Billeder på siden
PDF
ePub

385

Nec non Ausonii, Troia gens missa, coloni
Versibus incomptis ludunt risuque soluto,
Oraque corticibus sumunt horrenda cavatis,
Et te, Bacche, vocant per carmina laeta, tibique
Oscilla ex alta suspendunt mollia pinu.
Hinc omnis largo pubescit vinea fetu,
Conplentur vallesque cavae saltusque profundi,
Et quocumque deus circum caput egit honestum.
Ergo rite suum Baccho dicemus honorem
Carminibus patriis lancesque et liba feremus,

390

6

oiled skin of the he-goat which had been more mystic nature, which supposes the sacrificed. Dict. Ant. dorólia.

rites of Bacchus to symbolize the purifica385.] This and the following lines ap- tion of the soul, the swinging of the 'oscilla' pear to refer to the ' Fescennina licentia' representing the third and highest of the (Hor. 2 Ep. 1. 140) after the vintage, and three modes of physical purification, by not to the Liberalia at Rome on the 13th of water, by fire, and by air. “Mollia' is ex. March. It is not necessary to take v. 390 plained by Heyne and others as = • mobias referring to a particular year. *Troia lia,' • easily swayed by the wind,' .waving :' gens missa' is a foreshadowing of the but it may be doubted whether any parallel Aeneid, at the same time that it intimates instance can be adduced, though a similar here that the Italian festivities are not bore sense is given by some to “ pilentis mollirowed from Greece.

bus," A. 8. 666. The word is doubtless a 386.] Versibus incomptis, perhaps the derivative of moveo :' but its physical “ horridus ille Saturnius numerus of sense appears to be restricted to things the Horace, 2 Ep. 1. 157, which, whatever may parts of which yield to the touch. Perhaps have been its precise nature, a question then we shall do better to understand the about which there is a very great variety of word with Mr. Yates in Dict. A., 'oscilopinion, too great to be even glanced at lum' of the beautiful, mild, and propitious here, appears to have been the national expression of the god's face, like * caput metre of Italy before the introduction of honestum.' Ladewig assumes that the.osthe metres of Greece; though even this is cilla' were of wax: but the one mentioned disputed by some, who maintain that no in Dict. A. is of white marble, though in one kind of metre was designated by the a rustic festival we may suppose that some epithet, which they consider to have been a commoner material would be used. term of as vague and general application as 390.] • Pubescit :' comp. Theocr. 5. 109, 'incomptus ' here, as we should say 'old Mń jev lwßkonode càs áutré og évti world.'

γάρ άβαι. 387.] Corticibus cavatis' is the ablative 391.] 'Conplentur,' teem.' Lucretius of the material. Comp. 1. 262, “cavat uses the word of the conception of women. arbore lintres.” “Os' for the mask, like There seems no sufficient reason to reπρόσωπον.

strict the description in this line to vine388.] • Per carmina laeta' may be either yards, though such a restriction would ac' in the course of,' 'as they sing glad hymns,' cord with vv. 4 foll., which are somewhat or .invoke you by glad hymns.'

parallel. 389.] Oscilla' (dim. of .os' through 392.] · Honestum,' comely.' On the • osculum') were faces of Bacchus which beauty attributed to the Greek Bacchus, see were hung on trees that they might turn Dict. B. · Dionysus.' The look of Bacchus every way with the wind in order to spread fertilizes the country, as that of Jupiter fertility every way. See Dict. Ant. 'Oscil. (A. 1. 255) calms the sky. lum,' where a representation of the 'oscilla' 393.] *Honorem,' for a hymn, as for a is given from an ancient gem. Serv, men- sacrifice A. 1.53, "aris inponet honorem.” tions various opinions, one of them con- 394.] • Patriis,' to show that the Roman necting oscilla' with the Attic aiópa worship of Bacchus was time-honoured as (Dict. A.), a festival which seems to have well as the Greek; comp. v. 385, " Troia been ovô èv após Alóvvoov, another of a gens missa.” It may also imply the use

6

6

[ocr errors]

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

Et ductus cornu stabit sacer hircus ad aram,

395
Pinguiaque in veribus torrebimus exta colurnis.

Est etiam ille labor curandis vitibus alter,
Cui numquam exhausti satis est : namque omne quot annis
Terque quaterque solum scindendum, glaebaque versis
Aeternum frangenda bidentibus; omne levandum 400
Fronde nemus. Redit agricolis labor actus in orbem,

Atque in se sua per vestigia volvitur annus. of the national measure: see on v. 386. Greek. Wund. comp. Thuc. 1. 3, onlot de • Lances' probably for the exta, as in v. μοι και τόδε ... πρό γάρ κ.τ.λ. 194. Others suppose a hendiadys, “liba 399.] It seems doubtful whether both in lancibus.' · Liba :' Ov. F. 3. 761, these clauses are to be understood of the “Melle pater (Bacchus) fruitur : liboque 'bidens,' the prongs of which are used to infusa calenti Iure repertori candida mella loosen the ground, the back, .versis,' to damus." This however is said of the Libe- break the clods so turned up, or whether ralia.

a distinction is intended between ploughing 395.] *Ductus,’ implying that the animal and hoeing, the former of which processes was led, not dragged, which was unlucky, is to be frequently repeated, the latter never and “stabit' (comp. 'statuo,' constituo') intermitted. Supposing the distinction to are words appropriate to sacrifice, though be meant, Virgil will be speaking of the two we need not suppose with the commentators kinds of vineyards, calculated respectively that their use here necessarily denotes that for ploughing and digging: see on v. 355. the offering would be propitious. 'Sacer,' Scindere' is commonly used of the plough, • devoted.'

1.50., 3. 160. Col. 4. 4 says that the num396.] Colurnis :' Serv. says that hazel ber of times the soil ought to be loosened spits were used because the hazel was in- cannot be defined—the more the better. jurious to the vine. Comp. v. 299.

401.] · Nemus ' like silvis,' v. 404, and 397—419.] “The dressing of the vine is perhaps . umbra,' v. 410, seems to be used an interminable labour : the ground has con- of the supporting trees in the 'arbustum,' stantly to be broken up : when the leaves as in v. 308 above. It may be doubted are shed the work of pruning begins : fast- whether • labor actus’ is to be taken with enings have to be provided : and when Heyne and others of past labour, the same pruning and tying up are over, you have tasks recurring yearly, or .actus' connected still to use the hoe, and still live in dread of within orbem, moving in a ring.' In storms.'

vv. 516 foll. we have the other side of the 397.] · Curandis :' this word is used by picture, the constant succession of the fruits Cato, R. R. 33, for all the operations subse- of the husbandman's toil. quent to planting-dressing.'

• Alter' 402 ] · Atque :' this is one of those inmust refer to what has just gone before, stances where the copulative is employed in • Terendae sepes etiam,' &c. With the the place of a conjunction denoting a more first words of the line comp. 3. 425. special connexion. Perhaps the largest num

398.] • Exhausti :' the participle is con- ber of these instances is where the relation strued like a substantive. As Serv. says,'ex- intended is that of time, 'et' or 'atque hausti' ='exhaustionis.' Comp. such usages standing in the place of cum.' Here it is as “Prius quam incipias consulto ; et ubi that of accordance, 'atque 'having the force consulueris mature facto opus est,” Sall. of.even as.' Comp. the use of atque'in Cat. 1. In prose we might have had cuius comparisons, and in such expressions as numquam satis exhaustum est.' But here, • simul atque.' The usage is one which beapparently for the sake of poetic variation, longs to the ante-logical period of language, the participle instead of being the predicate whence it is naturally adopted by the poets. is made the genitive, while the labour is in Here we may say that the sense is as though a manner personified and made the exacting the clauses had been inverted, — The year power. • Which is never satisfied by ex- rolls round and the usbandman's labours haustion.' Namque' is used here in a come round again with it.' Comp. the sense approaching that of its cognate Greek éviavrós, as explained by Plato (Crat. nempe.' So yap is used after a pronoun in p. 410 d), and the less questionable expla

6

6

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

6

6

[ocr errors]

6

[ocr errors]

Ac iam olim seras posuit cum vinea frondes
Frigidus et silvis aquilo decussit honorem,
Iam tum acer curas venientem extendit in annum 405
Rusticus, et curvo Saturni dente relictam
Persequitur vitem attondens fingitque putando.
Primus humum fodito, primus devecta cremato
Sarmenta, et vallos primus sub tecta referto;
Postremus metito. Bis vitibus ingruit umbra;

410 Bis segetem densis obducunt sentibus herbae ; nation of annus' as originally meaning a tando :' Col. (4.4) includes under this term ring. Varius had said of the world “sua the ablaqueatio,' which consisted in laying se volventis in vestigia” (fab. inc. 1, Rib- open the roots and cutting away all within beck).

a foot and a half of the surface. Cerda 403.] ‘Iam olim :' the choice seems to lie however understands attondens' here of between taking iam olim 'together as equi- 'ablaqueatio.' valent to iamdudum' and to iam tum' 408.] Digging was constantly to go on, below (comp. Tálaı), and connecting olim' so that he that began first would do best: with 'cum,' in the sense of illo tempore carting away and burning the branches is cum,'as in Plaut. Trin. 2. 4. 122, “ Primum an occupation which suits no one time omnium, olim terra quom proscinditur In more than other, and so the sooner it is quinto quoque sulco moriuntur boves," and done the better; the vine-poles, if allowed like “olim ubi,” A.5. 125. Each way seems to remain out, would suffer from the open to some objection. "Olim' for duweather. Taubm. quotes Cato 5, who dum' is apparently post-Augustan; while lays down as a general rule “ Opera omnia

olim cum'appears to be used for indefinite, mature conficias face: nam res rustica sic not for definite occurrences. Comp. how- est : si unam rem sero feceris, opera omnia ever 'cum olim,' 3. 302. • Posuit,' has sero feceris.” On the other hand, the shed.' Comp. 3. 437, "positis novus ex- more thoroughly ripe the grapes, as uviis."

Keightley says, the better the wine. 404.] This line is borrowed from Varro 409.] 'Sarmenta,' the prunings of the Atacinus, according to Serv. Horace has vine. Festus derives the word from an the same phrase, perhaps from the same ancient verb sarpo,' to prune, probably source, Epod. 11. 6, “ December silvis connected with äpan. In a secondary sense honorem decutit."

it is used simply for the branches of the 406.] For rusticus 'Rom. has agricola.' vine. Devecta,' as in v. 207. Vallos,' *Curvo Saturni dente:' Saturn was regularly 'the vine-poles.' Varro, R. R. 1. 8, “ Ibi represented with a pruning-knife in his dominus simul ac vidit occipitium vindehand. Juv. 13. 39 represents him as as- miatoris furcillas reducit hibernatum in suming it after his expulsion from his throne. tecta, ut sine sumptu earum opera altero • Dens' is used of any curved implement. anno uti possit.” It would seem at first See Forcellini. ' Relictam' may be either sight that vallos' must refer to espalier • stripped of its foliage' (for which however vines. But comp. vv. 358—361, where it is difficult to find an exact parallel), or, as sudes' is convertible with vallos.' Serv. takes it, the vine which he has left, in 410.] ‘Metito,' of vines, like “seges,' other words he returns to the vine.'

semina.' Heyne. Comp. 4. 231, 407.] • Persequitur' like “insectabere? where messis’ is used of collecting honey. of exterminating weeds, 1. 155, “insequitur' Bis :' in spring and autumn. • Umbra' of following up sowing by levelling the soil, may refer to the shade of the elm or other ib. 105. It is conceivable however that supporting tree. Col. 4. 27 however uses Virgil may have wished to imitate the Greek umbras conpescere,' speaking of the fouse of diatelεiv with a participle. “Fingit- liage of the vine. que putando :' comp. A. 6. 80, “ fingitque 411.] ‘Segetem,' • the vineyard,' or premendo," moulds it to his will.' The perhaps the vines. • Obducunt' is rather word is specially used of clay moulded by for the former. "Sentibus,' • briars.' the potter. Comp. Pers. 3. 24, “ Nunc, Herbae' must be used in a wide sense, nunc properandus et acri Fingendus sine as in Cic. De Div. 1. 34, “ Herbae asperae fine rota," and the word · figulus.' *Pu- et agrestes." The weeding (“runcatio')

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

6

6

6

serere,

[ocr errors]

6

6

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

6

415

Durus uterque labor: laudato ingentia rura,
Exiguum colito. Nec non etiam aspera rusci
Vimina per silvam, et ripis fluvialis arundo
Caeditur, incultique exercet cura salicti.
Iam vinctae vites, iam falcem arbusta reponunt,
Iam canit effectos extremus vinitor antes :
Sollicitanda tamen tellus, pulvisque movendus,
Et iam maturis metuendus Iuppiter uvis.

6

6

:

6

6

6

6

6

6

appears to have taken place at the same cut for tying up the vine. times as the pruning.

415.] ‘Salicti :' comp. 1. 265, “Aut 412.] •Uterque labor:' not the double Amerina parat lentae retinacula viti.” 'Inlabour in spring and autumn, but the culti' would seem to show that the cura double labour of pampinatio' and 'run- can be only that of cutting them : but they catio.' 'Laudato ... colito :' the form of also required pruning, Pliny 17. 20. the expression is evidently taken from 416.] Reponunt ' reponi sinunt.' Hesiod, Works 643, Nñ bliynv aiveiv, The language passes from precept to the μεγάλη δ' ενί φορτία θέσθαι, where it is liveliness of narrative. not easy to see the point of the epigram. 417.] This is the reading of Rom. Here the point is obvious, the larger estate and Med. restored by Wagn. Heyne, being prima facie' the best, and large with all the edd. after the Aldine, gives estates being the fashion in Italy, as we • extremos effoetus,' which is apparently learn from Pliny 18. 6, who complains found in Pal. The MSS. exhibit great that in his time the latifundia' had variety, ringing changes on the order of ruined Italy. * Laudato' does not itself the words, on effoetus' and effectus,' mean “reiicito ;' if it did there would be no and on the terminations os' and 'us. force in the antithesis. Still the same It is not clear whether antes' means feeling is at the root of this use of the lines' or 'plots.' That it denotes some word and that of étaively in Gr. singly regular order appears from Cato, De Re for to decline, the feeling, namely, which Militari, quoted by Philarg., " Pedites quaappears in our use of the word 'compli- tuor agminibus equites duobus antibus ment.' The connexion here is that as the duces." "Effectos,' completed.' So Quinct. work is so exacting, a small estate is better 10. 5 opposes 'materia effecta' to inthan a large one. Col. J. 3, 88 8 foll., choata.' The rows are said to be comafter quoting these words of Virgil, says, pleted because the vine-dresser has been “ Quippe acutissimam gentem Poenos through all and done what is necessary for dixisse convenit, imbecilliorem

• Extremus,' the last. Comp. v. quam agricolam esse debere, quoniam, 410, “Postremus metito.” The vine-dresser cum sit colluctandum cum eo, si fundus sings like the frondator,' E. 1. 57. praevaleat, allidi dominum. Nec dubium 418.] 'Tamen :' after all this work is quin minus reddat laxus ager non recte done you will still have to stir the ground,' cultus, quam angustus eximie." He &c. The pulveratio' appears to have been a speaks of the old Roman feeling against distinct process founded on the belief that dividing conquered lands among a few, dust was beneficial to vines. Palladius (Mart.

nec magis quia superbum videbatur 7) says that the process requires repeating tantum loci detinere, quam quia flagi- at the beginning of every month from March tiosum, quos hostis profugiendo desolasset till October. Pliny (17. 22) says, agros, novo more civem Romanum supra sione pulverem excitatum contra soles nevires patrimonii possidendo deserere;" and bulasque prodesse.” Comp. also Col. Arb. contrasts the modern practice, praepo- 12. This notion may be referred to in the tentium, qui possident finis gentium, quos next line, as “metuendus’ of course implies ne circumire equis quidem valent, sed pro- that precautions must be taken. culcandos pecudibus, et vastandos ac popu- 419.] It may be doubted whether 'melandos feris derelinquunt, aut occupatos tuendus uvis' here, like 'apibus metuenda,' nexu civium et ergastulis tenent."

4. 37, means "an object of terror to the 413.] · Rusci,' butchers' broom. But- grapes,' or an object of terror [to the chers' broom, reeds, and willows are to be vine-dresser) for the grapes.'

[ocr errors]

agrum each.

6

“ Fos

[ocr errors]

6

420

Contra non ulla est oleis cultura ; neque

illae
Procurvam exspectant falcem rastrosque tenacis,
Cum semel haeserunt arvis aurasque tulerunt;
Ipsa satis tellus, cum dente recluditur unco,
Sufficit humorem et gravidas cum vomere fruges.
Hoc pinguem et placitam Paci nutritor olivam.

Poma quoque, ut primum truncos sensere valentis
Et viris habuere suas, ad sidera raptim
Vi propria nituntur opisque haud indiga nostrae.
Nec minus interea fetu nemus omne gravescit,
Sanguineisque inculta rubent aviaria bacis.

425

430

6

6

6

6

6

6

[ocr errors]

6

420-425.] Olives on the contrary this only,' this will be enough,' especially want no tending, when once fairly started. as ' pinguem et placitam Paci' seem to exPlough the ground, and it will do all for press the effect of nutritor' (“ nutritor ut them.'

pinguis sit,” &c. E. 6. 4 note). “Do this, 420.] Non ulla' is a rhetorical ex- and rear the olive to the fatness which aggeration. They do not need the same makes it Peace's darling.' • Nutritor :' a constant attention as the vine.

solitary instance of the deponent nu. 421.] • Tenacis,tearing up the ground,' trior,' which however Priscian 8. 798 like the • bidens.'

declares to have been in use among the 422.] . Haeserunt arvis :' when they have older writers. been once transplanted from the semina- 426—428.] ‘Fruit trees too, when they rium,'Heyne. 'Aurasque tulerunt:' so “con- have got their strength, take care of themtemnere ventos," v. 360. Comp. also v. selves.' 332–335. The meaning here is when they 426.] The metaphor seems to be from are strong enough to weather the breezes. an adult man feeling his limbs strong under

423.] • Satis,' the dat. of "sata,' put for him. It is carried on through the rest of olives, as for vines above, v. 350. There the sentence. seems no ground for making a distinction 427.] • Raptim = 'rapide.' See on 1. between dente unco’and vomere.' • Dens' 409. With the sense comp. vv. 80 foll. may stand for vomer,' as we have “ vomeris 428.] 'Que' couples the adverbial subdentem,” 1. 262. Comp. 'dentale.' stantive with the adverbial adjective. Comp.

424.] •Cum vomere :' cum 'seems here A. 6. 640, “Largior hic campos aether et to express close connexion not so much of lumine vestit Purpureo.” Que’ is howtime as of causation, a sense which may be ever omitted by some MSS., including Roun. illustrated by the opposite sine.' We might 429—457.) “The forest trees have their say .as sure as the ploughshare is put in uses too, the small as well as the great, so the ground.' Some read quum vomere,' that men may well take heart and cultivate sc. recluditur,' making an antithesis be- them—nay, they are even worthier than the tween . dente unco,' which they interpret vine, which may be a curse as well as a • bidente' and 'vomere. But this is very blessing.' flat, and no opposition can be imagined be- 429.] Nec minus :' equally with the tween humorem' and 'gravidas fruges.' trees that have been named. • Interea,' Col. (5. 9, § 12) however recommends the while man is occupied with other things ; use both of the plough and of the bidens.' so in the next line .inculta’ is emphatic. In the same chapter he gives a precept($ 15), There seems to be no reference to the “ar“Nam veteris proverbii meminisse con• bustum’in nemus,' as we might be tempted venit; eum, qui aret olivetum, rogare fruc- to suppose from vv. 308, 323, 401. The tum ; qui stercoret, exorare ; qui caedat (pu- word appears to be used generally of the tet) cogere.”

trees of the forest in their natural unculti425.] Hoc' is generally taken on vated state, as man is afterwards recomaccount,' like to in Homer, a usage found mended to give them the benefit of culture. in Lucretius and Horace; but I greatly pre.. • Fetu ... gravescit :' imitated from Lucr. l. fer understanding it with Benson and Mar. 253, “ crescunt ipsae fetuque gravantur.”. tyn, 'by this,'sc. arando,' with this and 430.] Aviaria,' properly an artificial

[ocr errors]

6

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

6

[ocr errors]

6

6

6

6

« ForrigeFortsæt »