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155

Semina, nec miseros fallunt aconita legentis,
Nec rapit inmensos orbis per humum, neque tanto
Squameus in spiram tractu se colligit anguis.
Adde tot egregias urbes operumque laborem,
Tot congesta manu praeruptis oppida saxis,
Fluminaque antiquos subterlabentia muros.
An mare, quod supra, memorem, quodque adluit infra ?
Anne lacus tantos ? te, Lari maxume, teque,
Fluctibus et fremitu adsurgens Benace marino ? 160
An memorem portus Lucrinoque addita claustra
Atque indignatum magnis stridoribus aequor, ,
Iulia qua ponto longe sonat unda refuso
Tyrrhenusque fretis inmittitur aestus Avernis ?

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mann reads rabidi,' asserting that rapi- tiquos,' however, appears to be chiefly a dus cannot mean rapax. See on E. 2. pictorial epithet. 10. Saeva leonum semina' is an imitation 158.] An amplification of "

mare supeof “ triste leonum Seminium," Lucr. 3. rum and “inferum.' 741.

159.] ‘Lari,' Lago di Como. 152.] There is aconite in Italy, according 160.] ‘Benace,' Lago di Garda. to Dioscorides 4. 78. Virgil's statement, surgens,' &c., ' heaving with the swell and therefore, is not accurate. But it is vain to the roar of ocean.' Comp. Val. Fl. 3. 476, attempt to save his credit, as Servius and “intortis adsurgens arduus undis," and A. others have done, by laying the stress on 1. 539, “ subito adsurgens fluctu nimbosus • fallunt,' as the context clearly requires an Orion." assertion of freedom from poisonous herbs. 161.] The Avernus and the Lucrinus * Legentis' is the subst. Comp. G. 1. 193, were two small land-locked pools on the “ Semina vidi equidem multos medicare Campanian coast between Misenum and serentis.” So 'medentes' and 'canentes' Puteoli. Agrippa united them, faced the in Lucretius, "amantes,' nocentes,' "ba- mound which separated the Lucrinus from lantes,' 'salutantes,' &c.

the sea with masonry, and pierced it with a 153.] · Tanto tractu,' that vast train,' channel for the admission of vessels, B.C. which he has elsewhere. Virgil appears to 717. To this double haven he gave the be thinking exclusively of the huger serpents. name of the Julian in honour of his patron's

155.] Think, too, of all those noble house. See Merivale, Hist. vol. iii. pp. cities and trophies of human toil, all those 247 foll. Horace's mention of the work is towns piled by man's hand on precipitous well known : “sive receptus Terra Neprocks, and the rivers that flow beneath their tunus classis Aquilonibus arcet, Regis opus time-honoured walls.' Operumque labo- (A. P. 63 foll.). • Claustra' refers to the rem'occurs again A. 1.455. • Laborious or strengthening by masonry of the original mighty works, such, perhaps, as those of mound which separated the Lucrinus from the Etruscan cities.

156.] • Praeruptis saxis congesta' is a 162.] ‘Indignatum,'. chafing at the bar. specific description of the position of many rier.' Philarg. refers the words to a parof the Italian towns. The addition of ticular storm which occurred while the work

manu' here implies labour, as elsewhere was going on, and which was regarded as a violence (3. 32), or care (3. 395), the general prodigy, being accompanied with the sweatnotion being that of personal exertion. ing of an image at Avernus. Hence its frequent use with 'ipse.'

163.] . Refuso,' • beaten back.' 157.] This might seem to be merely a unda = 'unda Iulii portus,' which repicture of the situation of some of the old sounds with the noise of the sea beating cities of Italy, but the mention of seas and against its outer barrier. lakes immediately following shows that 164.] · And the Tyrrhenian billows come Serv. is right in supposing a special refer- foaming up into the channel of Avernus.' ence to the usefulness of the rivers. An. • Fretis ' seems to refer to the passage made

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Haec eadem argenti rivos aerisque metalla

165
Ostendit venis, atque auro plurima fluxit.
Haec genus acre virum, Marsos, pubemque Sabellam,
Adsuetumque malo Ligurem, Volscosque verutos
Extulit, haec Decios, Marios, magnosque Camillos,
Scipiadas duros bello, et te, maxume Caesar,

170
Qui nunc extremis Asiae iam victor in oris
Inbellem avertis Romanis arcibus Indum.

Salve, magna parens frugum, Saturnia tellus, between the two lakes, of which Avernus of the Roman army, and originally borrowed was the more inland, so that the sea is sup- from the Sabines and Volsci. Lipsius conposed to issue through the channel men- jectured 'veruto ;' but the conjunction of tioned on v. 161, mix with the waters of the • malo' and 'veruto' would be

very

flat. Lucrine, and thence flow into the Avernus. 169.] All these beroes saved Rome in It is possible, too, that "fretis,' which is extreme peril, the Decii from the Latins, properly applied to the sea, may be used Marius from the Cimbri, Camillus from the proleptically of the Avernus as the recep. Gauls, the Scipios from Carthage ; and so tacle of sea-water. In any case a contrast Octavianus saves her from her enemies in seems intended between Tyrrhenus' and the East.

Avernis,' the effect of the work of Agrippa 170.] The form Scipiades' had been being to mingle two distant waters.

already used by Lucilius. So Lucretius 165.] Lucr. 5. 1255, “ Manabat venis calls Memmius • Memmiades' for metrical ferventibus in loca terrae Concava conve

The combination of the Roman niens argenti rivus et auri.” These lines, family name with the Homeric patronymic however, refer to the actual liquefaction of produces rather a hybrid effect, especially the metals by a conflagration. “Rivos' as there is nothing in the family name itself and · fluxit' denote not streams but stream- to distinguish the son from the father. As like threads. •Auro plurima fluxit' has, Virgil is using the plura!, we might have however, been supposed to mean the gold expected him to have talked of the 'gens found in the Po, which is mentioned by Julia' instead of individualizing Octavianus; Pliny 33. 4. In the same passage he speaks but the love of variety and the desire to pay of Italy as abounding in metals, if the a higher compliment doubtless led him to senate had not forbidden the working express himself as he has done. of the mines ; and so at the conclusion 171.] These lines refer to the battle of of his Natural History, in the passage Actium, in which Octavianus rolled back the mentioned above v. 136-176, he tide of Eastern invasion from the west, and says “Metallis auri, argenti, aeris, ferri, the triumphal progress which he afterwards quamdiu libuit exercere, nullis cessit.” made as conqueror through Syria, Pales

Venis,' in its veins.' The perfects tine, and Asia Minor. Comp. A. 8. 685– * ostendit' and 'fluxit' may possibly point 728. Inbellem' has given some trouble to the discontinuance of working the mines, to the commentators, but it is a mere epithough they need only mean it has been thet of national contempt for the vanquished. known to display,' &c.

172.] Romanis arcibus' is Rome itself. 167.] Genus acre virum' refers to all Comp. A. 4. 234, “ Ascanione pater Rothat follows. "Marsos:' Appian, B. C. 1. manas invidet arcis ?" 10. 12, “.Cum fera 46, Ούτε κατά Μάρσων ούτε άνευ Μάρσων Carthago Romanis arcibus olim Exitium γενέσθαι θρίαμβον. • Pubem Sabellam,' magnum atque Alpis inmittet apertas ;' the Samnites. The name Sabellians was a ·arces' probably being the hills, as in v. general one, including the various tribes 535 of this book. It was the prospect of supposed to have issued from the Sabines, an Oriental despotism at Rome which exas well the Marsians and Pelignians as the asperated the national sentiment. Comp. Samnites and Lucanians. Niebuhr, Hist. Hor. 1 Od. 37. 6 foll., Prop. 4. 11. 41 foll. vol. i. p. 91.

173.] ‘Hail to thee, land of Saturn, 168.] Malo,' hardship. Verutos :' mighty mother of noble fruits and noble comp. A. 7. 665, veruque Sabello.” The men! For thee I essay the theme of the regular name appears to be verutum. It glory and the skill of olden days : for thee was a short dart used by the light infantry I adventure to break the seal of those hal

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175

Magna virum ; tibi res antiquae laudis et artis
Ingredior, sanctos ausus recludere fontis,
Ascraeumque cano Romana per oppida carmen.

Nunc locus arvorum ingeniis; quae robora cuique,
Quis color, et quae sit rebus natura ferendis.
Difficiles primum terrae collesque maligni,
Tenuis ubi argilla et dumosis calculus arvis,
Palladia gaudent silva vivacis olivae.
Indicio est tractu surgens oleaster eodem
Plurimus et strati bacis silvestribus agri.
At quae pinguis humus dulcique uligine laeta,

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lowed springs, and sing the song of Ascra locus arvorum ingeniis : supply .dicendum through the towns of Rome.' Saturnia est,' on which . quae robora,' &c. depends. gives the idea of mythical greatness. See 179.] • Difficiles,' opp. to facilis,' below, Evander's speech A. 8. 314 foll.

v. 223. “Malignus' opp. to 'benignus.' 174.] ‘Res antiquae laudis,' things which Comp. A. 6. 270,“ lunae sub luce maligna," have been from antiquity the subject matter and Hor. 2 Ep. 1. 209, “laudare maligne." of praise and art. •Artis,' the art of agri- Comp. also Pliny, Ep. 2. 17, “Quarum culture. Comp. 1. 122, “primusque per arborum illa vel maxime ferax est terra, artem Movit agros.” “Laudis :' comp. the malignior ceteris.” Both difficilis' and opening of Cato, De Re Rust.“ Virum malignus' are metaphorical, as we might bonum cum laudabant (maiores nostri], ita say.churlish' and ' niggard.' laudabant bonum agricolam bonumque co- 180.] *Tenuis,'·lean,' hungry.' 'Argilla:' lonum. Amplissime laudari existimabatur Col. 3. 11 speaks of “creta qua utuntur qui ita laudabatur.” Possibly the words figuli quamque nonnulli argillam vocant" may refer to

• Saturnia tellus,' and the as being in itself unfavourable to producmythical glories of agriculture under Sa- tion. There are three signs of a “terra turn. "Tibi,' not ingredior,' is the em- difficilis et maligna'-'argilla,' .dumi,' and phatic word. He has already entered on • calculus.' Cato's precept (6) is “Qui the subject.

ager frigidior et macrior erit, ibi oleam Lici. 175.] Sanctos ausus recludere fontis ’ is nianam seri oportet.' from the Lucretian “iuvat integros acce- 181.] As the olive is slow of growth (v. dere fontis Atque haurire(1. 927); but 3 note), so it is longlived. Pliny 16. 44 Virgil introduces a religious notion. He is speaks of it as an allowed fact that olives the first that has been thought worthy to live two hundred years. Silva' seems to unseal the holy spring. Comp. below, v. have no particular force, a sort of orna476, and Prop. 4. 1. 3, “Primus ego in- mental variety for arbore.' gredior puro de fonte sacerdos Itala per 182.] The presence of the wild olive Graios orgia ferre choros.”

shows that the soil is good for the cultivated. 176.] · Ascraeum,' &c.: 'I am a Roman The 'oleaster,' as Martyn remarks, is not to Hesiod,' is what Virgil means to say. Comp. be confounded with the plant cultivated in 3. Jl note. In E. 6. 70 Hesiod is called our gardens under that name, which is · Ascraeus senex.' Comp. Syracosio versu,' more properly called • eleagnus.' ib. 1, for · Theocritean.

183.] With the picture comp. E. 7. 54. 177–183.] Now for the genius of the · Silvestribus' here is used strictly, opp. different soils. A hilly soil of marl and to felicibus.' gravel is the soil for the olive.'

184–194.] *A rich and moist slope, 177.] • Robora' = • vires. Comp. ). with a southern aspect, is the soil for vines.' 86, “Sive inde occultas viris et pabula 184.] • Dulci uligine: Col. 2. 9 terrae Pinguia concipiunt.”

says,

o solet autem salsam nonnunquam 178.] • Quis color,' what is its distin- et amaram uliginem vomere terra, quae guishing colour.' See below, vv. 203—255. quamvis matura iam sata, manante noxio Natura :'

comp. Quippe solo natura humore, corrumpit.” In 11.3, $ 37, he says subest,” v. 49. Natural power.' • Rebus that dulcis uligo' is best secured by planting ferendis :' comp. v. 9 above. • Nunc near a spring.

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Quique frequens herbis et fertilis ubere campus- 185
Qualem saepe cava montis convalle solemus
Despicere; huc summis liquuntur rupibus amnes,
Felicemque trahunt limum-quique editus austro,
Et filicem curvis invisam pascit aratris :
Hic tibi praevalidas olim multoque fluentis

190
Sufficiet Baccho vitis, hic fertilis uvae,
Hic laticis, qualem pateris libamus et auro,

Inflavit cum pinguis ebur Tyrrhenus ad aras 185.] ‘Frequens herbis :' comp. Ov. 192.] • Pateris et auro.' There seems no Her. 16. 54, "locus piceis ilicibusque objection to explaining this and similar frequens ;” Tac. A. 4. 65, “quod talis silvae expressions (if it can be called an explafrequens fecundusque esset.” • Ubere' nation) by what is termed Hendiadys, seems to be merely a metaphor from the so long as we bear in mind that such figures breast as the source of nourishment. are not so much rules which the poets fol

186.] •Such as we often see at the bot- lowed, as helps devised by the grammarians tom (or on the side) of a mountain hollow.' for classifying the varieties of language in Heyne, following Heins., reads .dispicere' which the poets indulged. The word Henfrom several MSS., including the Gudian. diadys indeed amounts to no more than a But that word seems to be used rather of a statement of the fact that two words are penetrating than of a wide gaze.

used to express one thing. We might have 187.] • Liquuntur' is constructed like bad either pateris' or 'auro ' separately; fluunt,' as in Stat. Theb. 5. 618, “in but the poet chooses to use both. Such volnera liquitur imber," comp. by Forb. a redundance of expression is common • Huc' is used where in a regularly con- enough in poetry, e. g. in this very passage structed sentence we should expect' quo.' hic fertilis uvae, Hic laticis, qualem,' &c. The sentence gives the reason for the mois- are only two ways of saying that the soil ture of land so placed.

bears good vines. Early poets are prone to 188.] · Felicem limum' forms a contrast it from simplicity, later from a love of ornato 'tenuis argilla. Quique editus austro' ment; but whatever the reason, it is one is to be coupled with quique frequens of the most obvious of the poet's resources. herbis,' not explained with Heyne, "aut The feeling which prompts its use in the qualem eum campum videmus, qui editus particular case must vary according to ciraustro." * Editus austro,' rising to the cumstances, and no single rationale, such as south.' 'Editus ’ is not = 'expositus, but that which supposes the second noun in the has its natural signification, and .austro'is hendiadys to be epexegetical (Bryce on A. 1. nearly =“ ad austrum. Comp. 'caelo edů- 2), will cover the instances which have to cere,' A. 2. 186, Col. 3. 1, "optumum est be dealt with. The relation between the solum nec campestre nec praeceps, simile ta- •two nouns may be sometimes described as menedito campo;" 3. 2, “vinum ... iucun- that of attribute and subject, sometimes as dius afferunt collina quae magis exuberant that of a whole and its part, &c., but no aquiloni prona, sed sunt generosiora sub general rule can be laid down, except that austro;" in which last passage aquiloni the two nouns, while representing the same prona’ also illustrates the construction of thing, seem commonly to represent distinct . editus austro.' Authorities were divided aspects of it, so as not to run into simple as to the best aspect for a vineyard ; see on tautology. For this reason they may gene

rally be combined in translation, being re189.] 'Filicem,' the female fern or brake, solved into a noun with its epithet, or a noun according to Martyn. Some of the early with another in the genitive, as here, 'golden editors have read silicem, which would bowls,' or 'bowls of gold.' The best wines agree with Col. 3. 11, but 'filicem,' besides were naturally those that were used in its MS. authority, is supported by Pliny libations. Comp. v. 101 above, E. 5. 71. 17. 4, and suits .pascit' better.

For the use of the 'patera,' a kind of saucer, 190.] • Fluentis :' comp. above, v. 100. in libations, see Dict. A. S. v.

191.]. • Fertilis uvae 'like “ Fertilis fru. 193.] ‘Pinguis Tyrrhenus:' comp. Cagum pecorisque," Hor. Carm. Saec. 29, “fer- tull. 37 (39). 11, “ Aut pastus (parcus) tilis,' like .ferax,' being the verbal of . fero.' Umber aut obesus Etruscus.” Serv. explains.

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v. 298.

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195

Lancibus et pandis fumantia reddimus exta.
Sin armenta magis studium vitulosque tueri,
Aut fetus ovium, aut urentis culta capellas,
Saltus et saturi petito longinqua Tarenti,
Et qualem infelix amisit Mantua campum,
Pascentem niveos herboso flumine cycnos :
Non liquidi gregibus fontes, non gramina deerunt,

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.pinguis,' “ victimarum scilicet carnibus." 196.] The goat was held, either by its

Ebur,' an ivory pipe: comp. 1. 480, bite, or by something poisonous in its saliva, “maestum inlacrimat templis ebur," and the to kill crops and trees, especially vines and use of .auro' just above. Pliny 16. 36 olives. Comp. Varr. 1. 2. 17, 18, 19, whence speaks of the “sacrificae tibiae Tuscorum,” it appears that certain laws which he which however he says were made of box- calls óleges colonicae' forbade goats to be wood. Prop. 5. 6. 8 has a sacrificial pipe kept in agro surculario,' i. e. where vines, of ivory, though it is a Phrygian one. Per. olives, or other trees were planted. See haps a pipe strengthened with ivory rings also v. 378 foll. Urentis, causing to is meant. Dict. A., Tibia.' The custom of wither, killing : comp. 1. 77. •Culta' = employing pipes at sacrifices was Greek as well 'sata.' Med, and other MSS. give ‘ovium as Roman; but as pipers appear to have ex. fetus unmetrically: the Canon. MS., isted at Rome from the earliest times, it is ovium fetum.' sufficiently probable that, like actors, they 197.] 'Saturi,' rich.' Pers. 1.71, were imported from Etruria, where from saturum;" Seneca, N. Q. 5. 9, “ Locos ob the works of art we know every description humidam caeli naturam saturos et redundanof musical instrument to have been in use. tis." Some MSS., including Med., give (Dict. A., • Roman Music.') Tyrrhenus' 'Satyri,' which seems to have been introthen may mark the original extraction of duced by those who thought with Probus the order, for such they may be called, that the word, like 'Satureianus,' Hor. I S. having been actually incorporated into a 6. 59 (Macleane's note) was the adj. from college (Val. Max. 2. 5).

• Saturium' or 'Satyrium ' in Calabria. For 194.] • Pandis,' either curved,'deep,' or the fertility of the Ager Tarentinus see bowed beneath the weight of the entrails.' Hor. 2 Od. 6. 10 foll. • Longinqua Ta. “ Pandos autumni pondere ramos,'

," Ovid. renti :' comp.

• caerula ponti.' •LonginMet. 14. 660 ; “rotundas Curvet aper qua’ would of course have more force, if we lances," Hor. 2 Sat. 4. 40. On the other could suppose Virgil, at least at the time of hand cavas lances occurs in Martial ll. writing this passage, to have been at Mantua 31. 19. Med. a m. pr. and another MS. give rather than Naples. * patulis.' • Fumantia,' reeking. Serv. how- *198.] •The plain which Mantua lost'in ever speaks of the entrails as boiled before the assignment of lands mentioned in E. I being offered. •Reddere' is said by Serv. to ·and 9. be the technical word for laying the entrailson 199.] E. 9. 27–29, “ Vare, tuum nomen, the altar. Stat. Theb. 4. 466, “ Semineces superet modo Mantua nobis, Mantua vae fibras et adhuc spirantia reddit Viscera ;” miserae nimium vicina Cremonae, Cantantes Tac. H. 4. 53, “Lustrata suovetaurilibus sublimne ferent ad sidera cycni.” • Herboso area et super caespitem redditis extis." flumine,' the Mincius. Comp. E. 7. 12

195—202.] • For grazing choose a coun- and A. 10. 205. try like the lawns of Tarentum and the -200.] ‘Deerunt,'a dissyllable, like deesse' plain of Mantua.'

in Lucr. 1. 43, “ Talibus in rebus communi 195.) •Tueri :' comp.

Col.

6. 3, deesse saluti.” So deerit,' A. 7. 262, and Tueri armentum paleis,” from which and • deest,' A. 10. 378. Desunt,' which is other passages tueri' seems to have the said to be in Pal., was the reading before meaning of sustentare.' A more general Heins. The variation is perhaps accounted sense however is perhaps recommended for by the Med. spelling derunt,' which by the parallel use of the word 3. 303. agrees with the precept of Velius Longus, For studium tueri' see on 1. 21, 213. p. 2227, quoted and followed by Lachmann • Armenta' includes horses and oxen. Vi. on Lucr. l. C., that .de' in composition tulos' probably has special reference to the 'inminuitur' before a vowel. breeding.

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