Billeder på siden
PDF
ePub

6

See vv. 41 foll, and notes. This confusion arises from the identification of the shepherd and the poet, spoken of in the Introduction to the Eclogues : but in the present case its very grossness has prevented its being observed by the editors, who suppose Tityrus, like Moeris in Ecl. 9, to be Virgil's 'villicus,' who goes to Rome to purchase his liberty of his master, and there hears from Octavianus that his master's property is safe-a cumbrous hypothesis, and not really reconcilable with the language of the Eclogue. The earlier commentators, such as La Cerda and Catrou, did not feel this difficulty, but they created one for themselves in the shape of an allegory, according to which Tityrus’ two partners, v. 30, stand for Rome and Mantua respectively. Trapp, in rejecting the allegory, himself supposes that the change of partners is intended to intimate a change of parties, Virgil's abandonment of the cause of the republicans for that of the triumvirs.

The scenery, as in other Eclogues, is confused and conventional, the beeches (v. 1), caverns (v. 75), mountains (v. 83), and rocks (vv. 15. 47. 56. 76) belonging to Sicily, while the marshy river (v. 48) is from Mantua. See Introduction to the Eclogues, and Note on the Scenery about Mantua, p. 107. In other respects the poem appears to be original, only the names Tityrus, Galatea, and Amaryllis, being borrowed from Theocritus.

M. TITYRE, tu patulae recubans sub tegmine fagi
Silvestrem tenui Musam meditaris avena;
Nos patriae finis et dulcia linquimus arva:
Nos patriam fugimus; tu, Tityre, lentus in umbra
Formosam resonare doces Amaryllida silvas.
T. O Meliboee, deus nobis haec otia fecit.

5

[ocr errors]

6

[ocr errors]

145.] • How is it that while I am wan- that it is a natural epithet of the reed, like dering an outcast from my native fields, you • fragili cicuta,' 5. 85. • Musam :' the Muse are lying in the shade and singing like a had come to be used for the song personified happy shepherd of your mistress ?'

as early as Sophocles and Euripides. “Me1.] Tityrus (Tirupos) is one of the Theo- ditaris,' compose.' Comp. Hor. 1 S. 9. 2, critean shepherds (Theocr. 3. 2 foll.). The “Nescio quid meditans nugarum et totus word is apparently the Doric form of Sárv. in illis.” * Avena,' not a straw (which pos, being applied in the same way to design would be absurd), but a reed, or perhaps a nate a kind of tailed ape, and perhaps a pipe of reeds, hollow like a straw. So goat. Another account, that it means a . stipula,' of a reed, 3. 27, though the word reed, was also received among the ancient there is designedly contemptuous. critics (Schol. on Theocr. l. c.), and is to 3.] “Patrios finis,” v. 68. some extent supported by the words titú- 4.] He repeats the contrast in an inverse pivos (aúlós), TITUPIOTÝs; but these may order, so that we shall perhaps do best to be explained by supposing that the name put with Jahn a semicolon after v. 2, a had come to have a conventional sense as a colon after V. 3. Fugimus,’ φεύγομεν, shepherd or rustic minstrel.

. are banished from it.' •Lentus' =se. 2.] • Silvestrem,' pastoral :' as .silvae' curus.' Comp. Ovid, Her. 19. 81, “ Certe is used for pastoral poetry, 4. 3. Forbiger ego tum ventos audirem lenta sonantes." observes that the Italians pasture their cattle 5.] “ Resonent mihi Cynthia silvae,” in summer among the woody slopes of the Prop. 1. 18. 31, probably in imitation of mountains. • Silvestrem Musam’ is from this passage. Lucr. 4. 589, “ Fistula silvestrem ne cesset 6—10.] These rural liberties I owe to fundere Musam.” “Tenui,' like “ Agrestem one whom I shall ever own as a god.' tenui meditabor arundine Musam,” 6. 8, 6.] Meliboeus is explained by Servius, where it is evident from the context that őri et autq tūv Bowv, a plausible and • tenui' ' is meant to be in keeping with indeed obvious etymology, but unsupported • agrestem, and to suggest the notion of by analogy, which would rather point to simplicity and humility, at the same time médı as the first part of the compound.

6

[ocr errors]

10

Namque erit ille mihi semper deus ; illius aram
Saepe tener nostris ab ovilibus imbuet agnus.
Ille meas errare boves, ut cernis, et ipsum
Ludere, quae vellem, calamo permisit agresti.
M. Non equidem invideo ; miror magis: undique totis
Usque adeo turbatur agris. En, ipse capellas

.
Protinus aeger ago; hanc etiam vix, Tityre, duco.
Hic inter densas corylos modo namque gemellos,
Spem gregis, ah ! silice in nudâ connixa reliquit. 15
Saepe malum hoc nobis, si mens non laeva fuisset,
De caelo tactas memini praedicere quercus.

[ocr errors]

6

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

6

6

[ocr errors]

6

Perhaps the name was suggested by the however refers to giving a present. geographical Meliboea, and adopted simply 12.] “Turbatur,'«the soldiers are spreadfrom its connexion with Bows. Comp. Al- ing confusion.' Many MSS., including the phesiboeus. Otia,'' peace.' Comp. Hor. Roman, have“ turbamur,' which was adopted A. P. 199, “ Apertis otia portis.' The by Heinsius; but this reading is condemned . deus' is Octavius. This is probably mere by Serv., and Quinctilian (1. 4. 28) gives hyperbole, though it heralds the adulation "turbatur.' 'Ipse' contrasted with undique which treated a living emperor as a god. totis agris.' Ruaeus observes that Octavianus was not 13.] • Protinus,' onwards;' the primary worshipped till 718.

meaning of the word. • Protinus is the 7.] “Eris mihi magnus Apollo," 3. 104. spelling of the Medicean, Rom., and Vatican Shall be honoured by me as a god,' soften- MSS., adopted by Forb. •Aeger' applies ing the expression of the preceding line. probably both to body and mind. “Duco,' Serv. comp. Lucan's adulation of Nero (1. the rest he drove before him, this one he 63), “Sed mihi jam numen.” * Aram,' leads hy a cord. imit. fr. Theocr. Epig. 1. 5, Bwuòv sai. 14.] Gemellos :' the birth of twins inμάξει κεραός τράγος ούτος ο μαλλός. creases the disappointment. Emmen. quotes

8.] Comp. Catull. 20. 12, cited on v. 34. Theocr. 1. 25., 3. 34, where didvparókos is

9.] •Ille (mihi) permisit boves errare et the epithet of a goat. Such goats were ipsum ludere,' the infinitives standing in especially valuable from their quantity of place of an accusative. This must not be milk. • Corulos' seems the older spelling, confounded with our idiom, he permitted but corylos’ is adopted by Forb. from my cattle to feed at large and me to play,' Med. The use of 'namque' so late in the where • cattle' and 'me' are datives. Er- sentence is of course peculiar to poetry rare’ implies security, as in Hor. Epod. 2. (comp. A. 5. 733), though it is placed 13 (quoted by Emmenessius), “ Prospectat second in a sentence by Livy and later prose errantes greges.” In E. 2. 21 it implies ers, unlike 'nam,' which in prose always wealth.

comes first. 10.] ‘Ludere,' frequently used of poetry, 15.] ‘Silice in nuda' probably means the 6. 1, Hor. 1 Od. 32. 2, half slightingly, as road paved with silex,' as Keightley obof a relaxation. So naiselv.

• Connixa'

’ is put for enixa,' for the 11—19.] Well, I do not grudge you sake of the metre, though it has a rhetorical your lot, but I wonder-such peace in the force of its own, expressing the difficulty of midst of such troubles. You see me wearily the labour. •Spem gregis,' “spemque gredriving my flock-one of them has just gemque simul,” G. 3. 473; "spem gentis," dropped her young dead—not but that I Ĝ. 4. 162. Taubmann. The kids, being might have foreseen this . . . But tell me dropped on the bare road, not on grass about this god of yours.'

ground, would naturally die soon after 11.] Magis ' used for potius,'as in Lucr. birth. 2. 428,869, Catull. 66 (68). 30 (referred to by 16.] From the parallel passage, A. 2. Keightley), where as here one assertion is 54 (note), it would seem that 'non' goes rejected and another substituted; ‘not this, with • laeva,' not with “ fuisset.' "Laevus,' but rather that.' • Non equidem invideo,' Gr. okaiós, in the sense of .folly.' KOŐTOL Tl poovéw, Theocr. 1. 62, which 17.] ‘De caelo tangi’ is a phrase for to be

6

serves.

6

[ocr errors]

6

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

6

6

[ocr errors]

6

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

[Saepe sinistra cava praedixit ab ilice cornix.]
Sed tamen, iste deus qui sit, da, Tityre, nobis.
T. Urbem, quam dicunt Romam, Meliboee, putavi 20
Stultus ego huic nostrae similem, quo saepe solemus
Pastores ovium teneros depellere fetus.
Sic canibus catulos similis, sic matribus haedos
Noram, sic parvis conponere magna solebam.
Verum haec tantum alias inter caput extulit urbes, 25
Quantum lenta solent inter viburna cupressi.
M. Et

quae

tanta fuit Romam tibi caussa videndi ? T. Libertas; quae sera, tamen respexit inertem, struck by lightning, Livy 25. 7, &c. The so here, reading quoi' for quo,' or even striking of a thing or person by lightning rendering .quo,' for' instead of' to which.' was an omen of evil : see Cic. De Div. 1. But the sense requires something equivalent 10—12. Hence the practice of enclosing the to going to the city. Pellere,' for driving • bidental.' Pomponius says on the autho- a fock, is found in .compellere,' 2. 30, rity of the lost works of ancient Grammarians, &c. The de' need not be explained by that the blasting of fruit-bearing trees was supposing that Andes was on a hill, which ominous, that of the olive being supposed was not the case: it denotes the destination, to forebode barrenness, that of the oak as in deducere,' demittere navis (in porbanishment. If this could be established, tum),' &c. It may have been the custom it would fix the 'malum hoc' to be Meli. in Columella's time to sell lambs very boeus' exile, not the loss of the goat's twins. young, and it may be the custom now to

18.] This line is condemned as spurious sell them so young that they are obliged to by the silence of the most ancient MSS., and be carried to the butcher : but these obserby the critics ancient and modern, and is vations, though valuable as illustrations of retained here merely for the convenience of the text, must not be allowed to override it. keeping the old numeration. It is made Keightley thinks Virgil may have misapup from 9. 15.

prehended the technical sense of the word, 19.] ‘Da'for.dic,' as'accipe' for.audi.' not being a practical man: and it might “ Da ... quae ventrem placaverit esca, also be suggested that he may have wished Hor. 2 S. 8. 5. 'Iste,' • tuus.' Several MSS. to combine the notions of weaning' and have quis' for .qui.' The difference be- taking to market.' tween the two is not easy to ascertain, the 24.] It may be questioned whether “parvis common distinction being that . quis ’asks conponere magna' means “to compare cities the name, qui,' like qualis,'Tolos, the with dogs and goats,' i.e. to argue from the nature, while Wagner contends that in Virgil latter to the former, or to compare the at least . quis' is generally used in direct larger member of a class with the smaller : questions, qui' in indirect. No precise but the latter is more natural, and recomrule is laid down by Madvig (Lat. Gr. 8 88, mended by solebam.' 'Sic'then becomes obs. 1). Zumpt makes it a question of emphatic; such were the comparisons I euphony, and Drakenborch thinks they are made.' Hdt. 2. 10 has opirpà ueyálocou used indiscriminately. Nothing can be ouußaléerv, Thuc. 4. 36, pikpòv peyary settled from the present passage, as Tityrus sixáoat. “Si parva licet componere magnis, does not reply directly to the question. G. 4. 176, of the bees and the Cyclopes.

20-26.] “Why, I used to think Rome 25.] • Extulit' seems to have a present differed from Mantua only as a dog does force, = elatum gerit.' Comp. A. 2. 257., from a puppy, but I found it was much 10. 262, notes. more like the difference between a cypress 26.] Keightley remarks that the cypress and an osier.' Tityrus begins ' ab ovo,' in is not indigenous to Italy (Pliny 16. 33), and rustic fashion. This seems to have misled therefore that this allusion to it is unnatural Apronianus, who thought Virgil's deity in the mouth a shepherd. Tityrus means might be not Octavianus, but Rome. to say in effect that he found the difference,

22.] “Depellere,'or, in the full expression, one not of degree, but of kind. depellere a lacte,' is to wean,' 3. 82., 27.] · And what took you to Rome?' 7. 15, G. 3. 187, &c. : and some take it 28–36.] •I went to buy my freedom, for

6

6

6

6

6

30

Candidior postquam tondenti barba cadebat ;
Respexit tamen, et longo post tempore venit,
Postquam nos Amaryllis habet, Galatea reliquit.
Namque, fatebor enim, dum me Galatea tenebat,
Nec spes libertatis erat, nec cura peculi.
Quamvis multa meis exiret victima saeptis,
Pinguis et ingratae premeretur caseus urbi,
Non umquam gravis aere domum mihi dextra redibat.

35

[ocr errors]

6

6

which I had neglected to lay by during the property of slaves, on which see Dict. Ant. better years of my life, while I had an un- s. v. Servus (Roman). Comp. Sen. Ep. thrifty helpmate.'

80 (quoted by Lipsius on Tac. Ann. 14. 42), 28.] Slaves saved their peculium to “Quam (servitutem) mancipia quoque conbuy their freedom; and of course the less ditionis extremae et in his sordibus nata 'inertes' they were the sooner they got the omni modo exuere conantur: peculium necessary sum. Tityrus, a farm-slave or suum, quod comparaverunt ventre fraudato, bailiff, having saved enough, goes up to pro capite numerant.” In the country it buy his freedom from his owner, and the would naturally consist in cattle, even after owner of the estate, who is living at Rome. the etymology of the word had been forNothing can be less happy than this alle. gotten : and so • victima ... meis saeptis.' gory in itself except the way in which it is In Horace's appropriation of the words, A. introduced in the midst of the reality-the P. 330, ' peculium' perhaps refers, as Mr. general expulsion of the shepherds, and the Long suggests, to the property which chilexemption of Tityrus through the divine dren might hold with their father's leave. interposition of Octavianus—which ought to 34.] Virgil, as Heyne observes, has had appear through the allegory and not by the before him Catull. 20. 10–15 (if Catullus side of it. With .sera, tamen respexit' be really the author of the lines) : Spohn comp. Prop. 4. 4. 5, “ Sera, sed

“ Meis capella delicata pascuis Ausoniis veniet provincia virgis ;" id. ib. 15,

In urbem adulta lacte portat ubera ; 35, “Sera, tamen pietas."

Meisque pinguis agnus ex ovilibus 29.] 'Candidior,' growing gray. There

Gravem domum remittit aere dexteram; is some appropriateness, as Forb, remarks,

Teneraque, matre mugiente, vaccula in this manner of indicating time, as manu

Deum profundit ante templa sanguinem." mitted slaves shaved their beards. Note the difference of the tenses joined with It is said by Fronto that victima' denotes postquam' here and in v. 31. Cadebat,' the larger beasts, "hostia' the smaller. a continuing act now completed; 'habet,' Saeptis,' 'fences' or 'enclosures.' Varro an act still continuing ; 'reliquit,' an act (R. R. 1. 14) “ De saeptis, quae tutandi completed at once.

caussa fundi fiunt." Here = 'ovilibus,' 30.] • Respexit tamen :' this repetition of just as the voting enclosures in the Cam. words, so common in all poets, ought not pus Martius were called both saepta' and to have led Heyne to suspect the genuine- 'ovilia,' as Serv. remarks. ness of the line.

35.] 'Ingratae,' because it did not pay 31.] ‘Since I got rid of the extravagant him for his trouble.“ Animi ingratam naGalatea and took to the thrifty Amaryllis.' turam pascere semper,” Lucr. 3. 1003. All These were doubtless successive partners that Tityrus did in those days seemed to (contubernales) of the slave Tityrus. A be thrown away. Pinguis’ with caseus,' pastoral, especially when drawn from slave not, as some have thought, with victima.' life, must have its coarser sides, and this The less important thing requires an epi. change of partners is one of them. Gala- thet to dignify it. Spohn refers to Colum. 7. tea' in Theocr. (Idyls 6 and 11) is a Nereid 8, from which it would seem that pinguis' beloved by Polyphemus; and so she is else- would denote a cream cheese as distinguishwhere represented by Virgil (7. 37., 9. 39), ed from one made with milk (“tenui liquore'). though here he borrows her name for Ama. 36.] So the author of the Moretum, v. ryllis' predecessor. * Amaryllis' (duapúo. 83,"Inde domum cervice levis, gravis ow), Theocr. 3. 1.

aere, redibat.” For this traffic with the 33.] • Peculium,' here used for the private country town, comp. G. 1. 273., 3. 400.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

6

6

6

6

6

a

40

M. Mirabar, quid maesta deos, Amarylli, vocares,
Cui pendere sua patereris in arbore poma :
Tityrus hinc aberat. Ipsae te, Tityre, pinus,
Ipsi te fontes, ipsa haec arbusta vocabant.
T. Quid facerem ? neque servitio me exire licebat,
Nec tam praesentis alibi cognoscere divos.
Hic illum vidi iuvenem, Meliboee, quot annis
Bis senos cui nostra dies altaria fumant.
Hic mihi responsum primus dedit ille petenti :
Pascite, ut ante, boves, pueri; submittite tauros.

45

6

[ocr errors]

6

Tityrus blames the unthrift of Galatea and doubtless meant as a piece of rustic banter. his own recklessness, which made him take 41–46.] • I could not help leaving them no sufficient pains about making money by both; my only chance was by getting to his produce, though he took it from time to Rome. And there it was that I saw my time to Mantua. There is no reason to deity, a glorious youth to whom I pay suppose that he squandered his earnings divine honours. From his lips I received directly on Galatea, which would only com- a firm assurance of security.' plicate the passage, being not quite con- 41.] ‘Alio modo,' or something equivasistent with the blame thrown on the lent, is to be supplied from alibi’ in the town, v. 35.

next verse. 37–40.] •I remember well how you 42.] Virgil seems to be trying to blend were missed, both by Amaryllis and by the the two ideas of the slaves' master and property under your charge, though I did Octavianus with each other. “Præsens ’apnot then know you were away.'

plied to a god means not so much propi38.] Amaryllis, in her sorrow, had for- tious as powerful to aid ; the power of a gotten her careful habits. She left the heathen god being connected with his prefruit hanging for Tityrus, as if no hand but sence. Hence the word is applied to a his ought to gather it. · Sua' is well illus- powerful remedy, G. 2. 127. trated by Forb. from 7. 54, “ Strata jacent 43.] There is no getting over the confu. passim sua quaque sub arbore poma ;" G. sion between the slave going to buy his 2. 82, “Miratur . ... non sua poma ;" and freedom of his master and the ejected freeA. 6. 206, “ Quod non sua seminat arbor." holder going to beg restitution of Octavi

39.] · Aberat :' the short syllable length. anus. V. 46 is quite inapplicable to the case ened by the stress which the pause in the of the slave. Octavianus is called “juvenis' sense gives, as in 3. 97, &c.

again G. 1. 500, as also by Hor. 1 Od. 2. 41. • Ipsae :' no one, except perhaps Voss, Juv. 5. 45 gives the same appellation to who expresses himself inconsistently, seems Aeneas. to have perceived the meaning of this and 44.] ‘Bis senos dies,' i. e. twelve days in the following line, which is not, accord- the year. The critics say that Octavianus ing to one of Voss's explanations, that was to be worshipped among the lares Amaryllis made all nature echo with (Hor. 4 Od. 5. 34, “et Laribus tuum her cries in which case the enumeration miscet numen"); but Cato de R. R. 148 of the different objects would be jejune), says that the · Lar familiaris’ is to be wor. nor yet simply according to the common shipped on all the Kalends, Nones, and Ides, view that all nature sympathized with her, which would make thirty-six days in all. as in 5. 62 mountains, rocks, and trees re. 45.] 'Responsum dedit :' as a god to joice in Daphnis' apotheosis, or as in 10. 13, those who consult his oracle. • Primus 'delaurels, tamarisks, and the pine-crowned notes the anxiety with which the response Maenalus weep for Gallus, an image which was sought; it does not imply that any one would be too great for the present occasion ; else could have given it. Comp. A. 7. 117, but that the various parts of nature called “Ea vox audita laborum Prima tulit finem." him back, because all suffered from his • It was here that he gave me my first asabsence, pines (comp. 7. 65), springs surance.' (comp. 2. 59., 5. 40), and orchards, all de- 46.] · Pueri' is the common phrase for pending on his care. Thus there is a slaves, like rais in Greek, and child’in old playfulness in the passage, which Virgil English. But observe how the allegory is

[ocr errors]
« ForrigeFortsæt »