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In manibus terrae ; non hic te carmine ficto

45
Atque per ambages et longa exorsa tenebo.

Sponte sua quae se tollunt in luminis oras,
Infecunda quidem, sed laeta et fortia surgunt;
Quippe solo natura subest. Tamen haec quoque, si quis
Inserat, aut scrobibus mandet mutata subactis,

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Exuerint silvestrem animum, cultuque frequenti
In quascumque voces artis haud tarda sequentur.
Nec non et sterilis, quae stirpibus exit ab imis,
Hoc faciet, vacuos si sit digesta per agros ;
Nunc altae frondes et rami matris opacant,

55
Crescentique adimunt fetus, uruntque ferentem.

Iam, quae seminibus iactis se sustulit arbos, 45.] ‘In manibus terrae:' comp. Apol. words . quippe-subest' refer only to laeta Rhod. 1. 1113, rooi dè Makpiádeg okomiai, et fortia, not to infecunda.' Comp. Quinct. kai tãoa hepain Opnixins évi xepoiv ¿ais 10. 2. 11, “ Namque iis, quae in exemplum a poupalvet' idéolai, and with the language adsumimus, subest natura et vera vis: contra generally Prop. 4. 9. 35, “Non ego velifera omnis imitatio ficta est.” Comp. also Lucr. tumidum mare findo carina : Tuta sub exiguo 3. 273, “Nam penitus prorsum latet haec flumine nostra mora est." • Carmine ficto,' natura subestque.” For Virgil's doctrine • feigned strains,' i. e. romantic or mythical. see note on v. 10 above. • Tamen' must • Hic' almost seems to imply an intention relate to • infecunda,' to which silvestrem of doing so one day. It is difficult other- animum' is clearly parallel ; though the wise to see the point of these lines, unless qualifying particle ought rather to belong to we suppose the poet to have one of his pre- sed laeta et fortia,' as being the last asserdecessors in his eye.

tion. Unfruitful as they are.' 46.] · Ambages :' comp. Lucr. 6. 1079, 50.] •Inserat,' engraft them with cuttings “ Nec tibi tam longis opus est ambagibus from other trees. •Insero' has a double usquam.” The word denotes, as we should construction. Comp. “Inseritur vero et fetu say, going a long way round, instead of nucis arbutus horrida," below v. 69. “Mucoming to the point. * Exorsa' for 'exor- tata,'transplanted.' So perhaps A. 5. 19, dia.' So exorsus' in Cic. Pro Lege “ Mutati transversa fremunt Manil. 4.

That simple transplantation improves a tree 47–60.] ‘Nature requires to be assisted is stated by Pallad. 12. 7, and other rural by art: trees of spontaneous growth are not writers. • Subactis,' well prepared with fruit-bearing, but may be made so: natural the spade. •Subigere' is used for knead. suckers are dwarfed unless transplanted: ing and chewing. Comp. Col. 3. 5, trees springing up from seed grow slowly “ Locum subigere oportet bene; ubi erit and yield poor fruit.'

subactus, areas facito.” 47.] Virgil here returns to the threefold 52.] · Artis :' that which is alien division of trees naturally produced, viz., their nature and communicated by training. those that are generated spontaneously, They will learn whatever lessons you those from seed, and those from suckers, choose to teach.' the order of the last two being here reversed. 53.] ‘Sterilis' is the general description, He shows that each of these kinds admits of 'quae stirpibus exit ab imis' the characterimprovement by cultivation. "Sponte sua,' istic. “Stirpibus ab imis' = 'ab radice,' &c., those which are spontaneously gene

v. 17. rated. • Oras' is the reading of Med. only, 54.] · Vacuos' contrasted with the wood the other MSS. having auras.' But the where it is choked by the parent tree. expression here and in A. 7. 660 seems to 55.] Nunc,' in its natural state. be clearly from Ennius and Lucretius, now is the towering foliage and branches of in the latter of whom 'luminis oras' fre- its mother overshadow it, and rob it of its quently occurs. Compare Gray's “. fruit as it grows up, and wither up

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proprecincts of the cheerful day."

ductive powers it exerts.' 49.] ‘Natura,' productive power. The 57.] Wagn. commences a new paragraph

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60

Tarda venit, seris factura nepotibus umbram,
Pomaque degenerant sucos oblita priores,
Et turpis avibus praedam fert uva racemos.

Scilicet omnibus est labor inpendendus, et omnes
Cogendae in sulcum, ac multa mercede domandae.
Sed truncis oleae melius, propagine vites
Respondent, solido Paphiae de robore myrtus ;
Plantis et durae coryli nascuntur, et ingens
Fraxinus, Herculeaeque arbos umbrosa coronae,
Chaoniique patris glandes ; etiam ardua palma
Nascitur, et casus abies visura marinos.
Inseritur vero et fetu nucis arbutus horrida,

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with •Iam, quae;' but it is unnecessary. • truncis' with 'caudicibus sectis,' v. 30; This is the third kind of wild trees. This and, if this is so, .solido de robore' must use of iam ' nearly in the sense of 'prae- answer to . stirpes,' sudes,' vallos,' v. 24, terea' is not uncommon. Comp. Iam 25, in spite of the testimony of Servius as varias pelagi volucres,' 1. 383. • Seminibus to the applicability of caudicibus sectis 'to iactis' = 'posito semine,' v. 14. It does the myrtle, quoted on v. 31. not relate to sowing by the hand.

66.] Comp. Populus Alcidae gratis58.] Venit,' as v. Il. Seris nepotibus,' sima,” E. 7. 61. The commentators take to unborn generations of men. Comp. v. no notice of the difficulty respecting the use 294 below, E. 9. 50.

of the gen. in · Herculeae coronae arbos.' 59.] Poma,' all kinds of fruit.

It is not easy to say whether it denotes 60.] Avibus praedam,' because no men simple connexion, or a final cause, or will pick them. That vines were raised at whether, looking to 'Chaonii patris glandes' Rome from grapes or grape-seeds appears in the next line, it should not rather be from Cic. Sen. 15, Pliny 17. 10 (Forb.). reckoned as a possessive genitive, .arbos

61–72.] • Artificial methods vary ac- Herculeae coronae' being substituted poeticording to the kind of tree: with some cally for arbos Herculis.' trees truncheons suit best, with some layers, 67.1 Chaonii patris:' comp. 'Lemnius with others sets, with others suckers : pater,' A. 8. 454. •Chaonii' = • Dodografting again is practised on some trees, naei.' not on others.'

68.] • Nascitur,' sc. "plantis,' which we 61.] •Scilicet' is explanatory. • The should have expected to be repeated, as the fact is.'

more important word; but the repetition 62.] “Cogendae in sulcum' formed on of the verb is meant to remind us of the the analogy of .cogere in ordinem,' and rest of the expression of which it has giving the notion of training and discipline. formed a part. We may perhaps compare • Drilled into trenches.' Multa mercede,' the half repetitions of words in Homer.

at great cost of labour.' Comp. Senec. de See Jelf's Gr. Gram. § 343, obs. 1. Tranq. 11, “ Magna quidem res tuas mer- 69.] Wagn. reads ‘Inseritur vero et cede colui.”

nucis arbutus horrida fetu'on the authority 64.] “Respondent :' “ votis respondet of a correction in Med. and of six other avari Agricolae,” 1.47. The word is some- MSS. Here however, as in 3. 449 (note), times, as here, used absolutely. Col. 3. 2, critical probability seems in favour of the “ Gemella vitis maior nisi praepingui solo common reading, which in both instances is non respondet.” This may possibly be de- supported by Serv. Wagn.'s view as to rived from the use of the word in the case the inharmoniousness of hypermetric lines of debtors, as in Cic. Att. 16. 2, Seneca, with dactylic endings does not seem of Ep. 87, “respondere nominibus.” “Trun- much weight in itself without MS. authority. cis' and 'propagine' are ablatives of the If the elision implied a synapheia, this might instrument. Five of the six methods (v. require the last syllable but one to be long 22-34) are here mentioned. The cacu. by nature. The copyists, even of the better men' (v. 29) is omitted. The instance of MSS., are apt to remove metrical anomathe olive in both cases seems to identify lies, as they have done e. g. in A. 6. 33 and

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70

Et steriles platani malos gessere valentis ;
Castaneae fagus, ornusque incanuit albo
Flore piri, glandemque sues fregere sub ulmis.

Nec modus inserere atque oculos inponere simplex.
Nam, qua se medio trudunt de cortice gemmae
Et tenuis rumpunt tunicas, angustus in ipso

75
Fit nodo sinus : huc aliena ex arbore germen
Includunt, udoque docent inolescere libro.
Aut rursum enodes trunci resecantur, et alte
Finditur in solidum cuneis via, deinde feraces
Plantae inmittuntur : nec longum tempus, et ingens 80
Exiit ad caelum ramis felicibus arbos,
Miraturque novas frondes et non sua poma.

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A. 7. 437. In the time of Serv. some read 73–82.] ‘Grafting is distinct from inocu

horrens' here, a substitution also found in lation : in the latter case you introduce a some extant copies. It should be observed bud, in the former a slip.' that the expression of Serv. 'versus dacty- 73.] • Nec modus inserere :' see on 1. licus' suggests another principle of explana- 213. Oculos inponere,'' to inoculate' or tion, which might be extended to the two bud,' èvopeal piouós. In what follows passages from the Aeneid, viz. that of sup- inoculation is distinguished from engraftposing that the last foot is actually a dactyling. We must therefore take simplex in place of a spondee. • Fetu' is the abl. as = 'unus,' as 'duplex' frequently = • Nucis,' i. e. the walnut. • Horrida,' from 'duo.' "The mode of grafting and inthe roughness of the stem (Heyne). oculating is not one. It is possible that

70.] • Sterilis' opp. to .pomifera.' Virgil may mention the two species first as

71.] For 'fagus' most of the MSS., in- constituting a genus, and afterwards as the cluding Med., give fagos,' a reading which, varieties of the genus which they conthough acknowledged by Serv., may safely stitute, though this seems clumsy. In the be imputed to the misapprehension of copy- whole context Virgil's object is to show ists, who supposed castaneae' to be nom. the manifoldness of his subject. See above, pl. The structure of the sentence is de. vv. 63 foll., below, vv. 83 foll. cidedly in favour of connecting the words 75.] ‘Tunicas,' that which is under the with those which follow, nor is it likely, as . cortex.' Pliny 24. 3., 16. 14. Scaliger saw, that the Romans should have 76.] • Fit,' is made by the knife.' preferred the beech-nut to the chestnut, • Huc... includunt,' A. 2. 18. so as to graft the former tree on the latter. 77.] · And teach it to grow into the bark Wagn, and Forb. take fagus' as the nom. which gives it the sap of life.' pl. of the fourth declension, relying on 78.] · Rursum,' on the other hand.' Culex v. 139, “Umbrosaeque manent fagus Comp. Hor. 1 Ep. 2. 17, " Rursus quid hederaeque ligantes Bracchia." The last virtus et quid sapientia possit Utile prosyllable may however be long by caesura. posuit nobis exemplar Ulixem." Keightley says of the 'ornus:' “ It is very 79.] • Feraces plantae,' slips from fruituncertain what this tree is : the usual ful trees. opinion is that it is the sorbus aucuparia,' 80.] 'Et:' comp. A. 3. 9, “ Vix prima our quicken or mountain ash. As this inceperat aestas, Et pater Anchises dare however is quite a different tree from the fatis vela iubebat," a remnant of primitive ash, and Columella (De Arb. 16) calls the simplicity of expression, which sometimes ornus' a‘fraxinus silvestris,' distinguished gives more force to a passage than the emfrom the other ashes by having broader ployment of a more formal connecting leaves, botanists are now inclined to think particle. it is the fraxinus rotundifolia' of Lamarck, 81.] • Exit :' the perfect expresses in. the manna tree, or tree that yields the stantaneousness. So perhaps ruperunt,' manna, of Calabria.” The words • incanuit 1. 49. albo flore' are to be taken with both clauses. 82.] Serv. gives "mirata estque,' a cor

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85

Praeterea genus

haud unum, nec fortibus ulmis,
Nec salici lotoque, neque Idaeis cyparissis ;
Nec pingues unam in faciem nascuntur olivae,
Orchades, et radii, et amara pausia baca,
Pomaque et Alcinoi silvae; nec surculus idem
Crustumiis Syriisque piris gravibusque volemis.
Non eadem arboribus pendet vindemia nostris,

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rection, as it would appear from his note, “Nor are apples, &c. of one sort any more for • mirataque,' which seems to have been than olives. The orchards of Alcinous' an old reading, and is found in a fragment (comp. the description of them in Hom. Od. attached to one MS. (the Gudian). The 7. 112 foll) are the same as the “poma,' original error, as Heyne remarks, was pro- unless we suppose them to convey a still bably 'miratasque,' which is actually read more general designation, apples, and all by Med. a m. pr. and some other copies, Alcinous' orchard trees.' • Surculus,' and is easily accounted for by the confusion cutting :' a poetic variety, intended to of terminations.

signify not that the pear must be planted 83—108.] Again, there are varieties in by cuttings, but that it may. The meaneach kind of tree, the olive, the apple, and ing of course is not that the cuttings differ pear, and especially the vine, the diver- as cuttings, but that they differ as belongsities of which are innumerable.'

ing to different trees. 84.] According to Fée, cited by 88.] •Crustumiis :' so called from CrusKeightley, there are five kinds of the ar. tumerium or Crustumium, at the conborescent lotus, which is itself distinct flux of the Allia and Tiber. Serv. says from the aquatic, containing three va- they were partly red. •Syriis :' Serv. and rieties, and the terrestrial and herbaceous Pliny say they were black. • Volemis :' (see on 3. 394), containing two. “The the volema' are named, without descriplotus-tree grows on the north coast of tion, by Cato, and mentioned by Pliny Africa; it is described by Theophrastus merely as spoken of by Virgil. Serv. deand Polybius, and is a tree of moderate rives them from 'vola,' hand-fillers,' altitude, bearing small fruits, which are mentioning however another etymology sweet, resembling the date in flavour.” from a Gaulish word meaning 'big.' Pliny Keightley.

(15. 15) says that the Crustumine were 85.] « Unam in faciem :' comp. A. 10. the best. The Syria,' according to Col., 637, • Tum Dea nube cava tenuem sine were also called · Terentina.'

Syrian pears viribus umbram In faciem Aeneae (visu mi- are mentioned by Juv. 11. 73, and Martial rabile monstrum) Dardaniis ornat telis.” 5. 78. 13. In both passages in faciem' is adverbial. 89.) Here and in vv. 267, 278, 300,

86.] Cato mentions eight kinds of olives, “arbos' may mean either the vine or the Columella ten, Macrobius sixteen. 'Or- tree which supported it, the silvestria virchades' and radii'

appear to be so gulta' of v. 2. Pliny (14. 1) and Ulpian named from their shape. The orchades' (47. 7. 3) include the vine among are oblong, the "radii' are long like a bores.' On the other hand, Colum. (3. 1) weaver's shuttle. * Pausia' is a kind of distinctly excludes it; Cato (32) correlaolive which requires to be gathered before tively contrasts arbores' and vites,' and it is ripe; hence .amara baca. Pliny the writers on agriculture generally speak(15. 3) says that the pausia' is gathered ing of vineyards use arbores' of the trees first, then the orchis,' then the radius;' which supported the vines. It is clear that and Columella says that the oil of the • arbor' means the supporter in E. 5. 32, • pausia’ is excellent while it is green, but “ Vitis ut arboribus decori est, ut vitibus is spoiled by age. • Orchites,' the more uvae," and in v. 290 of this book it is usual form, was introduced by the early distinguished from the vine. Altogether editors on very slender MS. authority, if there seems to be no passage in Virgil any; but it would spoil the metre, unless, where .arbos' is clearly used for the vine, with one MS. we were to read . radiique.' and therefore it is not easy to resist the

87.) • Pomaque et Alcinoi silvae :' the argument in fayour of the technical sense in que' is disjunctive, as in 3. 121, “ Et a technical treatise. patriam Epirum referat fortesque Mycenas,”

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90

Quam Methymnaeo carpit de palmite Lesbos ;
Sunt Thasiae vites, sunt et Mareotides albae,
Pinguibus hae terris habiles, levioribus illae ;
Et passo Psithia utilior, tenuisque Lageos,
Temptatura pedes olim vincturaque linguam;
Purpureae, preciaeque; et quo te carmine dicam,
Rhaetica ? nec cellis ideo contende Falernis.
Sunt et Aminaeae vites, firmissima vina,
Tmolius adsurgit quibus et rex ipse Phanaeus ;
Argitisque minor, cui non certaverit ulla

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90.) Hor. l Od. 17. 21, “Hic in- south as the neighbourhood of Verona. nocentis pocula Lesbii Duces." The Suetonius (Aug. 77) says that it was . palmes' is the bearing wood of the vine. a favourite with Augustus, but it appears Col. 5. 6.

from Pliny 14. 1 that the fashion was 91.] “Thasiae vites :' Athenaeus (1. 51) changed by Tiberius. Seneca (Nat. Q. collects testimonies to the excellence of 1. 11) thinks Virgil's language equally apthe Thasian, Lesbian, and Psythian wines plicable to praise and censure, but surely among others. Pliny also speaks of an . ideo ' shows that it could only be underEgyptian wine called Thasian (14. 7, and stood in the former sense. Cellis :' the 22. 2). • Mareotides :' comp. Hor. ] Od. full expression is cella vinaria.' 37. 14, “Mentemque lymphatam Ma- 97.]* • Firmissima :' comp. Plin. 14. 2, reotico.' · Albae' is of course an epithet of “ Principatus datur Aminaeis propter fir• Mareotides.' Comp. Col. 10. 347, " Saepe mitatem senisque proficientem vini ejus suas sedes praecinxit vitibus albis.” The utique vitam.". Further on he speaks of reference then is probably to the pale wines as .contra omne sidus firmissima.' green colour of the grape.

The • Aminaea vitis' appears to have in92.] From this verse it might seem as cluded several varieties, and to have grown if Virgil meant that these vines may be in different parts of Italy and in Sicily. For grown in Italy, though v. 89 looks the the locality of Aminaei, which is disputed,

see Dict. Geogr. Macrobius, Sat. 2. 16, 93.] Passo,' sc. vino' =

says that it was the old name of Falernum. passis uvis facto. Comp. Col. 12. 39, In the article vinum ' in the Dict. Ant., it

Passum optumum sic fieri,” &c.; Stat. is observed that the names of wines, derived Silv. 4. 938, “Vel passum psithiis suis re- from their original localities, were retained coctum ;" Pliny 14. 9, “ Psithium et me- when the vines had ceased to be grown in lampsithium passi genera sunt;" G. 4. those localities. 269, “Psithia passos de vite racemos. 98.] Tmolus et' is the reading of The word · Psithia' is Greek, but seems to Heyne, with some of the early editions, and have no known ng. • Lageos,' . perhaps Pal.; but • Tmolius' is supported YELOS. “Tenue,' as an epithet of wine, is by Med. and other MSS. Pliny 14. 7 speaks opposed to dulce' by Pliny 14. 9, and to of Tmolian wine as good not to drink alone, pingue' and nigrum' (23. I), where it but to mix with other wines, to which it is coupled with austerum ;' so that it imparts sweetness and the flavour of age. seems to mean a thin and light wine. The ellipse is olvos. Comp. • Lageos.'

94.] Olim' may either be some day,' • Rex ipse Phanaeus ' is a translation of Luafter it has been made into wine, or soon,' cilius' xiós te duváorns, which Serv. quotes, after it has been drunk. Lucr. 6. 1116 Phanae being a promontory and port of has “ Atthide temptantur gressus."

Chios. •Adsurgit:' comp. “ Utque viro 95.] The purpureae' are mentioned as Phoebi chorus adsurrexerit omnis," E. 6. a particular kind of grape by Col. 3. 2. Of 66. the ‘preciae,' which Serv. explains by 99.] · Argitisque minor :' there were an • praecoquae,' there were two kinds, distin. • Argitis maior' and an • Argitis minor.' The guished by the size of the grape. Col. 3. 2. name is said to be derived from ápyós, al. 1, Pliny 14. 2.

luding to the colour of the grape or wine. 96.] Rhaetica :' this wine appears from Col. 3. 2. Pliny 14. 7 to have been grown as far

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