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345

Si non tanta quies iret frigusque caloremque
Inter, et exciperet caeli indulgentia terras.
Quod superest, quaecumque premes virgulta per agros,
Sparge fimo pingui, et multa memor occule terra,

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luminis oras." The tense “possent-iret' bustum,' like “ silvestria virgulta," v. 2, in forbids us to suppose that the reference is spite of Col. 3. 15, who quotes this passage to the time of creation, as the historical im- with reference to vines. There seems to be perfect would be here out of place. Comp. no sufficient authority for saying that preLucr. 5. 1213, “ quoad moenia mundi Et mere' must mean propagating by layers, taciti (“ solliciti' 'Lachm. after Bentley) though no doubt the word might appromotus hunc possent ferre laborem.” Hunc priately be so used, as in v. 26. It cannot laborem,' all the trials to which plants are mean propagation by layers in 4. 131, exposed. So the word is applied to things “Lilia, verbenasque premens vescumque inanimate 1. 79, 150, and below, v. 372. papaver.” Here then, as there, we may • Sufferre,' the first reading of Med., is per. interpret it to plant,' the notion being haps not improbable, as the less common that of burying in the earth, as in Hor. word; but it would be hazardous to sub. Epod. 1.33, " terra premam.” Quaecumstitute it for the reading of all the other que' too is perhaps against our supposing copies, only one having a variety, 'pro- that the vine alone is meant. ferre.'

347.) Memor occule' 'memento oc344.] • Tanta quies' is explained by culere.' Virgil in these precepts has evi. hunc laborem '—so great a respite. dently borrowed from Theophrastus I. c., Philarg. has a curious statement that the who lays down a number of different rules original reading was calorque,' a form with different objects, and adapted to dif. which he supports from Plautus (Merc. 5. 2. ferent soils. From these Virgil has to all 19), “ Neque frigus neque calor (the editions appearance selected very indiscriminately. give .nec calor nec frigus ') metuo neque Thus, the stones in Theophrastus answer ventum neque grandinem,” where however different purposes, being used both to collect the later editors get rid of the difficulty by the water about the roots and to draw it off punctuating before metuo,' and making from them, according to the temperature of * calor' and 'frigus' subjects of opsistet' the soil. Nothing is said about the porousin the preceding line.

ness of the stones, and the word which seems 345.] • Exciperet :' this verb in its most to answer to . bibulum,' totiuós, occurs general sense seems to imply receiving as an epithet of äupos, sand. The conchae' from or after some one or something else. are not mentioned, unless we suppose this Thus. excipere hospitio' denotes that the to be a mistranslation of ootpakov. The guest is received from or after a journey, ootpakov in Theoph. is to be used to keep Hor. 1 S. 5. 1. • Excipere infantem 'is together the earth which is to be laid round said of the nurse who receives a new-born the root of the shoot. The word would be child from its mother, Juv. 7. 195. Here naturally translated in Latin bytesta,' but the milder skies receive the earth after the the use to which the 'testa ' is here put, v. severer weather. Possibly the poet may be 351, does not correspond; and mention is thinking of the earth as annually born into made by Theophrastus of a practice of burya state of infancy in spring, which is Voss's ing a répauos full of water by the side of view.

the root. Col. 1. c. supposes Virgil to mean 346-353.] “Young sets should be ma. that stones were to be placed about the nured and well covered up with earth, and root to keep off heat and cold; though he have porous stones or shells buried with himself recommends the practice as prethem, that water and air may get to them venting the roots of one tree from becoming better. It is well, too, to place a large entangled with those of another. • Aut:' stone or piece of earthenware by them, to Keightley remarks that the alternative is shield them from rain and heat.'

singular. But it seems to come from Theo946.] • Quod superest,' a Lucretian tran- phrastus l. C., who mentions stones, not sition, which occurs several times in Virgil the lapis bibulus, as performing somealso. • Virgulta :' Theoph. C. P. 3. 5.7, thing of the same office as manure. • Lapis from whom Virgil took this precept, ap. bibulus' is lapis arenarius,' sandstone' plies it to trees in general. It is, there- according to Serv. “Squalentis,’ • rough ;' fore, probably not to be taken here of the the primary meaning of the word. Comp. vines alone, but also of the trees in the ar- Lucr. 2. 422—425, where squalor' is the

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350

Aut lapidem bibulum, aut squalentis infode conchas,
Inter enim labentur aquae, tenuisque subibit
Halitus, atque animos tollent sata ; iamque reperti,
Qui saxo super atque ingentis pondere testae
Urguerent; hoc effusos munimen ad imbris,
Hoc, ubi hiulca siti findit canis aestifer arva.

Seminibus positis, superest diducere terram
Saepius ad capita, et duros iactare bidentis,
Aut presso exercere solum sub vomere, et ipsa
Flectere luctantis inter vineta iuvencos;

355

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opposite of 'laevor.' Rough shells would meaning to break' and loosen.' “Di. leave interstices for the water.

ducit scopulos et montem rumpit aceto,' 349.] «Tenuis halitus :' comp. “ tenues Juv. 10. 153. For the precept see Col. 4. pluviae,” 1. 92.

3, § 2, and Arb. 13. 350.] • Halitus,' probably from the eva- 355.] • Caput' is clearly used for the poration of the water. •Animos tollent:' root of the tree, a sense which it bas re

Postquam filiolum peperit, animos sus- peatedly in Cato, e. g. c. 33,“ capita tulit," Plaut. Truc. 2. 8. 10. In A. 9. 127 vitium per sementim ablaqueato ; ... cirit is used of raising the spirits of another. cum capita addito stercus; ...

circum caIamque,'' and before now.' Iam' = ijòn. pita sarrito.” Comp. Aristot. De Long. “ Vidi iam iuvenem premeret cum serior et Brev. Vita 6. 7, tò yåp ävw Toù putoũ aetas Maerentem stultos praeteriisse dies.” και κεφαλή ή ρίζα εστί. He has before Tibull. 1. 4. 33. • Reperti,' like “ quid di- used kepaloßapñ of trees with heavy cam,” 1. 104, &c., a merely rhetorical climax. roots. In Col. 3. 10, &c., and in Cic. De

351.] •Super' goes with “urguerent.' Sen. 15, caput' bears a totally different It can hardly be meant that the stone or sense, the upper branches of the vine. potsherd is to be laid on the plant, which The bidens' is a two-pronged hoe, with a would then be likely to be crushed, so that head weighing about ten pounds, and used we must suppose that they are intended to more like a pickaxe than a hoe, whence overhang it. Theophrastus means them to iactare' (Keightley). The weight is de. be put at the side of it. Mr. Long says, noted by “ valido consueta bidenti IngeThe testa ' will prevent the earth from mere,” Lucr. 5. 208. · Duros,' masbeing washed away, a necessary precaution sive ;' but used in this connexion the word when the vines are on a slope: and it also denotes that the work is to be severe and prevents the ground round-the roots from the work done thoroughly, like the epithets being parched and made hard.” “Atque' in v. 237. 264. Col. 3. 13 mentions is disjunctive. For ingentis' Med. a m. digging and ploughing as alternatives, the pr. and another MS. give .ingenti,' and so distance between the rows being regulated Nonius s. v. . Urguere.'

according to the employment of one or the 352.] ' Hoc ... hoc' is a repetition, not a other, from five to seven feet where there distinction. Ad,' após, with a view to,' is digging, from seven to ten where there and in the case of things to be avoided, is ploughing. “Iactare:' the verb seems to . against.'

imply difficulty in wielding the implement, 353.] 'Hiulca siti :' proleptic. When the workman being glad, as it were, to disthe sultry dog-star splits the thirsty jaws of miss it from his hand, as the frequentative the soil.' Catull. 66 (68). 62,“ Quum gravis denotes that it is to be done constantly exustos aestus hiulcat agros."

nevertheless, that both point to 354–361.] When the sets are planted, thorough unremitting work. See Introdig, and plough the ground thoroughly, duction, p. 140. and make poles and rods to assist the vines 357.] · Flectere,' i. e. to plough across as in climbing.'

well as up and down the lines of vines ; 354.] •Seminibus positis:' he seems Tranversis adversisque sulcis,” Col. 1. c. now to be speaking exclusively of the vines. This was made possible by the regular in• Deducere' is the reading of most of the tersecting avenues. Comp. v. 277 foll. MSS., including Med. Rom. has didu. notes. In that case, according to Col., ten cere,' which seems alone suited to the sense, feet every way were left in planting; but

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360

Tum levis calamos et rasae hastilia virgae
Fraxineasque aptare sudes, furcasque valentis,
Viribus eniti quarum et contemnere ventos
Adsuescant, summasque sequi tabulata per ulmos.

Ac dum prima novis adolescit frondibus aetas,
Parcendum teneris, et, dum se laetus ad auras
Palmes agit laxis per purum inmissus habenis,
Ipsa acie nondum falcis temptanda, sed uncis

365

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he adds that this only answers where the aetas." "Parcendum teneris :' the same soil is unusually productive. • Vineta :' precept is given by Theophr. (C. P. 3. the word is used in its proper sense, the 9) and Cato (33), but Col. (4. 11) conplural being natural in a precept,— Up and demns it. With the structure of the pasdown your vineyards.' • Luctantis,' on sage Forb. comp. A. 7. 354 foll. account of the sharp turns; the epithet 363.] There are three periods, 1. when however, like saepius,' . duros,' and you must leave the young vine entirely . presso,' denotes the pains that are to be alone, 2. when you may pluck off the bestowed.

leaves but not use the knife, 3. when you 358.] This would almost correspond to may use the knife. • Laetus' seems to the training of espalier vines (“ pedatio,' qualify .agit,' as if it had been • laetum.' *iugatio'), described by Col. 4. 12, &c. Comp. A. 1. 314, 439., 2. 388. While the But it is clear from v. 36] that the 'ar- vine-branch is pushing its way exultingly busta' are still referred to. The .calami' into the sky, launched into the void in full seem to be the • arundines' of Varro 1. 8, career.' which were used for the «iuga,' or cross 364.] • Agit' is here used of growing pieces, the 'rasae hastilia virgae,' the ‘has- upwards, as of growing downwards in the tilia de vepribus' of Columella. Rasae phrase radices agere. Comp. the language hastilia virgae,' spear-like wands made of about the aesculus,' vv. 291, 292. 'Laxis,' peeled rods.

&c. : comp. Lucr. 5. 786, “ Arboribusque 359.] Valentis' is the reading of Med., datum est variis exinde per auras Crescendi Rom., and others. Heyne has bicornis' magnum inmissis certamen habenis.” • Per (so Pal. and Canon. a m. pr.), which, as purum' occurs Hor. 1 Od. 34. 7, for a Wagn. remarks, is a mistaken repetition cloudless sky, like “pura sub nocte,” E. 9. from 1. 264.

44. Used in this sense here, the word 360.] • Quarum viribus,' ablative in. would be a rather unmeaning piece of strum., like quarum auxilio.' Eniti,' picturesque, so that if we make it any thing * climb. Comp. v. 427, “ ad sidera raptim more than a synonyme for aether,' we Vi propria nituntur.” Inniti,' the reading must suppose the reference to be to the of Canon. (a m. pr.), would be less forcible. freedom of the empty sky, like 'pura terra

361.] ·Tabulata, stories,' were the of a cleared soil, purus locus' of ground successive branches of the elm to which not built on, 'purae plateae,' of unobthe vines were trained, the intermediate structed streets, especially as Virgil has boughs being removed ; they were to be already stated it to be an object that the at least three feet apart, and were not to be branches should be allowed to expatiate, 5. in the same perpendicular line, lest the 287, “ in vacuum poterunt se extendere cluster hanging from the • tabulatum' rami.” Comp. “aera per vacuum,” 3. 109 above should be injured by that below. note. • Inmissus,' launched freely into the Col. 5. 6.

air ; though the word is evidently taken 362—370.] 'When the vine is quite from .inmissis habenis' in Lucr., which is young, leave it alone; when it begins to represented by “laxis,' according to Virgil's shoot out its branches, pluck off the super- habit of hinting at one mode of expression fluous leaves with the hand; when it has while actually using another. come to its strength, then, and not till 365.] ‘Ipsa,' sc. ' vitis,' as distinguished then, use the knife.'

from the leaves. For the ellipse comp. 362.] The pruning of the vine, 'pu- quaeque,' v. 270. • Acie’is the reading of tatio' or ' pampinatio. Novis frondibus' Med. a m. pr., Rom., and others, with Prois probably the ablative. Comp. Lucr. bus, Gramm. 1; others have acies.' The 3. 449, “Inde ubi robustis adolevit viribus origin of the correction, wbich is older than

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370

Carpendae manibus frondes, interque legendae.
Inde ubi iam validis amplexae stirpibus ulmos
Exierint, tunc stringe comas, tunc bracchia tonde ;
Ante reformidant ferrum ; tum denique dura
Exerce inperia, et ramos compesce fluentis.

Texendae saepes etiam et pecus omne tenendum,
Praecipue dum frons tenera inprudensque laborum;
Cui super indignas hiemes solemque potentem
Silvestres uri adsidue capreaeque sequaces
Inludunt, pascuntur oves avidaeque iuvencae.
Frigora nec tantum cana concreta pruina,

375

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the time of Serv., is obvious. «Temptanda' to the tenderness of the young vine, and may perhaps imply a dangerous experiment. rendered cruel.' The plural . hiemes' may

366.] •Interlegendae,' picked out. mean either winters or winter weather, just

367.] Stirpibus' is the reading of the soles' may mean either summers or best MSS. Others have 'viribus,' which sunny days. There is the same doubt in is found as a second reading in Med. Hor. 3 Od. 1. 32. “Solem que potentem :'

368.] ' Esierint,' shot up. Comp. v. 81, comp. 1. 92, “rapidive potentia solis.” We “ Exiit ad caelum...arbos.” The Med. and may render oppressive' or · tyrannous.' Rom. have . tunc;' other MSS. have 'tum.' 374.] •Uri :' the urus was properly

369.] •Tum denique' here = 'tum de a wild animal mentioned by Caesar (B. G. mum: denique' answering to • ante' 6. 28) and Pliny (8. 15) as a native of the here as to é antea' in Cic. ad Fam. 9. 14, Hercynian forest in Germany. Here and “Tantum accessit ad eum amorem, ut mihi in 3. 532 the name is applied to the buffanunc denique amare videar, antea dilexisse.' loes of Italy. •Caprae,' not capreae,' is

370.] Then is the time to set up a the reading of Rom., Med., and other MSS., strong government, and keep down the but it seems more like the manner of Virgil, luxuriance of the boughs.' With the meta- to keep the arch-offender, the goat, to the phor in “inperia,' comp. 1. 99. For last (v. 380), and then to indicate his crime fluentis ’ Rom. has' valentis.'

rather than mention it plainly, at the same 371–397.] •The cattle should be kept time that the description of his punishment from the vines when young. Buffaloes and and the attendant circumstances keeps him

worse enemies to them than prominently before the reader's mind. See scorching heat or killing cold. Hence the notes on 3. 237., E. 6. 29. For the fondgoat has been from time immemorial sacri. ness of roes for vines, comp. Hor. 2 S. 4. ficed to Bacchus, both in Attica, at the 43, “Vinea submittit capreas non semper Dionysia, and in our Italian vintage-rejoic- edulis." Sequaces' means ' persecuting,' ings.'

at the same time that it seems to give 371.] 'Tenendum,' here not shut in,' a picture of the deer climbing the rock, but shut out.' Comp. the double meaning as it were, after the vine, which cannot of tipyelv and arcere.' Rom. and another escape even there. With the reading MS. have . tuendum,' which has a different caprae' Wagn. well comp. E. 2. 64, “ Flosense : see on v. 195. Pal. adds · est.' rentem cytisum sequitur lasciva capella.”

372.] • Laborum,' • trials.' Comp. v. 375.] *Inludunt,' disport themselves with 343 above, note.

it. Pascuntur,' &c. : the commentators 373.] •Super,'besides,' not more repeat quam' from 'cui;' but the pasthan. The comparison comes in v. 376. sage is probably parallel to v. 207, 208 • Indignas : Serv. on E. 10. 10, quotes (note), the only difference being the ab'indignas turris' from Ennius in the sense sence of the conjunction here which is of magnas.' If this is true, which without found there. the context it may be unsafe to assume on 376.] Comp. Lucr. 3. 20, “nix acri the authority of Serv., the idea must be concreta pruina.” Virgil, in borrowing the that of immoderateness, already noticed in expression, has rather awkwardly changed the case of .inprobus.' It may here how. nix' into • frigora,' which can hardly be ever be very well explained with reference said to be congealed by frost. “No cold

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380

Aut gravis incumbens scopulis arentibus aestas,
Quantum illi nocuere greges, durique venenum
Dentis et admorso signata in stirpe cicatrix.
Non aliam ob culpam Baccho caper omnibus aris
Caeditur et veteres ineunt proscaenia ludi,
Praemiaque ingeniis pagos et compita circum
Thesidae posuere, atque inter pocula laeti
Mollibus in pratis unctos saluere per utres.

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that hoar frost ever congealed, no summer same time we may say that in 'praemia,' as that ever smote heavily on the parching in ‘utres,' the goat, though neither exrocks, has been so fatal to it as the herds, pressed nor understood grammatically, is and the venom of their sharp tooth, and the alluded to. •Ingeniis' is taken by Heyne wound impressed on the stem that they and others as men of genius.' Ingenia' have gnawed to the quick.'

may mean simply 'genius,' 'men of genius,' 377.] •Scopulis :' referring to the vine- or works of genius;' and where three yards on the terraced rocks. So v. 522, shades of meaning are so close and so equally “ Mitis in apricis coquitur vindemia saxis.” applicable, seems impossible to say posi

378.] The commentators do not say tively which was uppermost in the writer's whether illi' is to be taken as nominative mind. •Ingeniis' was found by Pierius “in with greges,' or as dative after . nocuere.' all the oldest MSS. which he examined' The latter seems neater. Venenum den (including, I presume, Rom.), and was tis:' comp. v. 196, "urentis culta capellas.” rightly preferred by him on the ground of

379.] It seems doubtful whether .ad' sense to the old reading "ingentis,' which, in “admordeo' intensifies, as in .adamo,' whether constructed with 'pagos,' or in or weakens, as apparently in accido,' in the form 'ingentes ') with Thesidae,' would which latter case the preposition might be equally awkward. Heins. however, reeither denote near completion, or have a marks that his MSS. tell a different story, local force, "bitten about,' not bitten and “ingentis' certainly appears in Med., through. There is great variety in the as given by Fogginius. Both readings are MSS. in the reading of the word ; e. g. recognized by Philarg. • Pagos et comMed. a m. pr. gives a morso,' which a later pita,' the scene of the Paganalia' and hand has altered into a morsu,' the copyist, Compitalia,' appear to be the Roman equias Heyne suggests, perhaps stumbling at valent of war' áypoús. Comp. Hor. 1 Ep. the gender.

Stirps,' the stock of a tree, 1. 49, “Quis circum pagos et circum comappears to be masculine in Virgil, as in pita pugnax_Magna coronari contemnat Ennius and Pacuvius.

Olympia ?" But it would be hazardous to 380.] For thecustom, see Varro, R. R. 1.2, presume that Virgil accurately distinguished and Ovid's translation of the well-known between the various Dionysiac festivals. lines of Evenus, Fast. 1. 353. The reason 'Caper' seems to point to Tpayqdia, and assigned is probably fictitious, as appears pagos' to the common derivation of kwhyfrom the fact that the goat, though it dia from kúun. It is possible, too, that gnawed the olive, was especially forbidden the poet may confuse the two ancient acto be offered to Pallas. Omnibus aris,' as counts of the origin of τραγωδία--- that we should say, 'universally.'

from the sacrifice of the goat, and that 381.] 'Et' couples its clause with the from the custom of giving the goat as å verbal only, not with the adverbial part of prize. the clause preceding. Proscaenia,' ipo- 383.] “Thesidae :' the Athenians are σκήνιον, is the same as λογείον, Or the called θησείδαι by Sophocles, Oed. Col. stage;'_ornvý being the scene.' Dict. 1067, and OnCews Tókol by Aeschylus, Eum. Ant. Theatrum.'

462. Comp. also Eum. 1026. 382.] Heyne to carry .non aliam ob cula laeti,' * in their drunken jollity.' We culpam' through the sentence and preserve need not press 'inter' so as to mean in the continuity, takes praemia' to be in the intervals of drinking.' Persius has apposition to caprum ' understood. But inter pocula' 1. 30, inter vina' 3. 100. this is too artificial; the words veteres • In poculis' occurs Cic. de Sen. 14. ineunt proscaenia ludi' intervene, and a 384.] ‘Unctos saluere per utres,' the digression is inevitable at v. 385. At the dowwhiaouós, or game of dancing on the

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