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465

Saepe monet, fraudemque et operta tumescere bella.
Ille etiam exstincto miseratus Caesare Romam,
Cum caput obscura nitidum ferrugine texit,
Impiaque aeternam timuerunt saecula noctem.
Tempore quamquam illo tellus quoque et aequora ponti,
Obscenaeque canes, inportunaeque volucres

470
Signa dabant. Quotiens Cyclopum effervere in agros

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in Italy or Cisalpine Gaul, when all citizens of Theseus' ship as “obscurus ferrugine were at once called out (Dict. A. . v.). Hibera," while « ferrugine clarus Hibera” So A. 6. 858, “ magno turbante tumultu.' is said of a warrior A. 9. 582. 465.] · Fraudem,'

danger 468.] •Impia saecula,'«the impious race,' treachery, as is shown by caecos tumultus' like mortalia saecla,' &c., in Lucretius. and 'operta bella.' • He it is who often 469.] • Quamquam :' though if we are betrays the stealthy approach of battle to speak of the sun's significance to the alarms, the heavings of treachery and con- world as well to the husbandman, it was cealed rebellion.'

not the sun alone,' &c. And this leads 466.] ‘Ille etiam' is parallel to 'ille the way to past and present politics. etiam' v. 464, being in fact only a stronger 'Tellus,' by earthquakes, vv. 475, 479: form of the copulative. "Miseratus' need OELOMò, uéyas yevóuevoç, Dion, l. c. merely mean showed his sympathy with 470.] ·Obscenae,' Med. ; obsceni,' the Rome's loss,' though it might also imply rest of the MSS. But the fem. seems that the sun sent a friendly warning of the

usual. “Visaeque canes ululare evils that were yet to come.

per umbram," A. 6. 257. “Inportunus' 467.) · Ferrugine,' the dark colour of the (" in quo nullum est auxilium, velut esse sun under eclipse. An eclipse of the sun solet portus navigantibus,” Festus) seems occurred in November, u.c. 710, in which to be the same as `jnopportunus.' It is year Caesar was murdered. “Caerulus, et sometimes coupled with incommodus.' It vultum ferrugine Lucifer atra Sparsus erat,” hence acquires that strong sense which we Ov. M. 15. 789, who gives a similar ac- see in the Greek άκαιρος. “ Crudelis count of the portents on the occasion. simus atque inportunissimus tyrannus," Lucan, l. 522 foll., also imitates this Livy 29. 17, in fin. Here, as in A. passage, describing the prodigies which 12. 864, .inportuna' seems = infausta,' heralded the first civil war. But the light ill omened,' accursed,' and so virtually of the sun seems to have been abnormally synonymous with obscenae,' itself an affected at different times during the year epithet of 'volucres,' A. 3. 241. 262., 12. in question (Pliny 2. 30, Dion Cass. 45. 876. Rooks were said to have picked 17, Plut. Caes. 69). Taking this in con- out an inscription in the temple of Castor, nexion with the other prodigies, Keightley a pack of dogs to have howled at the door observes that the phenomena appear to of the chief pontiff. Dion, l. c. “ Tristia have been parallel to those which occurred mille locis Stygius dedit omina bubo,” Ov. in 1783, when Calabria was devastated by I. c. So Shakspeare, Jul. C. 1. 3, “ And earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and yesterday the bird of night did sit, Even at the atmosphere of the whole of Europe noonday, upon the market-place, Hooting more or less obscured. • Ferrugo’ is ex. and shrieking.” Serv. says night-birds plained by Nonius, p. 549, as a kind of appeared by day, and so Lucan l. c. “ dirasiron-grey, from which it comes to be used que diem fædasse volucris." of objects of a lurid or murky hue, as of 471.] •Signa dabant' seems to imply Charon's boat, A. 6. 303, not unlike caeru. that these portents occurred before Caesar's leus,' with wbich Ovid, l. c., couples it. death, as warnings of the crime and But it is also used of more pleasing objects, harbingers of the calamity, which is the as in G. 4. 183, A. 9. 582., 11. 772. Its meaning of Ov. l. c.; Virgil however may various applications may perhaps be re- mean that they were signs of the anger of conciled if we suppose the colour intended the gods at the parricide, and prognostics to be a dark blue, which would strike of civil war as punishment. See v. 489. different observers differently according as Dion describes the portents as happening they compared it with different shades. after Caesar's death, and speaks as if they So Catull. 62 (64). 223, speaks of the sail were regarded by some as omens of the

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Vidimus undantem ruptis fornacibus Aetnam,
Flammarumque globos liquefactaque volvere saxa !
Armorum sonitum toto Germania caelo
Audiit; insolitis tremuerunt motibus Alpes.

475
Vox quoque per lucos volgo exaudita silentis,
Ingens, et simulacra modis pallentia miris
Visa sub obscurum noctis; pecudesque locutae,
Infandum ! sistunt amnes, terraeque dehiscunt,
Et maestum inlacrimat templis ebur, aeraque sudant. 480
Proluit insano contorquens vertice silvas
Fluviorum rex Eridanus, camposque per omnis

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subversion of the republic. Cic. Phil. 4. 4 MetaBaivw je v_{ vtkūlev, the voice (Bathmakes another use of them. Comp. also col) from the Temple just before the taking Hor. 1 Od. 2, who treats the prodigies in of Jerusalem. • Lucos ’ shows that the voice the same spirit as Virgil, apparently re- was divine. So Ov. I. c. has 'sanctis lucis.' garding them as penalties from heaven 477.] • Simulacra modis pallentia miris,' for the civil wars. The phenomena of Lucr. 1. 123. that time were doubtless spread over a 478.] ‘Pecudesque locutae :' the old Roconsiderable period. Servius quotes from man portent locutus bos.' • Infandum' Livy a statement that before the death calls attention to its peculiar horror. of Caesar there was an eruption of Aetna 479.] •Sistunt,' intransitive. The cause so tremendous as to be felt even at Rhe. of.sistunt amnes’ is given in terrae degium.

hiscunt,' the earthquake. The same portent 472.] 'In agros,' on account of the mo- seems to be pointed to by Horace, “ Vidi. tion implied in effervere.' Undantem' mus flavum Tiberim retortis Littore Etrusco refers to the lava. • Fornacibus' is sug- violenter undis,” i Od. 2. 13 foll., where gested by Cyclopum.' • Volvere' is the see Macleane.

• Terrae' generally means laya stream. • Liquefacta saxa :' comp. the whole expanse of the earth. Here it A. 3. 576. The lava hardens into stone. implies that there were numerous or reWith the language comp. Lucr. 6.680—693. peated earthquakes.

474.] ‘Germania,' i. e. the Roman gar- 480.] *Templis,' abl. of place. •Ebur' risons on the Rhine. “ The noise of battle and · aera’ are ivory and bronze statues, the hurtles in the air," Shaksp. Jul. C. 2. 2. material being put for the object. So . ebur' Comp. Ov. M. 15. 783, " Arma ferunt for an ivory pipe, 2. 193; “spirantia aera," nigras inter crepitantia nubes, Terribilis. A. 6. 848. Ov. M. 15. 792, “ Mille locis que tubas auditaque cornua caelo Praemo. lacrimavit ebur." Inlacrimat' seems to nuisse nefas."

mean ‘weeps over Caesar.' The moisture 475.] The belief of the ancients that of the atmosphere, as Keightley observes, earthquakes took place in the Alps from explains both. time to time (Pliny 2. 80), is confirmed by 481.] Dion l. c. says ő te ’Hpidavos éti modern experience, though Heyne suggests πολύ της πέριξ γης πελαγίσας εξαίφνης that avalanches may have been mistaken ανεχώρησε, και παμπληθείς εν τω ξηρό for them. Lucan I. c. has “ veteremque όφεις εγκατέλιπε. There is a question iugis nutantibus Alpes Discussere nivem.” between vertice' and vortice.' Wagn. • Montibus,' the reading of Med. and writes always " vertex,' from Med. and Vat. Rom., though adopted by Wakefield, is an It is of course one word, the meaning of obvious error.

• top' coming from that of spire,' which is 476.] “ Eodem anno M. Caedicius de on the other hand connected with •eddy.' plebe nuntiavit tribunis, se in Nova via, 482.] The notion of overflowing is exubi nunc sacellum est (sc. Aii Locutii) pressed here metrically by a crasis, as in v. supra aedem Vestae, vocem noctis silentio 295 by a hypermeter. So Hor. 2 Ep. 2. audisse clariorem humana, quae magistrati. 120, “Vehemens et liquidus puroque similbus dici iuberet Gallos adventare," Livy 5. limus amni.” • Campos—tulit,' repeated 32. Comp. Juv. 11. 111. So the famous (with the substitution of trahit ') A. 2. 499.

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485

Cum stabulis armenta tulit. Nec tempore eodem
Tristibus aut extis fibrae adparere minaces,
Aut puteis manare cruor cessavit, et altae
Per noctem resonare lupis ululantibus urbes.
Non alias caelo ceciderunt plura sereno
Fulgura, nec diri totiens arsere cometae.
Ergo inter sese paribus concurrere telis
Romanas acies iterum videre Philippi ;
Nec fuit indignum superis, bis sanguine nostro
Emathiam et latos Haemi pinguescere campos.

490

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484.] “No respite was there in those gests that they were meteors. Dion says fearful days to the threatening flaments λαμπάς απανίσχοντος ηλίου προς δυσμάς that overcast the entrails with sadness, or διέδραμε, και τις αστήρ καινος επί πολλάς to the blood that welled from springs in ημέρας ώφθη. the ground, or to the howling of wolves 489.] . Ergo :' the murder of Caesar led by night, echoing through our steep-built to a retribution on Rome, which was foretowns.' • Fibrae,' according to Varro, L. L. shadowed by all these portents. “Paribus,' 5. 79, and Serv. on v. 120, A. 6. 599., 10. because they were Romans on both sides. 176, are the extremities of the liver. Cels. “Pares aquilas et pila minantia pilis,” Lu4. 11 says that the lungs are divided into can ). 7. two “fibrae,' the liver into four. What the 490.] It is not necessary to suppose point to be observed with regard to them that Virgil actually confounded the site was does not appear. Cic. De Div. 1. 10 of the two battles of Pharsalia and Philsays “quid fissum in extis, quid fibra valeat, ippi, as 'iterum'may very well gowith accipio," which would almost seem as if the 'concurrere,' the sense being the issue existence of a “fibra' at all was a pheno- of all was a second civil war.' But in menon : but he may merely mean what the next lines he dwells on the fact that good or evil can be prognosticated from the both were fought in the north of Greece state of the fibra. Ovid's language here with something less than geographical acis parallel to Cicero's : magnosque instare curacy, extending Emathia, which was a tumultus Fibra monet, caesumque caput re- name of Paeonia, afterwards of Macedonia, peritur in extis,” I. c. Inauspicious appear- so as to cover Thessaly. Other writers ances during sacrifice happened to Caesar were still less

strict, probably, as Mr. Merihimself, Suet. Jul. 81. Dion 1. c. speaks of vale (Hist. Rom. 3. 214) has suggested, a bull leaping up after sacrifice.

mistaking Virgil, whom they imitated. Ov. 486.] · To run from wells, as if there M. 15. 824, “ Emathiaque iterum madefient were springs of blood. Ov. 1. c. speaks of caede Philippi,” may mean no more than bloody rain.

Virgil does; but Manil. l. 906 can hardly 486.] • Resonare' depends on

be referring to the two engagements which: runt. Altae' perhaps, as Wakefield says, actually took place at Philippi with twenty. may have reference to 'resonare,'the sound days' interval, and Lucan 1. 680 foll., 7, being increased by the height of the build- 854 foll., 9. 270, treats Emathia, Thessaly, ings; at any rate it seems to point to the and Haemus as poetically convertible position of the Italian cities, 2. 156. Wolves terms, as does Juv. 8. 242, who makes entering Rome are several times mentioned Octavianus conquer in Thessaly. in Livy as portents. In Shakspeare there 491.] •Nor did it seem too cruel in the is a lion, but no wolf.

eyes of the gods.' Comp. “ Cui pulchrum 487.] •Sereno’ is the emphatic word. fuit in medios dormire dies,” Hor. 1 Ep. 2. Thunder in a clear sky converted Horace. 30, and for the absolute use of indignum Namque Diespiter Igni corusco nubila with the ethical dative, “ Sat fuit indignum, dividens Plerumque per purum tonantis Caesar, mundoque tibique,” Lucan 10. 102. Egit equos volucremque currum," 1 Od. 34. 492.] • Pinguescere : comp. Hor. 2 Od. 5. Dion l. c. speaks of lightning striking 1. 29, and Macleane's note. the temple of Victory, but not of a clear sky. that Archilochus spoke of the plains as

488.) • Totiens arsere cometae:' Voss sug- fattened by war—perhaps the earliest that

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495

Scilicet et tempus veniet, cum finibus illis
Agricola, incurvo terram molitus aratro,
Exesa inveniet scabra robigine pila,
Aut gravibus rastris galeas pulsabit inanis,
Grandiaque effossis mirabitur ossa sepulchris.
Di patrii, Indigetes, et Romule Vestaque mater,
Quae Tuscum Tiberim et Romana Palatia

servas,
Hunc, saltem everso iuvenem succurrere saeclo
Ne prohibete! Satis iam pridem sanguine nostro
Laomedonteae luimus periuria Troiae ;
Iam pridem nobis caeli te regia, Caesar,
Invidet, atque hominum queritur curare triumphos;

500

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did so. Comp. also Aesch. Theb. 587, rývde arrayed against each other, and humanity riavõ xóva. Pers. 806 is not parallel, as is whirled on like a charioteer in a race πίασμα evidently refers to 'Ασωπός άρδει. mastered by his horses.'

493.] · Yes, and the time will come 498.] With this whole passage compare when in those borders the husbandman, as Horace's imitation, 1 Od. 2.

Di patrii with his crooked plough he upheaves the are not the same as Indigetes,' as appears mass of earth, will find, devoured by a from Ovid's parallel to this passage, Met. scurf of rust, Roman javelins, or strike his 15. 86), “ Di, precor, Aeneae comites, quiheavy rake on empty helms, and gaze bus ensis et ignis Cesserunt, dique Indigetes, astounded on the gigantic bones that genitorque Quirine,” where the • Di Aeneae start from their broken sepulchres.' The comites are the · Di patrii,' as they include touch in agricola' is probably meant to Vesta, while the ‘Di Indigetes' include recall the reader's mind to the real sub- Quirinus, ject of the poem. In any case it is a sort 499.] • Tuscum Tiberim :' it seems proof unconscious testimony to the arts of hus- bable that the old connexion of Etruria bandry as more permanent than those of war. with Rome may be in Virgil's mind here, as

494.] Lucr. 5. 932, “ Nec robustus erat it obviously was in the Aeneid. • Romana curvi moderator aratri Quisquam, nec scibat Palatia :' the Palatine was the hill of Romuferro molirier arva." * Molitus' (v. 329 n.) lus and his city. perhaps contains a suggestion that the relics 500.] · Hunc saltem :' 'as the gods had of Pharsalia would be buried deep by age. snatched away Caesar. Saeculum' an

495.] · Pila' is emphatic, as it was the swers exactly to the age.' In modern characteristic Roman weapon. So Lucan 1. English perhaps we should say society.' 7, “pares aquilas et pila minantia pilis." • Iuvenem :' comp. E. l. 43 and Hor. • Scabra robigine,' Catull. 66 (68). 151. 1 Od. 41, “ Sive mutata iuvenem figura

496.] •Inanis ' is emphatic, as the hol. Ales in terris imitaris almae Filius Maiae lowness would affect the sound, at the same patiens vocari Caesaris ultor.” time that it reminds us that the heads 502.] Horace (3 Od. 3. 21) indulges in which wore the helmets have long since the same affectation of antiquarian supermouldered away.

stition, a spirit to which it must be allowed 497.] “Grandia' refers to the notion of that the Aeneid itself ministers. The line perpetual degeneration. Juv. 15. 69, “Nam itself is nearly repeated A. 4. 541. genus hoc vivo iam decrescebat Homero ; 504.] Octavianus had probably not yet Terra malos homines nunc educat atque enjoyed his triple triumph, which was not pusillos.” Comp. also Lucr. 2. 1150 foll

. celebrated till 725, though he had had more Effossis,' being broken into by the plough than one ovation; but Virgil speaks to or harrow.'

him, as Forb. remarks, as if to live on 498–514.] We have a Caesar yet: earth were synonymous with to triumph. spare him to us, ye gods, though ye may Yet there is something strange in the exwell call him away from a world like ours, pression human triumphs, unless where right and wrong are inverted, hus- suppose the poet to intend some still bandry gives way to arms, war rages from more extravagant compliment. Perhaps east to west, cities of the same land are the feeling may be that the human victor

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carceres

Quippe ubi fas versum atque nefas : tot bella per orbem,
Tam multae scelerum facies; non ullus aratro

506
Dignus honos ; squalent abductis arva colonis,

s
Et curvae rigidum falces conflantur in ensem.
Hinc movet Euphrates, illinc Germania bellum;
Vicinae ruptis inter se legibus urbes

510
Arma ferunt; saevit toto Mars impius orbe;
Ut cum carceribus sese effudere quadrigae,
Addunt in spatia, et frustra retinacula tendens

Fertur equis auriga, neque audit currus habenas. was all but a god ("Res gerere et captos inter se legibus,' breaking the laws which ostendere civibus hostes Attingit solium bound them together. Legibus,' the laws Iovis et caelestia tentat,” Hor. 1 Ep. 17. of civil society. Forb. comp. A. 8. 540, 33), but that Caesar might rise higher. “Poscant acies et foedera rumpant.” Horace treads closely in the steps of Virgil, 511.] · Arma ferunt,' are in arms, A. “ Hic magnos potius triumphos, Hic ames 9. 133. Wakef. wished to read · fremunt,' dici pater atque princeps” (1 Od. 2. 49). not seeing that great part of the emphasis The concluding strophe of Mr. Tennyson's is on v. 510. Impius' is emphatic, as Ode on the Death of the Duke of Welling- most of the wars of the time were connected ton may illustrate the difference of tone directly or indirectly with the civil conflict. with which a Christian poet would speak of 512.] • Carceribus sese effudere :' the the translation of an earthly conqueror to

were a range of stalls at the end higher · triumphs.'

of the circus, with gates of open wood-work, 505.] 'Ubi' = 'apud quos,'sc. ' homines.' which were opened simultaneously to allow • Quippe' assigns the reason why heaven the chariots to start. Dict. A. 8. v. Circus.' grudges Caesar to so thankless a sphere. 513.] The true reading of the opening Versum,' 'inverted,' not overturned.' words of this line is not certain. .• Ad. Comp. Hor. Epod. 5. 87, 88, “Venena dunt in spatia' seems to be the reading of magnum fas nefasque non valent Conver. Rom. ; addunt se in spatia' of Pal.; tere humanam vicem."

addunt spatio' of Med.; an obviously 506.] · Aratro' is probably the dative. faulty reading, but supported by two other • The plough has none of its due honour.' good MSS. Heins. read .addunt in spatio.' “ Honos erit huic quoque pomo,” E. 2. 53. Wagn. suggests 'addunt se spatio.' Ad. But it might possibly be the abl. •There dunt in spatia' is confirmed by an evident is no honour that is worthy of the plough'imitation in Sil. 16. 372, Iamque fere = 'the plough is thought worthy of no medium evecti certamine campum In honour.' The language is like A. 7. 635, spatia addebant" (where, however, there is “ Vomeris huc et falcis honos, huc omnis another reading • spatio'), and certainly aratri Cessit amor.” Here and in the two has the advantage of difficulty. If right, it following lines the subject of the Georgics is probably to be interpreted they throw is kept before the eye.

themselves on to the course,' bound on507.] Squalent,' are gone to weeds.' ward,' addunt' being used intransitively, " • Abductis,' taken away to serve as sol- or sese' supplied from the previous line diers.” Keightley.

(comp. A. 1. 439, “Infert se ... miscet508.] •Curvae' and 'rigidum' seem to que viris "), so that the sense will be parallel be opposed, and rigidum' seems to refer to “ Corripiunt spatia,” A. 5. 316, used in a to the straight sword of the Romans. similar connexion of runners starting. With

509.] · Euphrates,' the Parthians, against this use of addere in comp. Ov. Am. 1. whom Antonius was commanding in 718. 7. 1, " Adde manus in vincla meas.” See Merivale, vol. iii. pp. 279 foll. The 514.] · Fertur equis,' like äorouoi tūlol troubles in Germany are the same which led Bią pépovoiv, Soph. El. 725. Comp. A. 1. to Agrippa's expedition, mentioned in Introd. 476. For 'audit' comp. Hor. 1 Ep. 15. 13, to E. 10. For the relation of these events “equi frenato est auris in ore;" and for to the date of this Book, see pp. 143, 144. currus audit,' Pind. Pyth. 2. 21, üppara

510.] · Vicinae urbes,' alluding to the Teloixáluva. Servius suggests that the chacities which took different parts in the civil rioteer hurried on by the furious horses is Ocwar in Italy, especially in Etruria. • Ruptis tavianus; but this hardly agrees with v. 500.

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