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Aut tantum fluere aut totidem durare per annos.
Nec vero terrae ferre omnes omnia possunt.
100.] 'Certaverit . . . fluere ... durare :' word is ambiguous its usual meaning onght comp. Stat. Silv. 5. 3. 191, “Non tibi perhaps to prevail
. There might be an obcertasset iuvenilia fingere corda Nestor," and jection, poetically speaking, to the repetition see on 1. 213. •Tantum fluere,' to yield so of the gale at sea in both similes. But, in much juice : comp. below v. 190, and Col. the first, • Zephyro turbentur' seems to be 3. 2, “ Graeculae vites acinorum exiguitate mere ornament. The common interpretaminus fluunt."
tion however, referring it to the sand of the 101.] • Dis et mensis accepta secundis : desert, is supported by Catull. 7. 3, quoted drinking did not begin till after the first byUrsinus,“Quam magnus numerus Libyssae course, when it was commenced by a liba- arenae Laserpiciferis iacet Cyrenis, Oration (A. 1. 723, &c.); so that there is no clum Iovis inter aestuosi.” Comp. the oracle need to refer . Dis ’ to the temples. Comp. in Hdt. 1. 47, oidá réyw páupov r' however Hor. 3 Od. 11. 6, “ Divitum αριθμόν και μέτρα θαλάσσης, and Pind. mensis et amica templis,” of the lyre. Pyth. 9. 46,
102.] The Rhodian vine is merely men. tioned by Pliny and Columella. Rhodian
κύριον δς πάντων τέλος, wine occurs in the anecdote of Aristotle Οισθα και πάσας κελεύθους: choosing his successor under pretence of "Οσσα τε χθών καιρινά φύλλ' αναπέμπει, choosing a wine, Gell. 13. 5. Athenaeus, χώπόσαι 14. 68, quotes Lynceus as speaking of a 'Εν θαλάσσα και ποταμοίς ψάμαθοι peculiar species of Rhodian grape called Κύμασιν ρίπαις τ' ανέμων κλονέονται. 'In Túrios Bórpus. •Bumastus :' called by Varro and Macrobius bumamma.' Pliny 106.] Med. and a few others read .dicere,' 14. 1, “Tument vero mammarum modo which is plainly a mistake. bumasti.” Bov means magnitude, as in 107.] Connect violentior incidit.' Boúrais. Pliny (14. 3) says there were 108.] Ionii fluctus' = 'fluctus Ionii two kinds, black and white.
maris.' Virgil seems to have in his eye Theoc. 103.] Pliny (14. 2) says that Democritus 16. 30, 'AM'loos yàp ó póxoos, é a' cóvi alone pretended to know all the varieties of κύματα μετρείν, "Οσσ’ άνεμος χέρσονδε vines even in his own country. To the μετά γλαυκάς αλός ωθεί. same general effect Col. 3. 2, who quotes 109–135.] * Different soils are proper these lines. Cato bad noticed fifty-eight, Pliny for different trees, and so we find each about eighty. The number has been indefi- country with trees of its own.' nitely increased since, 1400 having been col. 109.] The words are from Lucr. 1. 166, lected in the garden of the Luxembourg, a "ferre omnes omnia possent," where the fact number supposed to be not more than half that particular places produce particular of those cultivated in France alone. Fée things is urged to prove that nothing can on Pliny 14. 4, referred to by Keightley. come of nothing. The fact has been men
104.) . Neque enim,''nor indeed.' See tioned already, 1. 50—63 (see note on latter Key's Lat. Gr. 1449.
verse), where it is recognized as connected 105.] Who should wish to know it, with the present condition of humanity, just would wish also,' &c. It is difficult to as the opposite, “ omnis feret omnia tellus," say whether · Libyci aequoris' means the E. 4. 39, is a characteristic of the golden plains' or the sea' of Libya. There is age. Here we have the fact and nothing sufficient authority for the expression beyond. We may compare also, with Forb., Libyan sea,' Pliny 5. 1 ; and where the the language of E. 8. 63.
Fluminibus salices crassisque paludibus alni
110.] • Fluminibus nascuntur :' the wil. omnia incertiora fecerunt, quod iure mirc. low appears to grow in the river. Comp. mur, virgis etiam turis ad nos commeantiE. 7. 66, “ Populus in fluviis, abies in bus : quibus credi potest, matrem quoque montibus altis.”
tereti et enodi fruticare trunco." 111.] The ornus' is mentioned, v. 71, 119.] For the transposition of que' in as one of the trees on which a fruit tree is the construction 'que et,' comp. Hor. engrafted, in conjunction with steriles 3 Od. 4. 18, " ut premerer sacra Lauroque platani.
collataque myrto.' It is doubtful whether 112.] “ Amantis litora myrtos,” 4. 124. the balsam and acanthus are not meant See on E. 7. 62. • Apertos' suggests the rather to be distinguished as belonging to idea of apricos,' to which . aquilonem et different countries, than connected, as befrigora’ is opposed. He treats soil and longing to the same. The country of the climate together, as in 1. 51 foll.
balsam is by some thought to be Judaea, by Extremis domitum cultoribus others Arabia Felix. The acanthu's is at. orbem • extremas orbis partes cultas.' tributed both to Egypt and to Arabia. The • Extremis cultoribus' is the dative of acanthus is not a herb but a tree, the the agent. The sentence is closely con- acacia. Bodaeus a Stapel, cited by Martyn, nected with what follows, the sense being, accounts for “bacas' by saying that though • Look at foreign lands, go as far as you there are no berries the flowers grow in will, you will find each country has its little balls. Martyn himself understands it tree.'
of the globules of gum, Keightley of the 115.] ‘Pictosque Gelonos :' Hor. 2 Od. pods. 20. 19," ultimi Geloni ;" Claud. in Rufin. l. 120.] · Lana:' called by Hdt. tiplov åtó 313, “ Membraque qui ferro gaudet pinx. &úlov. Pliny 19. 1,“ Superior pars Aegypti, isse Gelonus."
in Arabiam vergens, gignit fruticem quem 116.] · Divisae arboribus patriae:''their aliqui gossypion vocant, plures xylon, et countries are divided among trees,' i. e. each ideo lina inde facta xylina." tree has its allotted country.
• Sola India, 121.] This was the belief long after Vir. &c. : comp. 1. 57. • Sabaeis' in the next gil's time. Pliny 6. 17, “Seres, lanitio line seems to prevent our taking India ' as silvarum nobiles, perfusam aqua depectena loose name for the whole East, including tes frondium canitiem.” Silkworms were Aethiopia, and to require us to take as not known in the Roman empire till the India Proper, though ebony does not grow time of Justinian. there alone. As Forb. remarks, the geogra- 122.] Here again Pliny supports Virgil phy of the ancient poets is apt to be vague, (7.2), “ Arbores quidem (speaking of especially in the case of countries so far India) “tantae proceritatis traduntur ut removed.
sagittis superari nequeant.” Val. Fl. 6. 76 117.] • Turea virga :'Pliny (12. 14), after foll. says the same thing of the forests of stating that there is great doubt and discre. Syene. Virgil does not specify the trees, pancy as to the nature of the tree, says but simply discriminates them from others “Qui mea aetate legati ex Arabia venerunt, by their height. India is said to have a
Extremi sinus orbis, ubi aera vincere summum
greater variety of forest trees than any other but blessed,' as an antidote. Comp. the country. Mr. Macleane says, “ • Oceano application of the word to the gods, an propior India' seems to mean the jungles association with which praesentius’ agrees, of the Malabar coast, running to the depth though we need not suppose that Virgil of many miles at the foot of the Western intended it. Ghâts, and abounding in teak and jack trees 127.] · Praesens' is close at hand,' and of an enormous height. I have seen them hence .prompt,' efficacious,'' sovereign.' sixty or eighty feet from the ground to the 129.] • Miscuěrunt' seems to be used like branches, and there are some higher still. “fuěrunt,' “tulèrunt,'stetěrunt, 'deděrunt,' Entire main masts are made of a single stem though it is also possible that there may be for large ships. The ancients got their a synizesis of the second and third sylpepper from this coast. The jungles in lables. The line is repeated 3. 283, and on some parts run quite close to the sea.” that account has been suspected by Heyne • Oceano propior' is explained by ex- and other editors. In Med. it appears not tremi sinus orbis.' It seems to imply in the text, but in the margin. There are the Homeric notion of the ocean as à many instances in which Virgil wholly or great stream, encircling the outside of the partially repeats in a later poem a line world. So Catull. 62 (64). 30, “Oceanus- which has appeared in an earlier, and many que mari qui totum amplectitur orbem." where the same line is repeated in different
123.] Sinus :' it is hard to ascertain parts of the Aeneid, a practice which was the exact meaning of this word in all the doubtless adopted deliberately from Homer; passages where it occurs ; but here it seems but there is apparently no instance of the to mean a deep or remote recess, a nook. recurrence of an entire line in different Comp. Hor. Epod. 1. 13, “ Vel Occidentis parts of the Georgics, with the exception of usque ad ultimum sinum,” where the com- the epic repetition in 4. 550 foll., where see mentators are not explicit. • Arboris aera note on v. 55), and only one (1. 494., summum vincere,' to overshoot the air at 2. 513) of a partial repetition, though Luthe top of the tree; an apparent confusion cretius, whom Virgil might have been exbetween the notion of shooting through the pected to follow, repeats whole passages. air at the top of the tree, and shooting over On the other hand, it is certain that the the tree. The expression.aera summum copyists sometimes introduced lines which arboris' has been imitated by Val. Fl. 6. they remembered to have seen elsewhere ; 261, “Si quis avem summi deducat ab see on 4. 338. Still, as the external evi. aere rami;” Juv. 6. 99,“ Tum sentina gravis, dence against the genuineness of the line tum summus vertitur aer." Hom., Od. is far from strong, and there is nothing 12. 83, estimates the height of the mouth inappropriate in the sense, poisons and of Charybdis by saying that a strong man incantations being frequently connected, could not send an arrow up to the top, and it seems decidedly best to retain it. It Aeschylus applies the same image meta- will then serve as an epexegesis of .in. phorically, Supp. 473, and probably Cho. fecere.' With miscuerunt verba' comp. 1033.
the last line of the very obscure epigram 125.] ‘Non tarda' = 'impigra.' For attributed to Virgil, “In C. Annium Cim. the Indian archers Keightley refers to brum Rhetorem? (Catalecta 2. 5), Hdt. 7. 65. Heyne, Bryant, and others omnia, ista verba miscuit fratri,” where the have suspected the genuineness of this point seems to be that the person attacked, verse, but without cause.
being a suspected fratricide, and also an 126.] 'Tardum, lingering. •Medi. affected speaker or writer, mixed his strange cum malum' is the citron. * Mali' is jargon with the draught with which he poi. the genitive of malum,' not malus,' and soned his brother. therefore.felicis' must mean not 'prolific,'
Auxilium venit, ac membris agit atra venena.
Sed neque Medorum silvae, ditissima terra,
130.] Here, as in l. 129, ater' seems 1. 2), and Pliny concludes his Natural to conta the double notion of black' and History with another. The twenty-second *deadly.' In the former sense it is to be elegy of Propertius' Fourth Book seems to explained either with reference to the be a direct imitation of this passage in colour of the poison itself, “ nigri cum lacte Virgil. veneni,” A. 4. 514, or to the colour pro- 136.] Silvae' is generally taken as the duced by it on the body, “nigros efferre genitive after ditissima,' a punctuation maritos," Juv. 1. 72.
introduced by Reiske. After much hesi133.) •Erat' for 'esset.' Ovid, Amor. tation I have returned to the old interpre1.6. 34, “ Solus eram si non saevus adesset tation, connecting • Medorum silvae,' and Amor." The indicative is frequently used placing ditissima terra' in apposition. for the conjunctive, especially by Tacitus, Comp. “ Alcinoi silvae,” v. 87, and “ Sunt for the sake of rhetorical liveliness, to show et Aminaeae vites, firmissima vina," v. 97. how near the thing was to happening. For It should however be mentioned that Med. instances of the present participle used has .regna' as a correction instead of as a finite verb Wagn. comp. 3. 505, A. “terra,' and that Manilius 4. 752 has “ Et 7. 787.
molles Arabes, silvarum ditia regna.” The 134.] 'Ad prima,' 'in the highest de- silvae,' according to the punctuation I gree.' Comp. Hdt. 6. 13, és rà apūra. have adopted, will be the citron-groves ; Apprime' is the more usual expres- with the other pointing nothing more than sion.
general luxuriance in trees seems to be 135.] · Foveo' means generally to che- meant. rish,' either physically or morally. It is 137.] · Auro turbidus,' whose mud or one of those words which must be rendered sand is gold. Heyne calls it an oxymoron. very variously according to the context. 138.] • Bactra' seems to be mentioned Here it denotes a medical application, merely as a great Eastern power. Depan Etelv. See on 4. 230.
139.] ‘Panchaia,' the happy island of 136—176.) • For the excellence of its Euhemerus, is here put for Arabia, near peculiar products, however, no country which his fancy placed it. • Que' is discan rival Italy. It has not the mythical junctive. Pinguis' appears to refer to the glories of a savage antiquity, but it has frankincense rather than to the general more useful characteristics,-corn, wine, oil, fertility of the soil. flocks, herds, and horses, and a benignant 140.] *Here is a land where no bullocks climate, while it is free from the noxious breathing fire from their nostrils have animals and herbs that abound elsewhere. ploughed the soil—where no Its cities and rivers, its seas and lakes, its dragon's teeth were ever sown—where no harbours and breakwaters, its mines, its human harvest started up bristling with races of men, its heroes, are all its own. I helms and crowded lances; but teeming glory in it as my country, and raise in its corn and the wine-god's Massic juice have honour this rural strain, at once old and made it their own; its tenants are olives new.' This celebrated burst of patriotism and luxuriant herds of cattle.' Lucr. 5. appears to be Virgil's own. A eulogy on 29, “ Et Diomedis equi spirantes naribus the agricultural capabilities of Italy occurs ignem.” near the beginning of Varro's work (R. R.
Invertere satis inmanis dentibus hydri,
141.] Satis dentibus' is taken by some rine, tuo cum flumine sancto;" and A. 8. as dative, as if it were used for ó serendis.' 72. So“suo cum gurgite flavo,” A. 9. 816, But it is better to take it as an ablative and “ Hunc tu, Diva, tuo recubantem corabsolute, and regard the passage as a sort pore sancto Circumfusa super,” Lucr. 1. of otepov pótepov. •Hydri,' the dragon 38. This use of the possessive pronoun whose teeth were sown by Jason.
and epithet together belongs to the earlier 142.) •Seges’ is of course connected Latin poetry. • Sacro :'Pliny (Ep. 8. 8) with · virum.
speaking of the sources of the Clitumnus, 143.] “Gravidae :' comp. l. 319, “gra. says, “ Adiacet templum priscum et relividam segetem." • Bacchi Massicus hu- giosum. Stat Clitumnus ipse, amictus ormor:' comp. “lacteus humor," Lucr. 1. natusque praetexta. Praesens numen at258.
que etiam fatidicum indicant sortes. Sparsa 144.] Perhaps an imitation of the rhythm sunt circa sacella conplura totidemque Dei.” of Lucr. 5. 202, “ Possedere, tenent rupes, 148.] The white bulls did not lead the vastaeque paludes." "Laeta, prolific.' It way in the procession, but they came must be owned that armenta' is un- earlier than the triumphal car. Dict. A. natural after tenent oleae,' but it is the “Triumphus.' reading of all the MSS. • Sarmenta' and 149.] Here is ceaseless spring, and • arbusta' have been conjectured, but Virgil summer in months where summer is has already spoken of the vine. After strange; twice the cattle give increase, 'oleae' que’ is inserted in Med. a m. twice the tree yields its service of fruit.' sec., and in some others for the sake of the Ver' and 'aestas' are of course used metre. It was first omitted by Heins. loosely. The meaning is that there is Varro, Festus, and others derive the name verdure all the year, and warmth in the • Italia' from its oxen, italoi (vituli), and winter months. Lucr. 1. 180, “Quod si de Gell. 11. I calls it .armentosissima.' nihilo fierent, subito exorerentur Incerto
145.] ‘From this land comes the war. spatio atque alienis partibus anni.” Virgil horse that prances proudly over the field of may have had the expression of Lucr. in his battle.' Comp. A. 3. 537, where four eye when he said that Italy really enjoyed white horses are the first object seen in that which Lucr. gives as a derangement Italy, and are interpreted as an omen of of nature. both war and peace.
150.] It is not quite clear whether pomis' 146.] Servius quotes Pliny as saying is the dat. or abl. If the former, it must that the water of the Clitumnus made the = 'pomis creandis.' The latter is supported animals that drank of it white. But the by Ovid, M. 3. 212, “ Et pedibus Pterelas passage (2. 103), as it is read in the MSS., et naribus utilis Agre.” Keightley refers speaks of the water in the ager Faliscus,' to Varro 1. 7, where the apple-trees at while the Clitumnus is in Umbria. Virgil Consentia in Bruttium are said to bear speaks of the whiteness as coming from twice, as the probable origin of Virgil's bathing in the stream. Juv. 12. 13 con. statement. fines himself to the fattening effect of the 151.] For rabidae' some MSS. give pastures of Clitumnus.
rapidae,' which would be supported by 147.) “Tuo perfusi flumine sacro :' Lucr. 4. 712, " Nenu queunt rapidi contra comp. Enn. Ann. 55, “ Teque, pater Tibe- constare leones," where, however, Lach