.) Superat' = superest. Wagn. helvo (i.q. gilvo), quarto albo." Col. explains it by 'abunde est;' but v. 66 again (6. 1), “ coloris robei vel fusci." clearly points to the former meaning.

57.] Detrectans :' Wagn. and Forb. Comp. note on 2. 235. write . detractans,' on the authority of the 64.] • Pecuaria' properly means the place Rom, and other MSS. But since the com- where the pecora' are kept; but here, as

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Atque aliam ex alia generando suffice prolem.
Optuma quaeque dies miseris mortalibus aevi
Prima fugit; subeunt morbi tristisque senectus,
Et labor et durae rapit inclementia mortis.
Semper erunt, quarum mutari corpora malis : :
Semper enim refice, ac, ne post amissa requiras,
Anteveni, et subolem armento sortire quot annis.

Nec non et pecori est idem delectus equino.
Tu modo, quos in spem statues submittere gentis,
Praecipuum iam inde a teneris inpende laborem.
Continuo pecoris generosi pullus in arvis
Altius ingreditur, et mollia crura reponit ;
Primus et ire viam et fluvios temptare minacis
Audet et ignoto sese committere ponti,
Nec vanos horret strepitus. Illi ardua cervix,

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in Pers. 3. 9, the animals themselves. The prominence given to 'tu' may be exPrimus :' comp. 2. 408, “ Primus humum pressed in translation, Mark me, and let fodito, primus devecta cremato Sarmenta.” those whom you mean to rear as the propa

65.] • Suffice :' this word means pro- gators of their line have even from their first perly to produce' or 'put from beneath,' youth the advantage of your special pains.' and so to supply a void or heap up a succes- 74.] “A teneris,' from foals, like sion. Comp. the phrase sufficitur consul, pueris,' from boys. censor,' &c.

75.] 'Continuo,' from the first, 1. 169. 66.] Another touch of the pessimism 76.] • Altius ingreditur' seems to mean which Virgil probably caught from Lu- steps higher.' Varro (2. 7) says, “cruri. cretius; comp. 1. 198. • Miseris mor- bus rectis et aequalibus.” Col. (6. 29), talibus' is from Lucr. 5. 944.

"aequalibus atque altis rectisque cruribus." 68.] • Labor,' suffering, as in A. 6. 'Mollia crura reponit :' Servius quotes from 277, where • Letumque Labosque' are Ennius (Ann. 545), who is speaking of enumerated among the phantoms at the cranes, " Perque fabam repunt et mollia gates of hell. • Rapit,' hurries on, as in A. crura reponunt.” • Mollia' = mobilia :' 4. 581, “Idem omnes simul ardor habet, comp. Lucr. 4. 980, " mollia membra rapiuntque ruuntque." So 'rapidus.' moventis." • Reponit :' the meaning of

69.] There will always be some that this word is very doubtful. Trapp hints you will be glad to get rid of. • Quarum that the 're' means alternation, a sense corpora' is merely periphrastic, as above, which we may perhaps parallel by onlais

dueißónevoi, Pind. Pyth. 4. 226. Keight70.] · Enim' seems here to be added for ley takes the 're' to mean frequency,the sake of emphasis. The words are to lays fast to the ground. But it is more be connected with what follows. “Amissa' probably to be explained as correlative to probably quae amiseris,' not. amissa altius ingreditur.' See, how high he steps corpora.'

in the pasture, and with what spring he 71.] Subolem,' a supply of young ones. brings down his legs.' • Sortire' = elige,' as in A. 12. 919.

77.] • Primus,' &c. : he leads the herd 72–94.] Directions for the choice of over the ford and bridge. The same proof stallions.

of a colt's courage is given by Col. 6. 2, 72.] The Med. and two other MSS. and Varro 2. 7. The bridges meant were have dilectus.' But analogy, as well as probably wooden. Comp. Pliny 8. 43 the authority of MSS., is in favour of (speaking of asses) “nec pontes transeunt delectus.' See Kritz on Sall. Cat. 36. per raritatem eorum tralucentibus fluviis."

73.] •Submittere,' E. 1. 46 note. The Some MSS., including the first reading of antecedent is omitted, because . quos' is Med., give 'ponto.' equivalent to si quos.' See Madv. § 321.

v. 51.

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Argutumque caput, brevis alvus, obesaque terga, 80
Luxuriatque toris animosum pectus. Honesti
Spadices glaucique, color deterrimus albis
Et gilvo. Tum, si qua sonum procul arma dedere,
Stare loco nescit, micat auribus et tremit artus,
Collectumque fremens volvit sub naribus ignem. 85
Densa iuba, et dextro iactata recumbit in armo;
At duplex agitur per lumbos spina ; cavatque
Tellurem et solido graviter sonat ungula cornu.
Talis Amyclaei domitus Pollucis habenis
Cyllarus, et, quorum Graii meminere poetae,

90 80.] • Argutum :' this word is the parti. MSS. Fremens, besides being the readciple of arguo,' which may perhaps have ing of the best MSS., derives some support had originally a physical meaning. It from Lucr. 5. 1076, “Et fremitum patulis seems, when applied to form, to mean sub naribus edit ad arma. * Ignem,' • clearly defined, neat.' Comp. "arguta the hot breath. The steam seems to have solea," Catull. 66 (68). 72. Argutum suggested the idea of smoke. Comp. the caput' is probably the opposite to . turpe fable of the horses of Diomedes, “spirantes caput. Varro and Columella recommend naribus ignem” (Lucr. 5. 29). • Volvere' is a small head; and this smallness is implied used of breath Lucr. 6. 1227, “ vitalis aeris in 'argutus,' as largeness is in turpis.' auras Volvere in ore.” • Obesus' is opposed to gracilis.' See 86.] ' Iactata,' after being tossed up. Döderlein, Syn. 5. 200.

Böringer, quoted by Schneider on Varro 81.] •Animosum,' spirited, because mus- 2. 7, says that the ancients got up on the cular. Honesti,' from the context, must right side of the horse, and used the mane mean 'good' rather than handsome.' to mount with. Comp. Prop. 5. 4. 38,

82.] Spadices,' bay; as appears from “ Cui Tatius dextras collocat ipse iubas.” Gell. 2. 26, who derives it from orádiš, 87.] · Duplex spina' appears to be a the Doric for a palm, and says that the hollow spine, opposed to extans.' Varro colour is that of a not too ripe date. l. c., Col. 6. 29. A synonym for the word is "badius' or

88.] Varro and Col. 1. c. mention' durae • baidius, Baiolos, from Bais, also a palm ungulae' as a good point. A hard and branch, whence the Italian 'baio' and our thick hoof would be especially requisite

bay' "Glauci,' blue grey (Keightley). when horses were not shod with iron. • Albis: Keightley says this remark must Comp. the Homeric spatepuvuxes in Tol. be confined to stallions. The distinction 89.] •Such was the steed that learnt to taken between "albus' and candidus,' as obey the rein of Amyclaean Pollux, Cyllaif the praise of white horses in the classics rus, and those of which Greek song has was confined to the latter, is overthrown preserved the memory, the horses of Mars, by Hor. 1 S. 7. 8, “ equis praecurreret and the pair of the mighty Achilles : aye, albis," where see Macleane's note.

such was the great god Saturn himself, 83.] Gilvo,' dun (Keightley). The when quick as lightning he flung his mane word is the same as the German "gelb' over that horse's neck of his, as he heard and our yellow.' * Si qua' for .si forte,' his wife's step, and, as he ran, thrilled like “si quem' for • sicubi,' A. 1. 181, and through the height and depth of Pelion the common use of nullus' for

with his clear sharp neigh.' These mythoSee E. 1. 54.

logical allusions are obviously intended to 84.] 'Micat auribus,' he pricks up his ennoble the subject; but they tend to in

Comp. the phrase "micare digitis.' jure its genuine character. Propertius has The instrum. ablat. 'auribus' denotes carried the artifice to absurdity. “Amy. an action, whereas the accusative .artus' claei,' v. 345. denotes an affection, though the distinction 90.] Castor is generally the rider of does not hold universally. "Tremit artus,' Cyllarus, while Pollux is a boxer. Suidas from Lucr. 3. 489.

however, s. v. Kúllapos, quotes Stesicho85.] Seneca quotes this line with 'pre- rus as saying that Cyllarus belonged to mens,' which is also the reading of some both.

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