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256

Quae gravis est, ipso tacitam se pondere prodit,
Quaeque levis. Promptum est oculis praediscere nigram,
Et quis cui color. At sceleratum exquirere frigus
Difficile est : piceae tantum taxique nocentes
Interdum aut hederae pandunt vestigia nigrae.

His animadversis, terram multo ante memento
Excoquere et magnos scrobibus concidere montis,
Ante supinatas aquiloni ostendere glaebas,

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260

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i. e. when it is first brought under tillage, an estimate of untried ground not only
implying that it will fall off. This is Virgil's from the qualities which could be detected
indirect way of saying that the land is not by sight and touch, but also from the
desirable for corn. Heyne, followed by character of the trees, shrubs, and herbage
Wagn. and Forb., paraphrases primis growing upon it spontaneously, a test of
aristis' by 'herbis surgentibus,' and refers more practical value than any of the others
to Serv. But the words of Serv. are “Her- enumerated in the Second Georgic (177–
bis surgentibus, quarum luxuries futuris 258).
frugibus nocet, quas culmi tenues ferre 258.] Pliny 16. 34, after Theophrastus,
non possunt," in which “futuris frugibus' divides ivy into candida,' nigra,' and
and .culmi tenues,' not 'herbis surgentibus,' • helix. The · hedera alba' is an emblem
answer to `primis aristis.' Their mistake of beauty, E. 7. 38. *Pandunt vestigia,'
seems to lie in misunderstanding Serv. as if reveal the traces of the cold.' Wake-
he meant by herbis' the blades of corn, field's interpretation, extend their roots,'
as in l. 112, a passage which Serv. rightly though ingenious, is far from probable.
compares as generally apposite.

259—272.] ‘Having ascertained the soil 254.] *Tacitam’ is for 'tacite,' perhaps you want, let it be well trenched and meant to be opposed to “indicium faciet. thoroughly exposed to sun and air before • Without farther experiment.'

you plant your vine. The object is to
255.] It may be questioned whether make the soil crumbling. A careful gar-
oculis' is to be constructed as dat. with dener will make his nursery-ground like
• promptum' or as abl. with .praediscere.' his vineyard, and transplant his trees into
With the former interpretation comp. Ov. precisely the same position which they
M. 13. 10, “Sed nec mihi dicere promptum, have occupied hitherto.'
Nec facere est isti." "Praediscere,' either 259.] His animadversis' = agri qua.

to learn before you cultivate the field,' or litate deprehensa,' Serv.
* to learn at once,' before experiment or in- 260.] Lucr. 6. 962, terram sol exco-
vestigation, opp. to 'exquirere.'

quit et facit are.” • Scrobibus :' see above, 256.] ‘Cui' is taken by Heyne as = v. 235. 'Concidere :'Justin 2. 1, "Concisam cuicumque,' and by Wagner and Forbiger fossis Ægyptum.”

• Magnos montis’ is a as = cuique.' Both are unnecessary. It strong, perhaps an exaggerated expression, is a double question. See Key's Latin as if the husbandman was to dig up “conGrammar, 1136. So also Ladewig takes cidere') whole mountains. The lesson to it. • Sceleratum :'Pliny 24. 13, “ Adver- be enforced is that of hard and thorough santur serpentium sceleratissimis haemor work. See v. 37 note. There is the same rhoidi et presteri flos aut mora." The feeling in “excoquere,' indicated not merely word is however probably half playful, and by the preposition, but by the attribution as such may be compared with Hor. Sat. of the process not to the sun but to the ii. 3. 70, “Effugiet tamen hic sceleratus husbandman. With this word, and with vincula Proteus ;" Plaut. Pseud. 3. 2. 28, the next line, comp. 1. 65, 66, a passage

Senapis scelera ... oculi ut exstillent which is animated by the same enthusiasm. facit."

261.] The repetition of ante' is em257.] Comp. above 113, “ Aquilonem et phatic, showing that no labour is to be frigora taxi.”* Pliny 17. 5, “ Terram ama- spared, and no vigilance omitted. Suram sive macram si quis probare velit, de. pinatas, upturned.'

' Aquiloni osten. monstrant eam atrae degeneresque herbae, dere :' Varr. *1. 27, “ Ager soli ostentus." frigidam autem retorride nata." Professor Hesiod, Works 611, Aritau Ġ ņeliv Ramsay (Dict. A. agricultura') says that (Bórpus). the ancients were in the habit of forming

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Quam laetum infodias vitis genus. Optuma putri
Arva solo : id venti curant gelidaeque pruinae
Et labefacta movens robustus iugera fossor.
At, si quos haud ulla viros vigilantia fugit,
Ante locum similem exquirunt, ubi prima paretur
Arboribus seges, et quo mox digesta feratur,

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263.] •Id curant,' bring this about two things compared were co-ordinate in • Id's

='ut putri solo sint.' The connexion his conception—as if he had said, “Ante is . The great object is to have a crumbling exquirunt duos locos, alterum alteri sisoil; that is the work of wind, and frost, milem, scilicet, ubi &c., et quo' &c. and hard spade labour.' He recurs to the This change of view is the same which we precepts he had just given vv. 259–261, have had occasion to remark in 1. 421 and shows the reason for them. The pas. (note), and it is well illustrated by Aesch. sage then is parallel to v. 204, “ Et cui Prom. 555, diaupiðlov por uídos putre solum, namque hoc imitamur arando,” apogén ra tód'éxéīvó , öte orl. Similis which Philarg. compares. With the men- ac,' . atque,' .et,' are found elsewhere, like tion of the wind comp. 1. 44, “ Zephyro alius ac,'.idem ac,' sometimes with si' putris se gleba resolvit,” though here per- following. The objection to resolvinget' haps Virgil is thinking chiefly of sharper here into a dative, 'loco quo,' &c., would winds.

be found in feratur,' which would then 264.) i. e. the process of stirring the have to mean, - whither it is intended to be ground called pastinatio.' 'Robustus,' as transplanted, not, as the tense shows it in E. 4. 41, paints vigorous exertion. must mean, “whither it may be trans• Labefacta,' 'loosened.' Seneca, N. Q. planted.' In other words both .ubi pa4. 5, “Nix tenera et labefacta ;" Lucr. retur' and 'quo feratur' depend equally on 1. 492, “Tum labefactatus rigor auri sol. 'exquirunt;' each alike is to be the object vitur aestu.” It would be also possible to of the husbandman's search. interpret labefacta movens' movens et 267.] Keightley now supposes similem' labefaciens :' see below, v. 267.

to mean 'a soil like that in which the 265.] ‘Si quos haud ulla viros vigilantia parent vine stands, explaining rv. 269 fugit' is a poetical variety for 'si quos foll. similarly of transplantation into, not prae vigilantia nihil fugit.'

from, the nursery; but this seems far less 266.] • Ante' seems best explained by likely. The seminarium' for vines is de• ante' above, v. 259, 261. Wishing to scribed by Col. Arb. 1. The commentators, impress on the husbandman the necessity supposing Virgil to be speaking of the nurof thorough work, he has mentioned va- sery for vines in connexion with the vinerious indispensable preliminaries to the yard (which in the note on the preceding planting of the vine: he now adds one line I have assumed to be the case), seem which, he says, a perfect workman will universally to understand arboribus' of adopt, that of providing the same kind of the vines. The question has been treated ground for the nursery and for the vine. on v. 89, and it need only be added here yard. •Locum similem' then will be in that such a use of words is peculiarly un. apposition alternately, as it were, with likely in the present context, as in vv. 289, each of the two clauses that follow, ubi ... 290 vitis' and 'arbos' are expressly disseges' and 'quo ... feratur,' 'a like spot tinguished. We might evade the difficulty for the nursery, and a like spot for the by supposing the reference here to be not vineyard,' the two being reciprocally com- to vines at all, but simply to their suppared, just as in the expression alius . . porters, which had a 'seminarium' of their alius,' which we translate one thing ... an- own, from which they were transplanted other,' there is, so to speak, a reciprocal into the 'arbustum,' as appears from contrast. Or we might explain the con- Pliny 17. 10, 11, Col. 5. 6, who expressly struction somewhat differently, by saying apply precepts like these of Virgil to their that the poet used similem' with a view

We should then conclude that to only one of the two spots, the vineyard, , Virgil being anxi as elsewhere, to com. which was to be like the nursery, or the bine brevity with variety, had passed from nursery, which was to be like the future the vines to their supporters, leaving the vineyard, and that then in explaining the treatment of the former to be inferred, as comparison he expressed himself as if the it were, a fortiori. Such an explanation

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270

Mutatam ignorent subito ne semina matrem.
Quin etiam caeli regionem in cortice signant,
Ut, quo quaeque modo steterit, qua parte calores
Austrinos tulerit, quae terga obverterit axi,
Restituant: adeo in teneris consuescere multum est.
Collibus an plano melius sit ponere vitem,
Quaere prius. Si pinguis agros metabere campi,

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would be certainly confirmed by Col. 1.C., quae terga obverterit,' which is necessary whose language is founded on Virgil's : if we follow the commentators in under. “Ne aliter arbores constituamus quam standing arbores' as the object of restiquemadmodum in seminario steterint : plu- tuant.' The manner of the repetition also rimum enim refert ut eam partem caeli seems to indicate that the several clauses spectent cui ab tenero consueverunt." are objects of the verb. The words of Col. But such a transition would create an quoted on v. 267 might be pleaded for the almost inexcusable ambiguity, though we ordinary view, but he follows Virgil so closely must not estimate the impression received that his use of language cannot be conby those who were familiar with the dis- sidered independent. Qua parte calores tinction between .vitis' and 'arbos' by the austrinos tulerit,' " the part on which it impression produced on those who have bore the brunt of the southern heat.' overlooked it. I would suggest then that 271.) • Axi,' the north pole. Comp. 3. the sense of ubi prima paretur arboribus 351, “Quaque redit medium Rhodope por. seges' is, where at first (prima' = recta sub axem." Quae terga,' that side . primum,' opposed to mox') the vine-crop which, as a back, it turned to the cold wind may be got ready for its supporters,' in of the north. other words, may be prepared for after. 272.] · Adeo in teneris consuescere mul. wards standing in the arbustum,' a de- tum est,'. so powerful are habits formed in scription of a nursery for vines, in which tender age.' The connexion requires this the poet may have been thinking of a rather than . so powerful is habit in the case maiden being trained for a husband. This of things of tender age,' as the poet is speakwould further avoid the necessity of chang- ing of habits formed in the nursery, and in ing the sense of seges' in the two clauses, their effects extending to the arbustum.' and referring it in the first to the soil of 'In teneris' then will have the force of the nursery, in the second to its contents. . in teneris annis,' though we need not sup· Digesta feratur' digeratur et feratur,' pose an ellipse. The line is quoted by or rather · feratur et digeratur. Comp. v. Quinct. 1. 3 with a teneris,' which would 318,“ Concretam radicem adfigere terrae."

• habits which have lasted from in268.] • That the sudden change may not fancy.' make the plants feel strangely to their 273–287.] • Plant your vines closely on mother.' Subito' goes with mutatam.' the plain: on slopes more widely, yet still • Semina’ here are the young vines ; see in regular lines and an equal distances, so below, v.354, “ Seminibus positis.” The ap- as to present the appearance of a Roman plication of the word to young trees is com- legion, and that not merely for appearance mon in the agricultural writers, and is em- sake, but to give each plant as much growbodied in the word “seminarium.' • Ma- ing room as its neighbours.' trem ' is the earth. Comp. A. 11.71, “ Non 273.] Some vines were better suited for iam mater alit tellus viresque ministrat." the hill, some for the plain. See Col. 3.1, $ 5. Pliny 17. 10 ingeniously distinguishes the 274.] • Prius :'this is another preliminary, seminarium' and the vineyard as which of course ought in strictness to have trix ' and 'mater.'

preceded that mentioned in the last para270.] Pliny 17. 11 says that as Cato has graph, “terram multo ante memento,' &c. made no mention of this practice, it is pro- Campi' is the same as plano,' and the bably valueless; and adds that some inten- emphatic word. •If you measure out, or tionally changed the position of vines and set apart for a vineyard, fields in a rich figs when they were transplanted. If we plain. • Pinguis,' opp. to the light soil of take the construction to be restituant mo- the hills. With the language comp. the dum quo quae steterit,' &c., we shall not oracle in Hdt. 1. 66, και καλόν πεδίον have to suppose a change of construction at σχοίνων διαμετρήσασθαι.

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275

Densa sere; in denso non segnior ubere Bacchus ;
Sin tumulis adclive solum collisque supinos,
Indulge ordinibus, nec setius omnis in unguem
Arboribus positis secto via limite quadret.
Ut saepe ingenti bello cum longa cohortes
Explicuit legio, et campo stetit agmen aperto,

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275.] It would be harsh to take densa' the construction must be omnis via, secto as strictly adverbial. It is rather an adjec- limite (i. e. cum limes sectus fuerit), quadret tive agreeing with an indefinite substantive. (cum eo limite)'

'-a use of the abl. abs. • Non segnior ubere,' not less prolific.' in the place of some other construction, Comp. 'segnes terrae,' v. 37 ; 'segnis car- with which we may comp. Juv. 1. 70,“ viro duus,' 1. 151, and for segnis' with abl. miscet sitiente rubetam." But there would A. 7. 383 (note). In denso' = 'in loco be some awkwardness in this abl. abs. fol. denso consito :' comp.“ in sicco.' 'In denso lowing arboribus positis,' and the language ubere' could scarcely mean anything but a would still not be quite precise, as a quinclose or stiff soil, and such is really the cunx would not be represented by a number sense of densus' in Ov. M. 2. 576, “ den. of parallel lines with cross lines at right an. sumque relinquo Littus, et in molli nequi- gles. Via' and · limes' are used in the quam lassor arena,” expressing the crowding same context again A. 2. 697, apparently of the parts of the soil, not, as Wund., fol- without any intended contrast. lowed by Forb., explains it, the crowding of guem' goes with quadret,' as in Col. 11. things upon it. • Über'is specially used of 2, § 13, “ abies atque populus singulis the fruitfulness of the vine ; Col. 4. 27, operis ad unguem quadrantur.”

So far as “ut ubere suo gravatam vitem_levet ;" the precept of regularity is concerned, it Claud. B. G. 504, "palmitis uber Etrusci.” would be the same thing wbether ‘arboribus' • Not less prolific' than when planted wide, meant the vines or their supporters. But because in the rich plain there is abundance the young vines could scarcely be compared of nutriment.

to the cohorts of a legion, and the general 276.] ‘Collis supinos,' 'gently sloping,' so considerations urged on v. 89 seem decisive. as to present a broad surface, which seems 279.] There is no ground for taking to be the general notion of the word as ap- saepe' after .cum' with Wagn. A. l. plied not only to hills, but to plains and to 148 merely proves that Virgil might have the sea.

See Bentley's note on Hor. Epod. so expressed himself. • Ingens bellum,' 1. 29.

mighty war'—a perpetual epithet. So 277.] •Indulge ordinibus,' 'give your “ Bellum ingens geret Italia,” A. 1. 267; rows room,' set them wide.' Nec setius,' magnum populo portendere bellum,” ib. • as much as if they were set close.' The 7. 80. It matters little whether • bello' be order of the passage is probably 'nec setius taken as dat. or as abl. The quincuncialis (quam si densa seras) omnis secto limite ordo’ would be accurately represented by via arboribus positis in unguem quadret.' the position of the maniples of the · Has. • Yet still (as much as when you plant close) tati,' Principes,' and “Triarii,' in the old let each avenue with drawn line as you set Roman army. your trees exactly tally,' = • Yet still so set Hastati your trees that the line of each avenue that Principes you draw may exactly tally with the rest.' Triarii • Secto via limite' then will = via secta. Before Virgil's time, however, the practice Comp. 1. 238, “Via secta per ambas," had changed, the legion being divided into where Virgil calls the ecliptic.via,' while ten cohorts, which could not be arranged in Ov. M. 2. 130, speaking more precisely, a quincuncial form, though when disposed calls it • limes.?. Nothing more than regu. in three lines they bear a superficial resemlarity is prescribed in these two lines so un- blance to it. This vague similarity may be derstood; the simile of the legion, which what Virgil intends, or he may be adopting follows, shows that the quincuncialis ordo' a comparison made while the old disposition is intended. If with Martyn and Donaldson of the army prevailed. “Cohortes’ too (Dict. A. ed. 1, · Agrimensores ') we press would point to the later arrangement. the distinction between via’ and limes,' 280.] · Agmen' is the column in order making the latter mean the tranverse path, of march, which deploys into acies,' or which is to cut the former at right angles, line of battle.

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Directaeque acies, ac late fluctuat omnis
Aere renidenti tellus, necdum horrida miscent
Proelia, sed dubius mediis Mars errat in armis :
Omnia sint paribus numeris dimensa viarum;
Non animum modo uti pascat prospectus inanem, 285
Sed quia non aliter viris dabit omnibus aequas
Terra, neque in vacuum poterunt se extendere rami.

Forsitan et scrobibus quae sint fastigia quaeras. Ausim vel tenui vitem committere sulco. 281.] · Dirigere aciem' is a military cuncem propter ordines atque intervalla phrase. Livy 31. 27, “ Coniectisque in modica.' Comp. numeroso horto," Col. medium sarcinis aciem direxisset."

10 6. “Quid enim illo quincunce speciosius, 282.] • Renidenti : this verb means qui, in quamcunque partem spectaveris, recproperly. to smile,' and is thence 'to glit- tus est ? Sed protinus in id quoque prodter," like yelãv: Hom. Il. 20. 362, yélaore est, ut terrae sucum aequaliter trahant," não a Tepi xowv Xal coû ÚTÒ OTEPotis. Quinct. 8. 3, § 9. Pliny 17. 11, “In disCoupled with .fluctuat,' it may be intended ponendis arboribus arbustisque ac vineis to remind us of the Aeschylean dvnpiuov quincuncialis ordinum ratio vulgata et nerédaoua. Aere renidenti tellus’ is from cessaria, non perflatu modo utilis, verum et the “aere renidescit tellus ” of Lucr. 2. aspectu grata, quoquo modo intueare in 326, and the whole passage appears to be a ordinem se porrigente versu." study after the splendid picture drawn in 285.] • Animum inanem :' the epithet that and the surrounding lines rather than seems to be transferred from prospectus' a natural and appropriate illustration of the to.animus.' Comp. “animum pictura vineyard. • Necdum,' &c.: while the regu- pascit inani,” A. l. 463. But of course its larity of their order is still undisturbed. meaning is modified in the transition. • The grim mêlée of the fight has not yet Animus inanis ' means the mere objectless begun.'

fancy, as opposed to the mind exerting 283.] • Dubius' means generally in itself for an object—not the vacant mind. suspense.' It is not necessary to limit it 287.] ‘Because otherwise the boughs will either to the uncertainty which side will have no empty space wherein to spread begin, or to the uncertainty of the issue. themselves.' Mars is not yet called into action, and 288—297.] “The trench for the vine may therefore he is said to hover between the be shallow; that for its supporter must be two armies. Mediis in armis' = šv pet- deeper.' aixuiw, the space between the two armies. 288.] ‘ Fastigium' is used of the slope of a Possibly the image before Virgil's mind was trench, Caesar, B. G. 7. 73, “Ante hos obthat of two Roman armies facing each liquis ordinibus in quincuncem dispositis other in civil war.

scrobes trium in altitudinem pedum fodie284.] On the whole it seems best to make bantur, paullatim angustiore ad infimum fasthis the apodosis of the simile, though Virgil tigio.” Comp. Id. ib. 4. 17, where fastigate' seems occasionally to introduce a simile is used of a slope as opposed to a perpendiwithout one regularly expressed ; and in the cular. Virgil evidently intends us to think present passage it matters nothing, so far as of depth, which would of course depend on the sense is concerned, whether we take one the length and inclination of the slope. In from the preceding or following lines. •Vi. Varro 1. 14, “ fossa ita idonea si ... fas. arum’ may be taken either with omnia' tigium habet ut [aqua?] exeat e fundo," or with paribus numeris.' The order of it appears to mean the fall of a drain : Id. the words points to the latter. “Paribus ib. 20, “ agricolae hoc spectandum quo fase numeris viarum' is somewhat difficult to tigio sit fundus,”, it seems to be for the explain, though the difficulty has not been level of the ground. It would be easy to noticed by the commentators. It probably classify these meanings and connect them

pares et numerosae viae,' and means with those which contain the parallel noequal and regular avenues.' If the order tion of height; but we seem not to have is that of the quincunx' all the avenues the starting-point of a plausible etymology. cannot be equal, but the corresponding ones 289.] Sulcus' is clearly distinguished may. Varro 1. 7, “Si sata sunt in quin- from scrobs' in the agricultural writers;

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