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Altior ac penitus terrae defigitur arbos,
Aesculus in primis, quae, quantum vertice ad auras
Aetherias, tantum radice in Tartara tendit.
Ergo non hiemes illam, non flabra, neque imbres
Convellunt; inmota manet, multosque nepotes,
Multa virum volvens durando saecula vincit.
Tum fortis late ramos et bracchia tendens
Huc illuc, media ipsa ingentem sustinet umbram.
Neve tibi ad solem vergant vineta cadentem;
Neve inter vitis corylum sere; neve flagella

and from Pallad. 2. 10, Pliny 17. 35, and
Col. Arb. 4, it would appear that the 'sulcus'
is characterized by length. Virgil, however,
obviously intends no such distinction. As
to the exact depth of the 'scrobes' or
'sulci' the writers seem to vary. Pliny 13.
11, Col. 4. 1., 5. 6, &c. Much must have
depended, as the last-mentioned writer, 7.
13, remarks, on the particular soil. It would
seem however from a comparison of Col. 5.
5 and 5. 6, that the vines were planted less
deeply in an 'arbustum' than in another
vineyard, though the language of these pas-
sages is scarcely consistent with Arb. 16.

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290.] Arbos' here is evidently distinguished from the vine. The old view was, that Virgil meant merely to contrast the vine with other trees generally. But Heyne rightly regards it as a contrast between the vine and its supporter. Comp. notes on vv. 2, 89, 267, 278. Terrae defigitur :' defigere aliquem cruci' is quoted from Varro ap. Non. The construction is 'arbos altior (for altius,' which was the reading before Heins.) defigitur ac penitus terrae defigitur.' It appears from the passages just cited from Columella and Pliny, that other trees were never planted at so slight a depth as the vine sometimes was, but the difference is not so great as this passage would denote. 291.] 'Aesculus: Pliny 17. 23 says "Transpadana Italia. quercu arbustat agros," i. e. plants them in arbusta' to support the vine. Part of the following description, which appears simply ornamental, is repeated by Virgil speaking of the 'quercus A. 4. 445 foll.

293.] Wagn. needlessly explains 'imbres' of torrents swollen by rain.

294.] 'Multos nepotes,'' many successive generations.' Comp. v. 58. Many MSS., including Pal., read 'multosque per annos,' an interpolation, as Wagn. plausibly conjectures, derived from 4. 208.

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3. 948, "Omnia si pergas vivendo vincere saecla." Volvens,' 'rolling,' and so 'going through.' Comp. "tot volvere casus,' A. 1. 9. A parallel use of 'condere has been noticed E. 9. 52. The notion implied in 'volvens' would be more naturally coupled with 'saecula,' as in "volvenda dies,' A. 9. 6. But such inversions are not rare. Many are the posterities, many the generations of men that it rolls along, and lives down victoriously, while stretching out its sinewy branching arms on all sides, it supports with its central bulk the vast weight of their shade.'

296.] Tum,' in this and other passages, appears to indicate a point in a narration or description, not necessarily a point of time, and generally the last point, so as to be nearly = ' denique.' Comp. E. 2. 49, A. 1. 164., 4. 250., 6. 577., 7. 76. It seems hardly necessary with Heyne to divide the poetical picture logically, and say, that the depth of the roots is the cause, first, of the firmness (v. 293) and long life (vv. 294, 295) of the tree; secondly, of its power to bear the weight of its boughs (vv. 296, 297).

298.] 'A vineyard should not face the west: a hazel should not be planted to support the vine: cuttings should not be taken from the top, either of the vine or of its supporter: a blunt knife should not be applied to the young plant: a wild olive should not be used as a supporter, as it is apt to catch fire, and the whole plantation may be burnt down.' Virgil despatches in a few lines a number of miscellaneous precepts relative to vines, ending with an ornamental description. The precept 'Neve tibi ad solem,' &c. is noticed by Columella (3. 12), and Pliny (17. 2), but with an intimation that it was not generally received. Their own view, as well as that of Palladius (6. 6), is that the aspect of a vineyard should vary with the climate.

299.] Pliny (17. 24) says of the vine


Summa pete, aut summa defringe ex arbore plantas; 300
Tantus amor terrae; neu ferro laede retunso
Semina; neve oleae silvestris insere truncos:
Nam saepe incautis pastoribus excidit ignis,
Qui, furtim pingui primum sub cortice tectus,
Robora conprendit, frondesque elapsus in altas
Ingentem caelo sonitum dedit; inde secutus
Per ramos victor perque alta cacumina regnat,
Et totum involvit flammis nemus, et ruit atram
Ad caelum picea crassus caligine nubem,
Praesertim si tempestas a vertice silvis
Incubuit, glomeratque ferens incendia ventus.

"odit et corylum."

'Flagellum' is the tender shoot at the end of the branches of the vine. Varro 1. 31, "Quam vocant minorem flagellum, maiorem etiam unde uvae nascuntur palmam." Catull. 60 (62). 52, "vitis... Iamiam contingit summum radice flagellum." Summa flagella' does not mean the end of the shoot, but the shoot at the top of the vine. For the precept that cuttings are not to be made from the topmost shoots, comp. Col. 3. 10. Pliny 17. 14 recommends the contrary.

300.] 'Destringe,' Heyne; but all the best MSS. give 'defringe,' a word used by Varro (1. 40), who opposes it to 'deplantare,' the latter being the less violent mode of separation. The word here is not to be pressed, as it is not the manner of removing the branch, but the part from which the branch is removed, that forms the point of the precept. 'Arbore,' the tree which supports the vine. Plantas,' cuttings for the seminarium' (see note on v. 267). Pliny 17. 14 refers to this passage, which he seems to understand of trees in general, while he supposes Virgil to be speaking of cuttings for grafting.

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301.] Tantus amor terrae:''so great is their love for the earth that when they are far from it they are less vigorous.' 'Ferro retunso:' for this precept compare Col. 4. 24. 'Semina,' the young vines or trees; see note on v. 268.

302.] Wagn., from the Med. 'oleas,' has introduced 'olea,' giving 'insere' the technical meaning of grafting, and understanding the caution to be against grafting the olive on the oleaster,' a view apparently supported by Palladius (5. 2), who gives directions for safely grafting the olive on the oleaster without the risk of this bad result from a fire. But this involves an extremely awkward insertion of an isolated precept


about the olive in the midst of precepts about the vine, which are apparently continued down to v. 420, where there is a distinct transition to the olive; nor does Columella seem to be aware of any danger to the olive from the oleaster (5. 9). It seems better then to retain 'oleae' and understand 'insere' of planting in the 'arbustum,' as in Col. 5. 7, "Arboribus rumpotinis si frumentum non inseritur." 'Insere' will thus 'intersere,' v. 299. It appears from Pliny 17. 23, that the olive, if not too leafy, was frequently used as a supporter, though Theoph. C. P. 3. 15, condemns it as drawing too much nourishment from the vine. There was an inducement to plant the 'oleaster' and 'corylus' among other trees, as affording foliage for the food of cattle, Col. 5. 9. Hence perhaps the present caution.

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304.] The tree is called Aapóv, Theoph. H. P. 5. 10, and said to be good for burning.

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306.] Secutus,' 'running along the wood.' Comp. A. 8. 432, flammisque sequacibus iras." The word, as Macleane remarks on Pers. Prol. 5, is used where, strictly speaking, there is no notion of following a lead; but the image seems always to be that of following, whether or no there is actually any thing to follow.

307.]Dominates victoriously among the branches and the summits that tower so high.' 308.] Nemus,' the 'arbustum.' 'Ruit' of an impulse from below: see on 1. 105.

311.] Glomerat,' thickens or masses; and so makes more intense, fiercer. • Ferens ventus,' a fair wind, popòç or έπipoρos ävεμos: "fieret vento mora ne qua ferenti,' A. 3. 473; "Exspectet facilemque fugam ventosque ferentis," A. 4. 430. So our sailors speak of 'a carrying wind.'

Hoc ubi, non a stirpe valent caesaeque reverti
Possunt atque ima similes revirescere terra;
Infelix superat foliis oleaster amaris.

Nec tibi tam prudens quisquam persuadeat auctor
Tellurem Borea rigidam spirante movere.

Rura gelu tunc claudit hiemps; nec semine iacto
Concretam patitur radicem adfigere terrae.
Optuma vinetis satio, cum vere rubenti
Candida venit avis longis invisa colubris,

312.] "Hoc ubi : subaudi contigerit," Serv., an expression to which no parallel has been adduced. Wakefield connects 'hoc' with v. 314, taking 'ubi' with 'valent' and 'possunt,' 'thus, when the vines are irreparably injured, you have only the wild olive left,' there being many passages in Lucretius where hoc' is used similarly, with 'ubi' following, e. g. 4. 360, "Hoc, ubi suffugit sensum simul angulus omnis, Fit quasi ut ad tornum saxorum structa tuamur." The authority for this punctuation as compared with the other makes it plausible; but it does not seem so well suited to express the sense required. Virgil would hardly say 'the wild olive survives in the case where the vines cannot recover,' as his meaning evidently is that the vines never recover. 'Non a stirpe valent' is a condensed expression for 'stirpe valent et a stirpe repullulant '-'their stock no more shows life.' Que' is disjunctive. 'Valent,' sc. 'vites.' 'Caesae,' when the burnt stock has been cut (to make it grow again). 313.] Ima terra,' 'from the earth at their roots.'

314.] Infelix,' barren. 'Superat' = 'solus superest.' . Comp. the note on 'scrobibus superabit terra repletis,' v. 235. In translating we might say 'is left master of the field.''Foliis amaris' seems to be an implied opposition to the 'dulces uvae' that have been lost. The bitterness would not hinder their being good for fodder; comp. "salices carpetis amaras," E. 1. 79.

315-345.] 'Do not plant vines in winter, but in spring or towards the end of autumn. Spring is the season when all nature is procreant and prolific, and when the weather favours infant growth. It must have been in spring that the world itself was created. Were there no spring, young life would perish between the two extremes of cold and heat.'


sight as to persuade you.'



316.] Virgil is dissuading the vine-grower from planting in winter, when there are north winds and frost. Comp. 1. 299. Heyne, with Rom. and another MS. and Nonius s. v. 'Rigidus,' reads 'moveri.' But this would mean 'let no one persuade you of the fact.' Wagn. restores movere on the authority of all the remaining MSS. 'Movere,' in order to make 'scrobes.' The passages quoted by the commentators from Cato, Pliny, Columella, &c., have reference rather to the weather than the season, though one may be taken as implying the other.

317.] Tunc is the reading of Med. and Rom. Others have 'tum.' There seems to be no clear distinction between the meanings of these words used by themselves, although the one is opposed to nunc,' the other to 'quum.' 'Semine iacto,' a phrase properly relating to the sowing of corn (1. 104) or other seed, is used of the planting of trees. Comp. vv. 268, 302.

318.] 'Concretam ' may be taken as 'concretam gelu,' the epithet which would naturally belong to 'terrae' being joined with 'radicem ;' but perhaps it is better to take it as equivalent to 'ita ut concrescat,' sc. 'terrae.' Comp. Claudian, 6 Cons. Hon. 77, "Hinc tibi concreta radice tenacius haesit." 'Id cuius semen est,' understood from what precedes, is the subject of adfigere,' or perhaps semen' itself, the young shoot.

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319.] The old reading before Heins., supported by Pal., inserted 'est' after 'satio.' 'Rubenti,' with flowers. "Ante novis rubeant quam prata coloribus," 4. 306. Col. 3. 14 says that vines should be planted in spring or autumn, according to the climate and the character of the soil, the time in the former case being from the middle of Feb. to the vernal equinox, in the latter from the middle of Oct. to Dec. 1.

320.] Avis,' i. e. ciconia,' the stork, 315.] Nec,' &c. = nec quisquam Juv. 14. 74, "Serpente ciconia pullos Nutam prudens habeatur ut tibi persuadeat.' trit." Isidorus, Origines 12. 7, "Ciconiae 'Let no adviser have such credit for fore- veris nuntiae, societatis comites, serpentium.

Prima vel autumni sub frigora, cum rapidus Sol
Nondum hiemem contingit equis, iam praeterit aestas.
Ver adeo frondi nemorum, ver utile silvis,
Vere tument terrae et genitalia semina poscunt.
Tum pater omnipotens fecundis imbribus Aether
Coniugis in gremium laetae descendit, et omnis
Magnus alit, magno commixtus corpore, fetus.
Avia tum resonant avibus virgulta canoris,
Et Venerem certis repetunt armenta diebus;
Parturit almus ager, Zephyrique tepentibus auris
Laxant arva sinus; superat tener omnibus humor;
Inque novos soles audent se gramina tuto

hostes." The stork seems to be mentioned
here only ornamentally, as the harbinger of

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321.] Prima autumni frigora:' 'the first cold days of autumn,' i. e. the latter part of the season. See above on v. 319. Rapidus is a perpetual epithet of the sun, to be understood like "rapido aestu (E. 2. 10), &c.

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323.] Adeo' can only be rendered in English by laying a stress on 'ver.' 'Nemorum and silvis' probably both mean the trees in the 'arbustum.' 'Frondi' may be specified on account of its use as food for cattle.

324.] Tument: Theoph. C. P. 3. 3, ὀργῇ δὲ [ἡ γῆ] ὅταν ἔνικμος ᾖ καὶ θερμὴ καὶ τὰ τοῦ ἀέρος ἔχῃ ξύμμετρα, τότε γὰρ εὐδιαχυτός τε καὶ εὐβλαστὴς καὶ ὁλῶς EUTρETNS EσTI. The language of the following passage is metaphorical, and borrowed from physical generation.

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325.] Comp. Eur. fr. inc. 890. 9, 10, ἐρᾷ δ ̓ ὁ σεμνὸς οὐρανὸς πληρούμενος Ομβρου πεσεῖν ἐς γαῖαν ̓Αφροδίτης ὕπο: Aesch. Danaides, fr. 43. Some identify Aether' and 'Tellus' with Jupiter and Juno; but the passage contains rather a poetico-physical than a theological view of the subject, and is evidently suggested by Lucr. 1. 250, "pereunt imbres ubi eos pater Aether In gremium matris Terrai praecipitavit," and 2. 992, "Omnibus ille idem (caelum) pater est unde alma liquentis Humoris guttas mater quum terra recepit." Comp. also E. 7. 60.


326.] Gremium' is an instance of the metaphorical language of the passage. Comp. Terence, Eunuch. 3. 5. 37. 'Laetae,' fruitful.

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the fertilizing effect of showers.




magno:' Virgil is fond of such combinations. Comp. 1. 190, "Magnaque cum magno veniet tritura calore." Perhaps he learnt them from Lucretius, e. g. 1. 741, "Et graviter magni magno cecidere ibi casu. But μέγας μεγαλωστί is as old as Homer.

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328.] This relates to the loves of the birds. Lucr. 1. 10,

"Nam simul ac species patefacta est verna

Et reserata viget genitabilis aura Favoni,
Aeriae primum volucres te, Diva, tuumque
Significant initum, perculsae corda tua

‘Avia virgulta

= 'virgulta in aviis silvis.' 330.] Comp. "Zephyro putris se glaeba resolvit," 1. 44. Here, owing to the long metaphor which has preceded, sinus,' which is also metaphorical, is substituted for 'glaebam.' 'Laxo' is much the same as 'solvo.' Superat,' abounds. Comp. Lucr. 5. 806, "Multus enim calor atque humor superabat in arvis," and see on v. 235. 'Tener humor,' Lucr. 1. 809.

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332.] Gramina' is the reading of all the MSS. but one. 'Germina' has however been read by most of the later editors on the authority of Celsus apud Philarg. and Fabricius. The latter reading would create a tautology with what follows; and 'gramina' is supported by Horace, 4 Od. 7. 1, "redeunt iam gramina campis Arboribusque comae. But the question is very difficult, as Virgil in what he says of the fruitfulness of the soil may have been thinking mainly of the vine. 'Credunt se in novos soles' is probably a condensation of 'credunt se solibus' and 'trudunt se in soles,' possibly with a further reference to the expression in dies.' 'Soles' are the suns of

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Credere; nec metuit surgentis pampinus austros
Aut actum caelo magnis aquilonibus imbrem,
Sed trudit gemmas et frondes explicat omnis.
Non alios prima crescentis origine mundi
Inluxisse dies aliumve habuisse tenorem
Crediderim ver illud erat, ver magnus agebat
Orbis, et hibernis parcebant flatibus Euri:
Cum primae lucem pecudes hausere, virumque
Ferrea progenies duris caput extulit arvis,
Inmissaeque ferae silvis et sidera caelo.
Nec res hunc tenerae possent perferre laborem,

each day. Novi,' because they are the beginning of the warm season. Virgil probably here had in his eye Lucr. 5. 780 foll. As the new suns dawn, the herbage ven. tures to encounter them with safety and the young vine-branch has no fear that the south wind will get up, or that the mighty north will send a burst of rain from the sky, but puts out its buds, and unfolds all its leaves.'

336.] Crescentis''nascentis,' which Bentley on Manil. 2. 428 wished to read. Doederlein, Lat. Syn. 6. 86, considers 'cresco' to be a neuter inchoative from creo.' This and the following lines mean that the world was born in spring; not that the first ages of the world were perpetual spring.

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338.] Ver illud erat:' comp. A. 3. 173, "Nec sopor illud erat." 'It was springtide that the great globe was keeping.' Cerda comp. Catull. 66 (68). 16, “Iucundum cum aetas florida ver ageret.'

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339.] Hibernis,' &c.: there was no sign of winter.' 'Parcebant flatibus,' like the common phrase 'parcere alicui,' spared them, that is, forbore to put them forth.

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340.] Haurio' is used for drinking through the eyes and ears as well as through the mouth, A. 4. 359., 10. 899. But light and air are not unfrequently confounded, pure ether being supposed to be liquid flame.

341.] Ferrea' is the reading of all the MSS. except two, one of which is the second reading in Med. These two read 'Terrea,' which is supported by Lactantius (Inst. 2. 10), approved by Heyne, and adopted by Wagn. The authority of Philargyrius has been alleged for this reading, but he seems to have 'Ferrea' as his lemma, and his comment "quia creditum est primos homines e terra natos," &c., may very well refer to 'duris caput extulit arvis.' Terrea' would mean



'made of earth,' as in Varro, R. R. 1. 14, "terreus agger;" whereas the Lucretian 'terrigenae,' which is cited by the advocates of terrea,' seems only to mean 'children of earth.' 'Ferrea' is supported by "Unde homines nati durum genus," 1. 63 (note), as Serv. says, as well as by Lucr. 5. 925, "Et genus humanum multo fuit illud in arvis DURIUS ut decuit tellus quod DURA cre(from which the present passage is imitated), and is in complete keeping with Virgil's dominant feeling, the glorification of labour. Serv. aptly expresses the meaning," procreata ex lapidibus ad laborem." There is no reason to suppose that Virgil was thinking of the iron age, so that the objection drawn from that falls to the ground.


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342.] The stars are looked upon as the living inhabitants of heaven, as the men of earth, and the beasts of the woods; Ov. M. 1. 73,

"Neu regio foret ulla suis animantibus orba,

Astra tenent caeleste solum formaeque deorum,

Cesserunt nitidis habitandae piscibus undae,

Terra feras cepit, volucres agitabilis aer."

See also G. 4. 227 (note). The cosmogony of the present passage seems hardly the same as that of E. 6. 31-40, whether we suppose Virgil here to conceive of the universe as created and peopled at once, or to pass over the creation, considering it to have been completed before the peopling began.

343.] This verse, with the two following, refers to the beneficence of spring generally. 'Res tenerae' are the young plants, buds, &c., not like "ipsa tener mundi concreverit orbis" in E. 6. 34. Comp. Lucr. 1. 179, "et vivida tellus Tuto res teneras effert in

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