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Altior ac penitus terrae defigitur arbos,
Aesculus in primis, quae, quantum vertice ad auras
Aetherias, tantum radice in Tartara tendit.
Ergo non hiemes illam, non flabra, neque imbres
Convellunt; inmota manet, multosque nepotes,
Multa virum volvens durando saecula vincit.
Tum fortis late ramos et bracchia tendens
Huc illuc, media ipsa ingentem sustinet umbram.

Neve tibi ad solem vergant vineta cadentem;
Neve inter vitis corylum sere; neve flagella

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and from Pallad. 2. 10, Pliny 17. 35, and 3. 948, “Omnia si pergas vivendo vincere Col. Arb. 4, it would appear that the 'sulcus' saecla.” Volvens,' 'rolling,' and so 'going is characterized by length. Virgil, however, through.' Comp. “ tot volvere casus,' obviously intends no such distinction. As A. 1. 9. A parallel use of condere ' to the exact depth of the scrobes' or has been noticed E. 9. 52. The notion im“sulci'the writers seem to vary. Pliny 13. plied in volvens ’ would be more naturally 11, Col. 4. 1., 5. 6, &c. Much must have coupled with saecula,' as in “volvenda dies," depended, as the last- mentioned writer, 7. A. 9. 6. But such inversions are not 13, remarks, on the particular soil. It would rare. Many are the posterities, many the seem however from a comparison of Col. 5. generations of men that it rolls along, and 5 and 5. 6, that the vines were planted less lives down victoriously, while stretching out deeply in an arbustum’ than in another its sinewy branching arms on all sides, it vineyard, though the language of these pas- supports with its central bulk the vast sages is scarcely consistent with Arb. 16. weight of their shade.'

290.] Arbos' here is evidently distin- 296.] «Tum,' in this and other passages, guished from the vine. The old view was, appears to indicate a point in a narration or that Virgil meant merely to contrast the description, not necessarily a point of time, vine with other trees generally. But Heyne and generally the last point, so as to be rightly regards it as a contrast between the nearly = denique.' Comp. E. 2. 49, vine and its supporter. Comp. notes on A. 1. 164., 4. 250., 6. 577., 7. 76. It vv. 2, 89, 267, 278. • Terrae defigitur :' seems hardly necessary with Heyne to defigere aliquem cruci' is quoted from divide the poetical picture logically, and say, Varro ap. Non. The construction is arbos that the depth of the roots is the cause, altior (for altius,' which was the reading first, of the firmness (v. 293) and long life before Heins.) defigitur ac penitus terrae (vv. 294, 295) of the tree; secondly, its defigitur.' It appears from the passages just power to bear the weight of its boughs (vv. cited from Columella and Pliny, that other 296, 297). trees were never planted at so slight a depth 298.] A vineyard should not face the as the vine sometimes was, but the difference west: a hazel should not be planted to is not so great as this passage would denote. support the vine : cuttings should not be

291.] * Aesculus :' Pliny 17. 23 says taken from the top, either of the vine or of “ Transpadana Italia quercu arbustat its supporter: a blunt knife should not be agros," i. e. plants them in arbusta' to applied to the young plant: a wild olive support the vine. Part of the following should not be used as a supporter, as it is description, which appears simply orna- apt to catch fire, and the whole plantation mental, is repeated by Virgil speaking of may be burnt down.' Virgil despatches in the 'quercus ' A. 4. 445 foll.

a few lines a number of miscellaneous pre293.] Wagn. needlessly explains “imbres' cepts relative to vines, ending with an ornaof torrents swollen by rain.

mental description. The precept ‘Neve 294.] ‘Multos nepotes,'many successive tibi ad solem,' &c. is noticed by Columella generations.' Comp. v. 58. Many MSS., (3. 12), and Pliny (17. 2), but with an inincluding Pal., read multosque per annos, timation that it was not generally received. an interpolation, as Wagn. plausibly conjec. Their own view, as well as that of Palladius tures, derived from 4. 208.

(6. 6), is that the aspect of a vineyard 295.] Imitated from Lucr. l. 202, should vary with the climate. “Multaque vivendo vitalia vincere saecla ;" 299.] Pliny (17. 24) says of the vine

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305

Summa pete, aut summa defringe ex arbore plantas ; 300
Tantus amor terrae; neu ferro laede retunso
Semina ; neve oleae silvestris insere truncos :
Nam saepe incautis pastoribus excidit ignis,
Qui, furtim pingui primum sub cortice tectus,
Robora conprendit, frondesque elapsus in altas
Ingentem caelo sonitum dedit; inde secutus
Per ramos victor perque alta cacumina regnat,
Et totum involvit flammis nemus, et ruit atram
Ad caelum picea crassus caligine nubem,
Praesertim si tempestas a vertice silvis
Incubuit, glomeratque ferens incendia ventus.

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“ odit et corylum.” · Flagellum' is the about the olive in the midst of precepts tender shoot at the end of the branches of about the vine, which are apparently conthe vine. Varro 1. 31, “ Quam vocant tinued down to v. 420, where there is a minorem flagellum, maiorem etiam unde distinct transition to the olive; nor does uvae nascuntur palmam.” Catull. 60 (62). Columella seem to be aware of any danger 52, “ vitis . .. Iamiam contingit summum to the olive from the oleaster (5. 9). It radice flagellum.” Summa flagella' does seems better then to retain oleae' and not mean the end of the shoot, but the understand • insere' of planting in the 'arshoot at the top of the vine. For the pre- bustum,' as in Col. 5. 7, “ Arboribus cept that cuttings are not to be made from rumpotinis si frumentum non inseritur." the topmost shoots, comp. Col. 3. 10. Insere' will thus • intersere,' v. 299. Pliny 17. 14 recommends the contrary. It appears from Pliny 17. 23, that the

300.] • Destringe,' Heyne; but all the olive, if not too leafy, was frequently used best MSS. give defringe,' a word used by as a supporter, though Theoph. C. P. 3. 15, Varro (1. 40), who opposes it to “deplan- condemns it as drawing too much nourishtare,' the latter being the less violent mode ment from the vine. There was an induceof separation. The word here is not to be ment to plant the oleaster' and 'corylus' pressed, as it is not the manner of removing among other trees, as affording foliage for the branch, but the part from which the the food of cattle, Col. 5. 9. Hence perbranch is removed, that forms the point of haps the present caution. the precept. •Arbore,' the tree which sup- 304.] The tree is called πυκνόν και ports the vine. Plantas, cuttings for the din apóv, Theoph. H. P. 5. 10, and said to seminarium' (see note on v. 267). Pliny be good for burning. 17. 14 refers to this passage, which he 306.] Secutus,' 'running along the seems to understand of trees in general, wood.' Comp. A. 8. 432, “flammisque while he supposes Virgil to be speaking of sequacibus iras.” The word, as Macleane cuttings for grafting.

remarks on Pers. Prol. 5, is used where, 301.] • Tantus amor terrae :' so great strictly speaking, there is no notion of fol. is their love for the earth that when they lowing a lead; but the image seems always are far from it they are less vigorous.' to be that of following, whether or no there Ferro retunso :' for this precept compare is actually any thing to follow. Col. 4. 24. • Semina,' the young vines or 307.] Dominates victoriously among the trees ; see note on v. 268.

branches and the summits that tower so high.' 302.] Wagn., from the Med. 'oleas,' has 308.] ‘Nemus,' the “ arbustum.' • Ruit' introduced olea,' giving 'insere' the techni- of an impulse from below : see on 1. 105. cal meaning of grafting, and understanding 311.] 'Glomerat,' thickens or masses ; the caution to be against grafting the olive and so makes more intense, fiercer. • Ferens on the oleaster,' a view apparently sup- ventus,' a fair wind, popòs or émipopos äveported by Palladius (5.2), who gives direc- uos: "fieret vento mora ne qua ferenti,” tions for safely grafting the olive on the A. 3. 473; “Exspectet facilemque fugam oleaster without the risk of this bad result ventosque ferentis,” A. 4. 430. So our from a fire. But this involves an extremely sailors speak of a carrying wind.' awkward insertion of an isolated precept

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315

Hoc ubi, non a stirpe valent caesaeque reverti
Possunt atque ima similes revirescere terra;
Infelix superat foliis oleaster amaris.

Nec tibi tam prudens quisquam persuadeat auctor
Tellurem Borea rigidam spirante movere.
Rura gelu tunc claudit hiemps; nec semine iacto
Concretam patitur radicem adfigere terrae.
Optuma vinetis satio, cum vere rubenti
Candida venit avis longis invisa colubris,

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movere

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never recover.

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312.] “Hoc ubi : subaudi contigerit,” sight as to persuade you.' Serv., an expression to which no parallel 316.] Virgil is dissuading the vine-grower has been adduced. Wakefield connects from planting in winter, when there are 'hoc' with v. 314, taking ubi' with 'va- north winds and frost. Comp. 1. 299. lent' and 'possunt,' thus, when the vines Heyne, with Rom. and another MS. and are irreparably injured, you have only the Nonius s. v. Rigidus,' reads • moveri.' But wild olive left,' there being many passages this would mean “let no one persuade you in Lucretius where ' hoc' is used similarly, of the fact.' Wagn. restores with 'ubi? following, e. g. 4. 360, “Hoc, the authority of all the remaining MSS. ubi suffugit sensum simul angulus omnis, 'Movere,' in order to make scrobes.' The Fit quasi ut ad tornum saxorum structa passages quoted by the commentators from tuamur." The authority for this punctua. Cato, Pliny, Columella, &c., have reference tion as compared with the other makes it rather to the weather than the season, though plausible ; but it does not seem so well one may be taken as implying the other. suited to express the sense required. Virgil 317.) •Tunc' is the reading of Med. and would hardly say 'the wild olive survives in Rom. Others have “tum.' There seems the case where the vines cannot recover,' as to be no clear distinction between the meanhis meaning evidently is that the vines ings of these words used by themselves, al

Non a stirpe valent' is a though the one is opposed to nunc,' the condensed expression for stirpe valent et a other to . quum.' "Semine iacto,' a phrase stirpe repullulant'-'their stock no more properly relating to the sowing of corn (1. shows life.' • Que’is disjunctive. “Valent,' 104) or other seed, is used of the planting SC. 'vites.' • Caesae,' when the burnt stock of trees. Comp. vv. 268, 302. has been cut (to make it grow again). 318.] ‘Concretam'may be taken as .con.

313.] •Ima terra,' • from the earth at cretam gelu,' the epithet which would natutheir roots.'

rally belong to “terrae' being joined with 314.] Infelix,' barren. • Superat' = radicem ;' but perhaps it is better to take solus superest.' . Comp. the note on scro- it as equivalent to ita ut concrescat,' sc. bibus superabit terra repletis,' v. 235. In 'terrae.' Comp. Claudian, 6 Cons. Hon. 77, translating we might say is left master of “ Hinc tibi concreta radice tenacius haesit.” the field.' • Foliis amaris' seems to be an 'Id cuius semen est,' understood from what implied opposition to the dulces uvae' that precedes, is the subject of 'adfigere,' or have been lost. The bitterness would not perhaps semen' itself, the young shoot. hinder their being good for fodder; comp. 319.] The old reading before Heins., “ salices carpetis amaras,” E. 1. 79. supported by Pal., inserted est after

315—345.] ‘Do not plant vines in win. satio. “Rubenti,' with flowers. ter, but in spring or towards the end of novis rubeant quam prata coloribus,” 4. autumn. Spring is the season when all 306. Col. 3. 14 says that vines should be nature is procreant and prolific, and when planted in spring or autumn, according to the weather favours infant growth. It must the climate and the character of the soil, have been in spring that the world itself the time in the former case being from the was created. Were there no spring, young middle of Feb. to the vernal equinox, in the life would perish between the two extremes latter from the middle of Oct. to Dec. 1. of cold and heat.'

320.] •Avis,' i. e. 'ciconia,' the stork, 315.] Nec,' &c. = quisquam Juv. 17. 74, “Serpente ciconia pullos Nutam prudens habeatur ut tibi persuadeat.' trit." Isidorus, Origines 12. 7,“ Ciconiae • Let no adviser have such credit for fore. veris nuntiae, societatis comites, serpentium.

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Prima vel autumni sub frigora, cum rapidus Sol
Nondum hiemem contingit equis, iam praeterit aestas.
Ver adeo frondi nemorum, ver utile silvis,
Vere tument terrae et genitalia semina poscunt.
Tum pater omnipotens fecundis imbribus Aether 325
Coniugis in gremium laetae descendit, et omnis
Magnus alit, magno commixtus corpore, fetus.
Avia tum resonant avibus virgulta canoris,
Et Venerem certis repetunt armenta diebus ;
Parturit almus ager, Zephyrique tepentibus auris
Laxant arva sinus; superat tener omnibus humor;
Inque novos soles audent se gramina tuto

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casu.

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hostes.” The stork seems to be mentioned the fertilizing effect of showers. 'Magnus here only ornamentally, as the harbinger of . magno :' Virgil is fond of such combinaspring.

tions. Comp. 1. 190, Magnaque cum 321.] Prima autumni frigora :' 'the magno veniet tritura calore.” Perhaps he first cold days of autumn,' i. e. the latter learnt them from Lucretius, e. g. l. 741, part of the season. See above on v. 319. “Et graviter magni magno cecidere ibi

Rapidus' is a perpetual epithet of the But μέγας μεγαλωστί is as old as
sun, to be understood like “ rapido aestu Homer.
(E. 2. 10), &c.

328.] This relates to the loves of the
323.] · Adeo' can only be rendered in birds. Lucr. 1. 10,
English by laying a stress on.ver.' • Ne-

“ Nam simul ac species patefacta est verna ' and silvis' probably both mean

diei the trees in the 'arbustum.' • Frondi'

Et reserata viget genitabilis aura Favoni, may be specified on account of its use as

Aeriae primum volucres te, Diva, tuumque food for cattle.

Significant initum, perculsae corda tua 324.] •Tument:' Theoph. C. P. 3. 3,

vi.οργά δε [η γή] όταν ένικμος ή και θερμή και τα τού αέρος έχη ξύμμετρα, τότε γάρ “Avia virgulta' =virgulta in avlis silvis.' ευδιαχυτός τε και ευβλαστης και όλώς 330.] Comp. “ Zephyro putris se glaeba &utpaths ļoti. The language of the fol- resolvit,” 1. 44. Here, owing to the long lowing passage is metaphorical, and bor- metaphor which has preceded, "sinus,' which rowed from physical generation.

is also metaphorical, is substituted for 'glae325.] Comp. Eur. fr. inc. 890. 9, 10, bam. “Laxo’ is much the same as 'solvo.' ερα δ' ο σεμνός ουρανός πληρούμενος Superat,' abounds. Comp. Lucr. 5. 806, "Ομβρου πεσείν ες γαίαν Αφροδίτης ύπο: “Multus enim calor atque humor superabat Aesch. Danaides, fr. 43. Some iden- in arvis," and see on v. 235. Tener humor,' tify Aether' and `Tellus' with Jupiter Lucr. 1. 809. and Juno;

but the passage contains rather 332.] • Gramina' is the reading of all the a poetico-physical than a theological view of MSS. but one. Germina' has however the subject, and is evidently suggested by been read by most of the later editors on Lucr. 1. 250, “pereunt imbres ubi eos pater the authority of Celsus apud Philarg, and Aether In gremium matris Terrai praecipi. Fabricius. The latter reading would create tavit,” and 2. 992, “Omnibus ille idem a tautology with what follows; and 'gra(caelum) pater est unde alma liquentis mina' is supported by Horace, 4 Od. 7. 1, Humoris guttas mater quum terra recepit.” “ redeunt iam gramina campis Arboribus. Comp. also E. 7. 60.

que comae.

But the question is very dif326.] • Gremium' is an instance of ficult, as Virgil in what he says of the fruitthe metaphorical language of the passage. fulness of the soil may have been thinking Comp. Terence, Eunuch. 3.5.37. Laetae,' mainly of the vine. • Credunt se in novos fruitful.

soles' is probably a condensation of "cre327.] · Alit fetus' is a departure from dunt se solibus' and 'trudunt se in soles,' the figure of the marriage of heaven and possibly with a further reference to the exearth to the common and natural idea of pression. in dies.' • Soles are the suns of

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335

Credere ; nec metuit surgentis pampinus austros
Aut actum caelo magnis aquilonibus imbrem,
Sed trudit gemmas et frondes explicat omnis.
Non alios prima crescentis origine mundi
Inluxisse dies aliumve habuisse tenorem
Crediderim : ver illud erat, ver magnus agebat
Orbis, et hibernis parcebant flatibus Euri:
Cum primae lucem pecudes hausere, virumque
Ferrea progenies duris caput extulit arvis,
Inmissaeque ferae silvis et sidera caelo.
Nec res hunc tenerae possent perferre laborem,

340

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each day. Novi,' because they are the 'made of earth,' as in Varro, R. R. 1. 14, beginning of the warm season. Virgil pro- "terreus agger;" whereas the Lucretian ‘terbably here had in his eye Lucr. 5. 780 foll. rigenae,' which is cited by the advocates of *As the new suns dawn, the herbage ven. terrea,' seems only to mean .children of tures to encounter them with safety : and earth.' Ferrea’ is supported by “ Unde the young vine-branch has no fear that the homines nati durum genus,” 1.63 (note), as south wind will get up, or that the mighty Serv. says, as well as by Lucr. 5. 925, “ Et north will send a burst of rain from the sky, genus humanum multo fuit illud in arvis but puts out its buds, and unfolds all its Durius ut decuit tellus quod DURA creleaves.'

asset (from which the present passage is 336.] “Crescentis' nascentis,' which imitated), and is in complete keeping with Bentley on Manil. 2. 428 wished to read. Virgil's dominant feeling, the glorification Doederlein, Lat. Syn. 6. 86, considers of labour. Serv. aptly expresses the mean

cresco' to be a neuter inchoative from ing, “ procreata ex lapidibus ad laborem.' creo.' This and the following lines mean There is no reason to suppose that Virgil that the world was born in spring ; not was thinking of the iron age, so that the that the first ages of the world were per- objection drawn from that falls to the petual spring.

ground. 338.] • Ver illud erat :' comp. A. 3. 173, 342.] The stars are looked upon as the “ Nec sopor illud erat.” . It was spring- living inhabitants of heaven, as the men of tide that the great globe was keeping.' earth, and the beasts of the woods ; Ov. Cerda comp. Catull. 66 (68). 16, “Iucun- M. 1. 73, dum cum aetas florida ver ageret.'

“ Neu regio foret ulla suis animantibus 339.] *Hibernis,' &c. : 'there was no

orba, sign of winter.' • Parcebant flatibus,' like Astra tenent caeleste solum formaeque the common phrase " parcere alicui,' spared

deorum, them, that is, forbore to put them forth.

Cesserunt nitidis habitandae piscibus 340.] · Haurio’ is used for drinking

undae, through the eyes and ears as well as through

Terra feras cepit, volucres agitabilis aer.the mouth, A. 4. 359., 10. 899. But light and air are not unfrequently confounded, See also G. 4. 227 (note). The cosmogony pure ether being supposed to be liquid of the present passage seems hardly the flame.

same as that of E. 6. 31-40, whether we 341.] 'Ferrea’ is the reading of all the suppose Virgil here to conceive of the uniMSS. except two, one of which is the second verse as created and peopled at once, or to reading in Med. These two read • Terrea,' pass over the creation, considering it to which is supported by Lactantius (Inst. 2. have been completed before the peopling 10), approved by Heyne, and adopted by began. Wagn. The authority of Philargyrius has 343.] This verse, with the two following, been alleged for this reading, but he seems to refers to the beneficence of spring generally. have ‘Ferrea'as his lemma, and his comment • Res tenerae' are the young plants, buds, “quia creditum est primos homines e terra &c., not like “ipsa tener mundi concreverit natos,” &c., may very well refer to duris orbis” in E. 6. 34. Comp. Lucr. 1. 179, caput extulit arvis.' - Terrea' would mean " et vivida tellus Tuto res teneras effert in

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