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Si non tanta quies iret frigusque caloremque
Inter, et exciperet caeli indulgentia terras.
Quod superest, quaecumque premes virgulta per agros,
Sparge fimo pingui, et multa memor occule terra,

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luminis oras." The tense possent-iret' forbids us to suppose that the reference is to the time of creation, as the historical imperfect would be here out of place. Comp. Lucr. 5. 1213, “quoad moenia mundi Et taciti (solliciti' Lachm, after Bentley) motus hunc possent ferre laborem." Hunc laborem,' all the trials to which plants are exposed. So the word is applied to things inanimate 1. 79, 150, and below, v. 372. 'Sufferre,' the first reading of Med., is perhaps not improbable, as the less common word; but it would be hazardous to substitute it for the reading of all the other copies, only one having a variety, 'proferre.'

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344.] Tanta quies' is explained by 'hunc laborem '-'so great a respite.' Philarg. has a curious statement that the original reading was 'calorque,' a form which he supports from Plautus (Merc. 5. 2. 19)," Neque frigus neque calor (the editions give 'nec calor nec frigus') metuo neque ventum neque grandinem," where however the later editors get rid of the difficulty by punctuating before 'metuo,' and making calor' and 'frigus' subjects of 'opsistet' in the preceding line.


345.] Exciperet :' this verb in its most general sense seems to imply receiving from or after some one or something else. Thus excipere hospitio' denotes that the guest is received from or after a journey, Hor. 1 S. 5. 1. 'Excipere infantem' is said of the nurse who receives a new-born child from its mother, Juv. 7. 195. Here the milder skies receive the earth after the severer weather. Possibly the poet may be thinking of the earth as annually born into a state of infancy in spring, which is Voss's view.

346-353.] 'Young sets should be manured and well covered up with earth, and have porous stones or shells buried with them, that water and air may get to them better. It is well, too, to place a large stone or piece of earthenware by them, to shield them from rain and heat.'

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bustum,' like "silvestria virgulta," v. 2, in spite of Col. 3. 15, who quotes this passage with reference to vines. There seems to be no sufficient authority for saying that' 'premere' must mean propagating by layers, though no doubt the word might appropriately be so used, as in v. 26. It cannot mean propagation by layers in 4. 131, Lilia, verbenasque premens vescumque papaver." Here then, as there, we may interpret it to plant,' the notion being that of burying in the earth, as in Hor. Epod. 1.33, "terra premam." 'Quaecumque' too is perhaps against our supposing that the vine alone is meant.


'memento oc

347.] Memor occule' culere.' Virgil in these precepts has evidently borrowed from Theophrastus 1. c., who lays down a number of different rules with different objects, and adapted to different soils. From these Virgil has to all appearance selected very indiscriminately. Thus, the stones in Theophrastus answer different purposes, being used both to collect the water about the roots and to draw it off from them, according to the temperature of the soil. Nothing is said about the porousness of the stones, and the word which seems to answer to 'bibulum,' TOтiμó, occurs as an epithet of appog, sand. The 'conchae' are not mentioned, unless we suppose this to be a mistranslation of ὄστρακον. The oorрakov in Theoph. is to be used to keep together the earth which is to be laid round the root of the shoot. The word would be naturally translated in Latin by testa,' but the use to which the 'testa' is here put, v. 351, does not correspond; and mention is made by Theophrastus of a practice of burying a repaμog full of water by the side of the root. Col. 1. c. supposes Virgil to mean that stones were to be placed about the root to keep off heat and cold; though he himself recommends the practice as preventing the roots of one tree from becoming entangled with those of another. 'Aut:' Keightley remarks that the alternative is singular. But it seems to come from Theophrastus 1. c., who mentions stones, not the 'lapis bibulus,' as performing something of the same office as manure. 'Lapis bibulus' is 'lapis arenarius,' 'sandstone' according to Serv. 'Squalentis,' 'rough;' the primary meaning of the word. Comp. Lucr. 2. 422-425, where 'squalor' is the


Aut lapidem bibulum, aut squalentis infode conchas,
Inter enim labentur aquae, tenuisque subibit
Halitus, atque animos tollent sata; iamque reperti,
Qui saxo super atque ingentis pondere testae
Urguerent; hoc effusos munimen ad imbris,
Hoc, ubi hiulca siti findit canis aestifer arva.
Seminibus positis, superest diducere terram
Saepius ad capita, et duros iactare bidentis,
Aut presso exercere solum sub vomere, et ipsa
Flectere luctantis inter vineta iuvencos;



opposite of 'laevor.' Rough shells would meaning 'to break' and 'loosen.' leave interstices for the water.


ducit scopulos et montem rumpit aceto,"

349.] Tenuis halitus:' comp. tenues Juv. 10. 153. For the precept see Col. 4. pluviae," 1. 92.


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350.] Halitus,' probably from the evaporation of the water. 'Animos tollent :' Postquam filiolum peperit, animos sustulit," Plaut. Truc. 2. 8. 10. In A. 9. 127 it is used of raising the spirits of another. 'Iamque,'' and before now.' 'Iam'dŋ. "Vidi iam iuvenem premeret cum serior aetas Maerentem stultos praeteriisse dies.” Tibull. 1. 4. 33. 'Reperti,' like "quid dicam," 1. 104, &c., a merely rhetorical climax. 351.] Super goes with urguerent.' It can hardly be meant that the stone or potsherd is to be laid on the plant, which would then be likely to be crushed, so that we must suppose that they are intended to overhang it. Theophrastus means them to be put at the side of it. Mr. Long says, "The 'testa' will prevent the earth from being washed away, a necessary precaution when the vines are on a slope: and it also prevents the ground round the roots from being parched and made hard." 'Atque' is disjunctive. For 'ingentis' Med. a m. pr. and another MS. give 'ingenti,' and so Nonius s. v. Urguere.'

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352.] Hoc... hoc' is a repetition, not a distinction. Ad,' ρós, 'with a view to,' and in the case of things to be avoided, ' against.'

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353.] Hiulca siti:' proleptic. When the sultry dog-star splits the thirsty jaws of the soil.' Catull. 66 (68). 62, “ Quum gravis exustos aestus hiulcat agros."

354-361.] When the sets are planted, dig and plough the ground thoroughly, and make poles and rods to assist the vines in climbing.'

354.] Seminibus positis:' he seems now to be speaking exclusively of the vines. 'Deducere' is the reading of most of the MSS., including Med. Rom. has diducere,' which seems alone suited to the sense,

3, § 2, and Arb. 13.

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capita cir


355.] Caput' is clearly used for the root of the tree, a sense which it has repeatedly in Cato, e. g. c. 33, vitium per sementim ablaqueato; cum capita addito stercus; . . . circum capita sarrito." Comp. Aristot. De Long. et Brev. Vita 6. 7, Tò yàp avw тoù purov καὶ κεφαλὴ ἡ ῥίζα ἐστί. He has before used Kεpaλoßaрn of trees with heavy roots. In Col. 3. 10, &c., and in Cic. De Sen. 15, 'caput' bears a totally different sense, the upper branches of the vine. The 'bidens' is a two-pronged hoe, with a head weighing about ten pounds, and used more like a pickaxe than a hoe, whence

iactare' (Keightley). The weight is denoted by "valido consueta bidenti Ingemere," Lucr. 5. 208. 'Duros,' 'massive;' but used in this connexion the word denotes that the work is to be severe and the work done thoroughly, like the epithets in vv. 237. 264. Col. 3. 13 mentions digging and ploughing as alternatives, the distance between the rows being regulated according to the employment of one or the other, from five to seven feet where there is digging, from seven to ten where there is ploughing. Iactare:' the verb seems to imply difficulty in wielding the implement, the workman being glad, as it were, to dismiss it from his hand, as the frequentative denotes that it is to be done constantly nevertheless, SO that both point to thorough unremitting work. See Introduction, p. 140.


357.] Flectere,' i. e. to plough across as well as up and down the lines of vines; "Tranversis adversisque sulcis," Col. 1. c. This was made possible by the regular intersecting avenues. Comp. vv. 277 foll. notes. In that case, according to Col., ten feet every way were left in planting; but

Tum levis calamos et rasae hastilia virgae
Fraxineasque aptare sudes, furcasque valentis,
Viribus eniti quarum et contemnere ventos
Adsuescant, summasque sequi tabulata per ulmos.
Ac dum prima novis adolescit frondibus aetas,
Parcendum teneris, et, dum se laetus ad auras
Palmes agit laxis per purum inmissus habenis,
Ipsa acie nondum falcis temptanda, sed uncis

he adds that this only answers where the
soil is unusually productive. 'Vineta:'
the word is used in its proper sense, the
plural being natural in a precept,-Up and
down your vineyards.' 'Luctantis,' on
account of the sharp turns; the epithet
however, like 'saepius,' 'duros,' and
'presso,' denotes the pains that are to be

358.] This would almost correspond to the training of espalier vines ('pedatio,' 'iugatio'), described by Col. 4. 12, &c. But it is clear from v. 361 that the arbusta' are still referred to. The calami' seem to be the arundines' of Varro 1. 8, which were used for the 'iuga,' or cross pieces, the 'rasae hastilia virgae,' the 'hastilia de vepribus' of Columella. 'Rasae hastilia virgae,' spear-like wands made of peeled rods.

359.] Valentis' is the reading of Med., Rom., and others. Heyne has 'bicornis' (so Pal. and Canon. a m. pr.), which, as Wagn. remarks, is a mistaken repetition from 1. 264.

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360.] Quarum viribus,' ablative instrum., like 'quarum auxilio.' 'Eniti,' 'climb.' Comp. v. 427,"ad sidera raptim Vi propria nituntur." Inniti,' the reading of Canon. (a m. pr.), would be less forcible. 361.] Tabulata,' 'stories,' were the successive branches of the elm to which the vines were trained, the intermediate boughs being removed; they were to be at least three feet apart, and were not to be in the same perpendicular line, lest the cluster hanging from the tabulatum' above should be injured by that below. Col. 5. 6.

362-370.] When the vine is quite young, leave it alone; when it begins to shoot out its branches, pluck off the superfluous leaves with the hand; when it has come to its strength, then, and not till then, use the knife.'

362.] The pruning of the vine, 'putatio' or 'pampinatio.' 'Novis frondibus' is probably the ablative. Comp. Lucr. 3. 449, "Inde ubi robustis adolevit viribus



aetas." Parcendum teneris:' the same precept is given by Theophr. (C. P. 3. 9) and Cato (33), but Col. (4. 11) condemns it. With the structure of the passage Forb. comp. A. 7. 354 foll.

363.] There are three periods, 1. when you must leave the young vine entirely alone, 2. when you may pluck off the leaves but not use the knife, 3. when you may use the knife. 'Laetus' seems to qualify agit,' as if it had been 'laetum.' Comp. A. 1. 314, 439., 2. 388. 'While the vine-branch is pushing its way exultingly into the sky, launched into the void in full career.'

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364.] Agit' is here used of growing upwards, as of growing downwards in the phrase 'radices agere.' Comp. the language about the' aesculus,' vv. 291, 292. Laxis,' &c. comp. Lucr. 5. 786, "Arboribusque datum est variis exinde per auras Crescendi magnum inmissis certamen habenis." • Per purum' occurs Hor. 1 Od. 34. 7, for a cloudless sky, like "pura sub nocte," E. 9. 44. Used in this sense here, the word would be a rather unmeaning piece of picturesque, so that if we make it any thing more than a synonyme for aether,' we must suppose the reference to be to the freedom of the empty sky, like 'pura terra' of a cleared soil, purus locus' of ground not built on, purae plateae,' of unobstructed streets, especially as Virgil has already stated it to be an object that the branches should be allowed to expatiate, 5. 287, "in vacuum poterunt se extendere rami." Comp. "aera per vacuum," 3. 109 note. 'Inmissus,' launched freely into the air; though the word is evidently taken from 'inmissis habenis' in Lucr., which is represented by 'laxis,' according to Virgil's habit of hinting at one mode of expression while actually using another.

365.] Ipsa,' sc. 'vitis,' as distinguished from the leaves. For the ellipse comp. 'quaeque,' v. 270. 'Acie 'is the reading of Med. a m. pr., Rom., and others, with Probus, Gramm. 1; others have acies.' The origin of the correction, which is older than

Carpendae manibus frondes, interque legendae.
Inde ubi iam validis amplexae stirpibus ulmos
Exierint, tunc stringe comas, tunc bracchia tonde ;
Ante reformidant ferrum; tum denique dura
Exerce inperia, et ramos compesce fluentis.

Texendae saepes etiam et pecus omne tenendum,
Praecipue dum frons tenera inprudensque laborum;
Cui super indignas hiemes solemque potentem
Silvestres uri adsidue capreaeque sequaces
Inludunt, pascuntur oves avidaeque iuvencae.
Frigora nec tantum cana concreta pruina,

the time of Serv., is obvious. 'Temptanda'
may perhaps imply a dangerous experiment.
366.] Interlegendae,' picked out.
367.] Stirpibus' is the reading of the
best MSS. Others have 'viribus,' which
is found as a second reading in Med.

368.] Exierint,' shot up. Comp. v. 81, "Exiit ad caelum... arbos." The Med. and Rom. have tunc;' other MSS. have 'tum.' 369.] Tum denique' here = 'tum demum :' 'denique' answering to 'ante here as to 'antea' in Cic. ad Fam. 9. 14, "Tantum accessit ad eum amorem, ut mihi nunc denique amare videar, antea dilexisse." 370.] Then is the time to set up a strong government, and keep down the luxuriance of the boughs.' With the metaphor in inperia,' comp. 1. 99. For 'fluentis' Rom. has 'valentis.'

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371-397.] The cattle should be kept from the vines when young. Buffaloes and roes are worse enemies to them than scorching heat or killing cold. Hence the goat has been from time immemorial sacrificed to Bacchus, both in Attica, at the Dionysia, and in our Italian vintage-rejoicings.'

371.] 'Tenendum,' here not 'shut in,' but' shut out.' Comp. the double meaning of pyev and arcere.' Rom. and another MS. have tuendum,' which has a different sense see on v. 195. Pal. adds est.' 372.] Laborum,' 'trials.' 343 above, note.

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Comp. v.

373.] Super,' 'besides,' not 'more than.' The comparison comes in v. 376. 'Indignas :' Serv. on E. 10. 10, quotes 'indignas turris' from Ennius in the sense of 'magnas.' If this is true, which without the context it may be unsafe to assume on the authority of Serv., the idea must be that of immoderateness, already noticed in the case of inprobus.' It may here however be very well explained with reference



to the tenderness of the young vine, and rendered' cruel.' The plural 'hiemes' may mean either winters or winter weather, just


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374.] Uri:' the 'urus

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'soles' may mean either summers or sunny days. There is the same doubt in Hor. 3 Od. 1. 32. Solemque potentem :' comp. 1. 92, "rapidive potentia solis." We may render' oppressive' or tyrannous.' was properly a wild animal mentioned by Caesar (B. G. 6. 28) and Pliny (8. 15) as a native of the Hercynian forest in Germany. Here and in 3. 532 the name is applied to the buffaloes of Italy. Caprae,' not capreae,' is the reading of Rom., Med., and other MSS., but it seems more like the manner of Virgil, to keep the arch-offender, the goat, to the last (v. 380), and then to indicate his crime rather than mention it plainly, at the same time that the description of his punishment and the attendant circumstances keeps him prominently before the reader's mind. See notes on 3. 237., E. 6. 29. For the fondness of roes for vines, comp. Hor. 2 S. 4. 43, "Vinea submittit capreas non semper edulis." Sequaces' means 'persecuting,' at the same time that it seems to give a picture of the deer climbing the rock, as it were, after the vine, which cannot escape even there. With the reading 'caprae' Wagn. well comp. E. 2. 64, " Florentem cytisum sequitur lasciva capella."

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375.] Inludunt,' disport themselves with it. 'Pascuntur,' &c.: the commentators repeat 'quam' from 'cui;' but the passage is probably parallel to vv. 207, 208 (note), the only difference being the absence of the conjunction here which is found there.

376.] Comp. Lucr. 3. 20, "nix acri concreta pruina." Virgil, in borrowing the expression, has rather awkwardly changed 'nix' into 'frigora,' which can hardly be said to be congealed by frost. No cold

Aut gravis incumbens scopulis arentibus aestas,
Quantum illi nocuere greges, durique venenum
Dentis et admorso signata in stirpe cicatrix.
Non aliam ob culpam Baccho caper omnibus aris
Caeditur et veteres ineunt proscaenia ludi,
Praemiaque ingeniis pagos et compita circum
Thesidae posuere, atque inter pocula laeti
Mollibus in pratis unctos saluere per utres.

that hoar frost ever congealed, no summer
that ever smote heavily on the parching
rocks, has been so fatal to it as the herds,
and the venom of their sharp tooth, and the
wound impressed on the stem that they
have gnawed to the quick.'

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377.] Scopulis :' referring to the vineyards on the terraced rocks. So v. 522, "Mitis in apricis coquitur vindemia saxis.'

378.] The commentators do not say whether illi' is to be taken as nominative with 'greges,' or as dative after' nocuere.' The latter seems neater. 'Venenum den tis:' comp. v. 196, "urentis culta capellas." 379.] It seems doubtful whether 'ad' in 'admordeo' intensifies, as in 'adamo,' or weakens, as apparently in 'accido,' in which latter case the preposition might either denote near completion, or have a local force, 'bitten about,' not 'bitten through.' There is great variety in the MSS. in the reading of the word; e. g. Med. a m. pr. gives a morso,' which a later hand has altered into 'a morsu,' the copyist, as Heyne suggests, perhaps stumbling at the gender. Stirps,' the stock of a tree, appears to be masculine in Virgil, as in Ennius and Pacuvius.

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380.] For the custom, see Varro, R. R. 1.2, and Ovid's translation of the well-known lines of Evenus, Fast. 1. 353. The reason assigned is probably fictitious, as appears from the fact that the goat, though it gnawed the olive, was especially forbidden to be offered to Pallas. Omnibus aris,' as we should say, 'universally.'

381.] Et' couples its clause with the verbal only, not with the adverbial part of the clause preceding. Proscaenia,' πρoσκήνιον, is the same as λογεῖον, or the stage; okηvý being the scene.' Dict. Ant.Theatrum.'


382.] Heyne to carry 'non aliam ob culpam' through the sentence and preserve the continuity, takes 'praemia' to be in apposition to 'caprum' understood. But this is too artificial; the words 'veteres ineunt proscaenia ludi' intervene, and a digression is inevitable at v. 385. At the


same time we may say that in 'praemia,' as in 'utres,' the goat, though neither expressed nor understood grammatically, is alluded to. 'Ingeniis' is taken by Heyne and others as 'men of genius.' 'Ingenia' may mean simply 'genius,' 'men of genius,' or 'works of genius;' and where three shades of meaning are so close and so equally applicable, it seems impossible to say positively which was uppermost in the writer's mind. 'Ingeniis' was found by Pierius "in all the oldest MSS. which he examined" (including, I presume, Rom.), and was rightly preferred by him on the ground of sense to the old reading 'ingentis,' which, whether constructed with 'pagos,' or (in the form 'ingentes') with 'Thesidae,' would be equally awkward. Heins. however, remarks that his MSS. tell a different story, and 'ingentis' certainly appears in Med., as given by Fogginius. Both readings are recognized by Philarg. Pagos et compita,' the scene of the 'Paganalia' and Compitalia,' appear to be the Roman equivalent of Kar' ayoous. Comp. Hor. 1 Ep. 1. 49, "Quis circum pagos et circum compita pugnax Magna coronari contemnat Olympia?" But it would be hazardous to presume that Virgil accurately distinguished between the various Dionysiac festivals. 'Caper' seems to point to roaywdia, and 'pagos' to the common derivation of kwμdia from kúμŋ. It is possible, too, that the poet may confuse the two ancient accounts of the origin of τραγῳδία—that from the sacrifice of the goat, and that from the custom of giving the goat as a prize.

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383.] Thesidae :' the Athenians are called Θησεῖδαι by Sophocles, Oed. Col. 1067, and Onσews Tóкot by Aeschylus, Eum. 462. Comp. also Eum. 1026. Inter pocula laeti,' in their drunken jollity.' We need not press 'inter' so as to mean 'in the intervals of drinking.' Persius has inter pocula' 1. 30, 'inter vina' 3. 100. In poculis' occurs Cic. de Sen. 14.

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