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480

Defectus solis varios, lunaeque labores ;
Unde tremor terris, qua vi maria alta tumescant
Obiicibus ruptis rursusque in se ipsa residant,
Quid tantum Oceano properent se tinguere soles
Hiberni, vel quae tardis mora noctibus obstet.
Sin, has ne possim naturae accedere partis,
Frigidus obstiterit circum praecordia sanguis :
Rura mihi et rigui placeant in vallibus amnes;
Flumina amem silvasque inglorius. O, ubi campi
Spercheusque, et virginibus bacchata Lacaenis
Taygeta ! o, qui me gelidis convallibus Haemi

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478.] Copied from Lucr. 5. 751, “Solis 1.9, 19. Lucr. 3. 43. A Scholiast on Hor. item quoque defectus lunaeque latebras A. P. 465 explains the epithet · frigidus,' Pluribus e causis fieri tibi posse putandum there given to Empedocles, by saying that est,” in which "pluribus e causis ex- according to him slowness of intellect was plains varios.' That there is no difference caused by the coldness of the blood about between defectus' and · labores' appears the heart, which is, at any rate, a natural from the parallel passage A. 1. 740, where inference from his doctrine. Virgil gives a we have "errantem lunam solisque labores.” philosophic reason for his possible inapComp. Prop. 3. 26. 52, “fraternis Luna titude for philosophy. See also note on laboret equis.” Heyne, who quotes the lines 4. 7,“ si quem Numina laeva sinunt.” of Lucr., observes, after giving the first 485.] Rura — silvas,' amnes - fluverse, “ Vel hoc uno versu Vergiliani car- mina,' placeant — amem' correspond. minis quanta suavitas sit intelliges." His wish is, that he may be content with

479.] ‘Unde tremor terris :' explained the woods and the waters, and have no by Lucr. 6. 577 foll. "Qua vi maria alta thought besides. tumescant,' &c.: the commentators take 486.] ‘O, ubi campi,' &c., 'O where are this of the tides ; but the expressions seem they?' or “How can I get to them?' = to denote something more violent and irre- Would that I were there !' Comp. Hor. gular, such as the sudden rise of the sea in 2 s. 7. 116, “Unde mihi lapidem ?” connexion with an earthquake, an instance Campi’ is the “Larissae campus opimae,” of which occurs Thucyd. 3. 89, kai nepi Hor. i Od. 7. 11. τούτους τους χρόνους των σεισμών κατ- 487.) “Spercheos' is the spelling of εχόντων, της Ευβοίας εν 'Ορoβίαις ή θά- Med. (ο being altered a m. sec. into u), λασσα επελθούσα [επανελθούσα Arnold Sperchius' of Rom. and Pal. I have given and Göller] από της τότε ούσης γής και • Spercheus' on the analogy of Peneus, κυματωθείσα επήλθε της πόλεως μέρος τι, • Alpheus,' though it is not easy to say και το μεν κατέκλυσε, το δ' υπενόστησε, when Virgil is likely to have used us,' kai Dálaooa võv doti npótepov oŭga yñ. when os.' See Wagn. Q. V. 4. · Bacchata, Qua vi,' 'through what force of nature.' probably from Lucr. 5. 824, “Omne quod

482.] It might be doubted whether in magnis bacchatur montibu' passim." ‘tardis noctibus' meant slow in coming Here however there is a special reference to or slow in going—in other words, whether the temple of Bacchus at the foot of the the epithet was equivalent to aestivis' or mountain, to which only women to hibernis. But it seems to be decided admitted. Comp. A. 3. 125, “ Bacchatamin favour of the latter by Lucr. 5. 699, que iugis Naxon.” In these two passages “ Propterea noctes hiberno tempore longae it has been proposed to take bacchatus' Cessant."

actively, the mountain or island itself being 483.] Comp. Lucr. 3. 29, “quod sic said to revel (comp. 3. 150, “furit munatura tua vi Tam manifesta patens ex gitibus aether,” and pullopaveiv and omni parte retecta est."

similar words in Greek); but the use of a 484.] Comp. the verse of Empedocles deponent participle passively is common in Stobaeus, Ecl. Phys. p. 1026, alpa enough, and Barxevönvai appears to be γάρ ανθρώποις περικάρδιον εστι νόημα. similarly used. See also Plato, Phaedo, p. 96 B, Cic. Tusc. 488.] 'Taygeta,' plural of the Greek

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490

Sistat, et ingenti ramorum protegat umbra !
Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere caussas,
Atque metus omnis et inexorabile fatum
Subiecit pedibus strepitumque Acherontis avari!
Fortunatus et ille, deos qui novit agrestis,
Panaque Silvanumque senem Nymphasque sorores !
Illum non populi fasces, non purpura regum
Flexit et infidos agitans discordia fratres,
Aut coniurato descendens Dacus ab Histro,
Non res Romanae perituraque regna ; neque

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Taúyetov. The common Latin form is particularly in E. 5., 6., 10., the country • Taygetus.' • Convallibus,' the reading of gods are represented as mixing with the Med., Canon., and one other MS., is the human dwellers in the country.

natural, word for the glens of 495.) • Populi fasces:' from Lucr. 3. 996. Haemus. (It has been already received This passage again is somewhat similar to by Paldamus and Ladewig.) The common Lucr. 3. 59—86, who is speaking of the reading “in vallibus' seems to have arisen civil wars of his own time. from v. 485. O' seems to be an invoca- 496.] “Fratres' is generally taken to tion of the man who can place him where refer to one of the domestic contests for he would be.

Eastern thrones, such as that in the family 490—540.] •If the sage is blest, so is the of the Arsacidae between Phraates and countryman: untempted by ambition, and Tiridates for the throne of Parthia, glanced removed from its crimes, its vanities, and at in Hor. 1 Od. 26. 3 foll., which somewhat its penalties, he moves in the round of resembles this passage. Lucr. however, yearly labour and yearly plenty, with new 1. c., has expressions, e. g. vv. 72, 73, 83— fruits constantly pouring in, and ever and 86, which speak distinctly of the disruption anon a day of rustic merrymaking, follow- of families in the civil war. ing the example of the grand old times of render “Civil feuds that make brothers Italian history and legend.'

swerve from brother's duty.' 'Non-non 490—492.) In these three lines Virgil —et,' connecting three equally distinct clearly refers specially to Lucretius. The subjects, occurs Prop. 2. 1. 21. words.

rerum caussae' accurately describe 497.] · Descendens :' alluding to their his philosophy, though the expression itself position on the mountains.

“ Daci monis not his. They are copied by Ov. M. 15. tibus inhaerent,” Florus 4. 12. 18. The 68, who couples them with primordia wars with the Daci, who used to pass into mundi.'

the empire over the Danube when it was 491.] ‘Metus,' &c.: comp. Lucr. 3. 37, frozen, lasted from u.c. 724–744. Phi. “Et metus ille foras praeceps Acherontis larg. asserts, on the authority of Aufidius agendus, Funditus humanam qui vitam Modestus, that the Dacians used to pledge turbat ab imo.” “Fatum,' death, re- themselves in a draught of the Ister not garded as the fiat of nature. •Inexorabile' to return from their expeditions unless may refer specially to the argument at the victorious, which is confirmed by Claudian, end of Lucretius' third book.

De Bel. Get., vv. 81,2. If a special reference 492.] 'Subiecit pedibus :' comp. Lucr. be needed, we may more naturally suppose 1. 79, “Quare religio pedibus subiecta Virgil to speak of the frozen Danube as vicissim Obteritur.” “Strepitumque Ache- conspiring with the barbarians. Comp. rontis avari :' slightly differing from the Claudian, Cons. Honor. 3. 98, “Et conimage in Lucr. 3. 14—30, where the iurati veniunt ad classica venti.” This philosopher looking down sees Acheron however would probably be post-Virgilian, vanish.

and the imitation in Statius, Theb. 1. 20, 493.] ‘Fortunatus et ille :' the calm, “ Et coniurato descendens vertice Dacus," which was the great boon of philosophy, looks as if he, at least, understood .conis given also, after its kind, to the lover of iurato Istro' merely as a poetical variety the country. Felix' and • fortunatus' for "coniuratus Dacus.' seem practically synonymous. “Deos qui 498.] • Res Romanae,' the affairs of the novit agrestis :' throughout the Eclogues, empire, of which the vicissitudes of sub

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500

Aut doluit miserans inopem, aut invidit habenti.
Quos rami fructus, quos ipsa volentia rura
Sponte tulere sua, carpsit; nec ferrea iura
Insanumque forum aut populi tabularia vidit.
Sollicitant alii remis freta caeca, ruuntque
In ferrum, penetrant aulas et limina regum ;
Hic petit exscidiis urbem miserosque Penatis,
Ut
gemma

bibat et Sarrano dormiat ostro;
Condit opes alius, defossoque incubat auro;
Hic stupet attonitus Rostris ; hunc plausus hiantem
Per cuneos geminatus enim plebisque patrumque

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ject kingdoms (“perituraque regna') were a mina' (comp. Hor. Epod. 2. 7, “ Forumque most important part. Not the great Ro- vitat et superba civium Potentiorum liman state, and the death-throes of subject mina,” and Pers. 1. 108, “ne maiorum kingdoms.'

tibi forte Limina frigescant”) seems to 499.] •In the country, where all have show that the poet speaks of the road to enough, distinctions of poverty and wealth, wealth and honour through the favour of and the emotions of pity and envy which the great. • Regum,' the great,' as in they cause, are alike unknown.'

Hor. 1 Ep. 7. 37., 17.43. The other interrenity produced by a rural no less than by pretation, 'sack the palaces of kings,' would a philosophical life is still the uppermost create a prosaic tautology with what follows. thought. Comp. Tibull. ). l. 77, ego 505.] Exscidiis,' abl.: comp. bello,' composito securus acervo Despiciam dites "armis,' saxis petere.'•Urbem miserosdespiciamque famem.” Serv., seeing ap- que Penatis,'«one brings ruin to a city, and parently that this explanation does not wretchedness to its homes. There is no clear the earlier part of the verse from the ground for taking this of Rome, with charge of selfish indifference, suggests that Heyne and others. the countryman does not pity poverty be- 506.] 'Gemma bibat :' Serv., whom some cause he is philosopher enough to unders of the commentators follow, says “poculo stand that it is not an evil but a blessing. gemmeo, non gemmato.” But there seems Germanus thinks Virgil means to represent no reason thus to restrict the sense of the the countryman as free from the two emo- word. Bibit e gemma' occurs Prop. 4. 5. tions which prevent the sense of justice, 4, gemma ministratur' Sen. Provid. 3. which he proves from Aristotle to know no Virgil, as Macrob. Sat. 7. 1 says, has imidistinction of persons. The feeling again tated a line of Varius, “incubet ut Tyriis is unlike the general tone of the Georgics. atque ex solido bibat auro." FordorSee on v. 460.

miat' Med. a m. pr. has.indormiat,' which 500.] Imitated from Lucr. 5. 937, 938. Heins. adopted.

501.] “The iron rigour of the law,' 507.] *Defosso auro : Hor. 1 S. J. 42, though not necessarily a bad quality, may “Quid juvat inmensum te argenti pondus be regarded as one, and therefore the et auri Furtim defossa timidum deponere countryman is felicitated on having nothing terra ?” Such a mode of hoarding would be to do with it.

natural in a time of proscriptions and con502.]

Tabularia,' archives. There fiscations. Comp. also A. 6. 610, “ "qui were .tabularia’ in various temples, espe- divitiis soli incubuere repertis.” cially in that of Saturn, Dict. Ant. Tabu- 508.] ‘Hic,' the aspirant to eloquence, larium.' Heyne thinks there is a special who is struck dumb with admiration of the reference to the public contracts.

successful speaker, and the applause which 503.] ‘Freta caeca,' like ruunt in fer- greets him. Hunc,' the aspirant (“hianrum,' which follows, seems to denote tem') to political greatness, who is caught headlong daring. Comp. Soph. Tereus, fr. and carried away (corripuit ') by the ap533, Tò és aðplov åsi tupòv šptel, plause in the theatre ("per cuneos ') which the morrow is always unknown.'

rewarded popular statesmen. For the prac504.] • Penetrant aulas et limina regum.' tice comp. Hor. 1 Od. 20. 3., 2. 17. 26. The choice of the words .aulae' and 'li. 509.] Pal. has geminatur,' which was

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510

Corripuit; gaudent perfusi sanguine fratrum,
Exsilioque domos et dulcia limina mutant,
Atque alio patriam quaerunt sub sole iacentem.
Agricola incurvo terram dimovit aratro :
Hinc anni labor, hinc patriam parvosque Penatis
Sustinet, hinc armenta boum meritosque iuvencos.
Nec requies, quin aut pomis exuberet annus,
Aut fetu pecorum, aut Cerealis mergite culmi,
Proventuque oneret sulcos atque horrea vincat.
Venit hiemps : teritur Sicyonia baca trapetis,
Glande sues laeti redeunt, dant arbuta silvae ;

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the old reading. The only strictly parallel dered otherwise than as descendants,' a use of enim' seems to be A. 8. 84, where sense not applicable here. Heyne comp. it is equally difficult to understand its force. 4. 155, “ Et patriam solae et certos novere Of course it can be used as a particle of as- penatis.” It must be admitted however severation, as in ‘sed enim, enimvero,' that the external authority for the reading &c., but in such passages it is still a con- is weak, as in the preceding line we have nective particle, which cannot be the case seen that the transcriber of Med. could here. See Hand, Tursell. “Enim.' Per. write carelessly, and that the absence of a haps we may render · The plaudits of com- subsequent correction is no proof of the mons and nobles as they roll, aye, again truth of its readings, while penatis' may and again along the benches.'

have been introduced from v. 505, especially 510.] * Fratrum :' another imitation of if the transcriber happened to recollect A. Lucr. 3. 70. Comp. note on v. 496. If pro- 8. 543, to which Wagn. refers. The words scriptions are alluded to, Virgil would refer are frequently confused in MSS. It is not to the second triumvirate, as Lucretius to clear whether patriam ' means his hamlet, Sulla and Marius.

or his country in the larger sense. The 511.] . Exsilin,' the place of exile. Comp. language would rather point to the latter, A. 3. 4, “ Diversa exsilia et desertas quae- the sense to the former. If the latter is rere terras.'

meant, the antithesis may be, as Wagn. 512 ] Hor. 2 Od. 16. 18, “quid terras thinks, between peaceful patriotism and alio calentes Sole mutamus ?” is probably an the unscrupulous ambition just mentioned. imitation of this, though Horace is speaking Varro R. Ř. 2. 1 complains that the disuse of voluntary exile.

of agriculture was making Rome dependent 513.] ‘Dimovit,' while war, &c., is going on foreign nations for corn. Not unlike is on elsewhere, he has tilled his lands and Juv. 14. 70, 71, “patriae sit idoneus, utilis expects the harvest.' The same line has agris,” except that there the reference is occurred, with the change of one word, more general. Donatus ap. Servium renders 1. 494. Med. actually gives

• molitus
patriam,' 'villam.'

• Thence comes sushere.

tenance for his country and his own little 514.] The use of 'labor,' like tóvog for homestead alike, and for his herds of oxen and realized labour, is common; but no instance the bullocks that have served him so well.' has been quoted of labor ' for the fruits of 515.] · Meritos :' so 3. 525, of the dying labour as specially distinguished from labour bullock, “ Quid labor aut benefacta iuvant ? itself, as would be the case here if we took quid vomere terras Invertisse gravis ?” the sense to be that the husbandman's an- 516.] Nec requies, probably 'anno' nual reward comes from ploughing. It rather than agricolae.' The expression is seems better to understand the words as from Lucr. 6. 1177. meaning that the husbandman finds his an- 519.] The narrative style is continued nual employment as well as his livelihood with increased liveliness. Sicyonia baca,' in tillage. • Parvosque penatis :' this is the the olive for which Sicyon was famous. reading of Med., approved by Heinsius and Comp. Ov. Ibis 319, ex Pont. 4. 15. 10, Heyne, and adopted by Ladewig, and ap- Stat. Theb. 4. 50. pears in itself better than the common 520.] Glande laeti': ='satures et nitidi.' reading nepotes,' which can hardly be ren. Comp." armentaque laeta," v. 144. "See

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525

Et varios ponit fetus autumnus, et alte
Mitis in apricis coquitur vindemia saxis.
Interea dulces pendent circum oscula nati,
Casta pudicitiam servat domus, ubera vaccae
Lactea demittunt, pinguesque in gramine laeto
Inter se adversis luctantur cornibus haedi.
Ipse dies agitat festos, fususque per herbam,
Ignis ubi in medio et socii cratera coronant,
Te, libans, Lenaee, vocat, pecorisque magistris
Velocis iaculi certamina ponit in ulmo,
Corporaque agresti nudant praedura palaestrae.
Hanc olim veteres vitam coluere Sabini,
Hanc Remus et frater, sic fortis Etruria crevit

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how fat the swine come off from their meal 528.] •Ignis ubi in medio :' this must be of acorns.' Glande’ is the important word, a turf-built altar, not the focus' in the as it is of the different fruits of different house, on account of “fusus per herbam :' seasons that Virgil is speaking : the rest so that Tibull. 2. 1. 21 and Hor. Epod. 2. is ornamental, though quite in keeping 65 are not strictly parallel. The description with the picture of rural felicity and abun- is quite general. For 'in medio' Med. a m. dance.

pr. has 'ingenio,' whence Burmann conjec. 521.] • Ponit fetus :' comp. Phaedrus 2. tured 'genio.' •Cratera coronant' seems to 4. 3, “Sus nemoricultrix fetum ad imam be a mistranslation or alteration of Homer's (arborem) posuerat,” a sense in which de- kontñpacéteotéYavto tÓTOLO, which means ponere' is also used. • Or, for a change, filled the bowls high with wine,' whereas autumn is dropping its various produce at Virgil means wreath the bowl with flowers,' his feet.' The willingness of nature is dwelt as appears from A. 3. 525, “ magnum craon, as in 'dant arbuta silvae. See on v. 460. tera corona Induit inplevitque mero." 522.] Comp. note on v. 377.

529.] • Pecoris magistris :' comp.“ ovium523.] ‘Interea' divides the description of que magistros,” E. 2. 33. fruitfulness without from that of happiness 530.] • Iaculi certamina ponit in ulmo :' within. Pendent circum oscula nati’ is from a condensed expression for • makes a match Lucr. 3. 895, “ nec dulces occurrent oscula of darting at a mark set up in or scored on nati Praeripere.” In both these passages, an elm.' Comp. A. 5. 66, “Prima citae as in A. 1. 256., 12. 434, 'osculum’ is used Teucris ponam certamina classis,” where it in its primary sense as the diminutive of os,' would be unnatural to make certamina' = from which the secondary meaning is easily 'praemia.' Certamen ponere,' like ayāva inferred.

τιθέναι. 524.] ‘Domus • familia,' in this case 531.] Nudant :' there is a change of the wife. • Servat,' • keeps,' in the sense of subject, a thing not uncommon in Virgil. observing. His virtuous household keeps The old reading ‘nudat' is however supthe traditions of purity.'

ported by Pal, and Canon. •Palaestrae ' is 525.] •Lactea ubera demittunt' = "ubera the reading of Med. and another MS., inlacte demissa gerunt.' Perhaps 524-526 stead of palaestra,' which Heyne retains. may have been suggested by Lucr. ). 257– 532.] • Vitam coluere:' Lucr. has colere 261. 'Fat kids, on grass luxuriant as they, aevum,' 5. 1145, 1150. The • Sabini' are are engaging together, horn against horn.' a type of hardiness and simplicity in Roman

527.] *Agitare 'here, as in 4. 154, A. 10. authors. Comp. A. 9.603 foll., Hor. Epod. 237, is equivalent to . agere.' The word is 2. 41. Livy 1. 18 talks of " disciplina used absolutely by prose writers in the sense tetrica ac tristi veterum Sabinorum." of 'degere.' Forcell. sub v. • Dies festos :' 533.] The mention of . Etruria' has been keeping the old holy days would be a mark thought to be a compliment to Maecenas; at once of the leisure and simplicity of coun- but it is quite as likely to be an instance try life. Most of the festivals in the old of Virgil's feelings for antiquity. calendar were rural.

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