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400

Prospicere et certis poteris cognoscere signis :
Nam neque tum stellis acies obtunsa videtur,
Nec fratris radiis obnoxia surgere Luna,
Tenuia nec lanae per caelum vellera ferri;
Non tepidum ad solem pennas in litore pandunt
Dilectae Thetidi alcyones, non ore solutos
Inmundi meminere sues iactare maniplos.
At nebulae magis ima petunt campoque recumbunt,
Solis et occasum servans de culmine summo
Nequiquam seros exercet noctua cantus.
Adparet liquido sublimis in aere Nisus,
Et pro purpureo poenas dat Scylla capillo ;
Quacumque illa levem fugiens secat aethera pennis,
Ecce inimicus, atrox, magno stridore per auras
Insequitur Nisus ; qua se fert Nisus ad auras,
Illa levem fugiens raptim secat aethera pennis.
Tum liquidas corvi presso ter gutture voces
Aut quater ingeminant, et saepe cubilibus altis,

405

410

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'Ex imbri,' after the shower you will know for themselves. whether it is going to be fine or rain again, 401.] • Nebulae,' that is, the clouds on as Wagner remarks.

the mountains. Comp. Aratus 256 – 258. 395.] Virgil begins by negativing certain 403.] The night owl is a sign of fine phenomena, which would have been more weather, Aratus 267. Nequiquam, like naturally mentioned among the signs of 'incassum '-a prolonged objectless effort. rain. Aratus 281, 'Huos dorépole v 404.] · Liquido,' clear after the storms. καθαρόν φάος αμβλύνηται.

For the story see the Pseudo-Virgilian Ciris 396.] • Obnoxia,' beholden. * And the (where vv. 538—541 are reproduced); also moon is bright as though she shone with Ov. M. 8. 1 foll. her own light.' “Non rastris, hominum 407.] It is best to take “inimicus, atrox' non ulli obnoxia curae, 2. 438. Wagn. as two epithets. Comp. “ Acer, anhelanti interprets it not reddened by the sunset : similis," A. 5. 254. Heyne, who has an Excursus on the pas- 408.] Keightley explains 'qua se fert sage, supposes the meaning to be that the Nisus ad auras' of the greater bird having moon does not rise, regarding fratris radiis missed his pounce, and thus being obliged to obnoxia' as a sort of perpetual epithet. soar into the air in order to make a second,

397.] Aratus 206, 207. Lucr. 6. 504 while the smaller escapes as fast as it can. compares rain-clouds to pendentia vellera 409.] • Raptim :' the primitive meaning lanae,' referring principally to their power of is either by a snatch' or by snatches ;' imbibing moisture. *Tenuia,'trisyllable, as in hence eagerly,'ha-tily,'quickly.' Comp. Lucr. 3. 383, tenuia fila," and elsewhere. that sense of rapidus' in which it seems

398.] • Tepidum ad solem,' the afternoon to have the meaning of 'rapio,' noticed in or evening sun.

E. 2. 10 note. 399.] *Dilectae Thetidi,' possibly because 410.] · Liquidas,' 'soft,' opposed to the lovers were changed into Halcyons by

raucas.'

• Presso gutture' apparently Thetis : but it is simpler to say 'loved by opposed to plena voce.'

The whole pasher as sea. birds.' Comp. Theocr. 7. 59. sage is loosely rendered from Aratus 271–

400.]Meminere :' comp. “meminere 277. Aratus appears to distinguish accufugai,” Lucr. 4. 713, and the Homeric use rately between the épnuaios kópaç that of μεμνήσθαι. Iactare solutos maniplos, cries δισσάκις and πλειότεροι δ' αγεληδόν. "to toss them so as to loosen them ;' * toss Comp. Lucr. 5. 1083 foll. them to pieces.' Keightley says the swine 411.] •Cubilibus altis' seems to be a carry straw in their mouths to make beds loose version of επήν κοίτοιο μέδωνται.

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415

Nescio qua praeter solitum dulcedine laeti,
Inter se in foliis strepitant; iuvat imbribus actis
Progeniem parvam dulcisque revisere nidos;
Haud, equidem credo, quia sit divinitus illis
Ingenium aut rerum fato prudentia maior;
Verum, ubi tempestas et caeli mobilis humor
Mutavere vias et Iuppiter uvidus austris
Denset, erant quae rara modo, et, quae densa, relaxat,
Vertuntur species animorum, et pectora motus
Nunc alios, alios, dum nubila ventus agebat,
Concipiunt: hinc ille avium concentus in agris,
Et laetae pecudes, et ovantes gutture corvi.

Si vero solem ad rapidum lunasque sequentis

420

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412.] « Nescio qua,' &c. : xaipeiv KÉTis the joy of the birds, which is the main subwiooalto. The Virgilian version is charac- ject of the sentence. teristic.

416.] Lucr. 5. 1083, “ Et partim mutant 413.] The old reading was “inter se cum tempestatibus una Raucisonos cantus.” foliis.' Wagn. restored the prep. from Med. 418.] Mutavere vias' is explained by Rom. • Imbribus actis'

may either be

• mobilis,' the weather and the atmospheric • when the rain is spent,' like “tempus ac- moisture being supposed to shift. •Iuppiter tum (Burm.), or when the rain is driven uvidus austris' denotes the condition of the away' (Heyne), not when the rain has atmosphere before the change. Connect descended' (Wund., who comp. 2. 334). 'uvidus austris,' not, as Keightley, 'austris The sentence can hardly have any other denset.' “ Humidus auster," v. 462. meaning than that the rooks are glad to re- 419.] • Denset' is the reading of the visit their young when the showers are over, better MSS. But Wagn. gives • Densat,' though Keightley objects that they have the old reading, for the sake of conformity been driven home already by the shower, with • Densantur,' v. 248. and accordingly understands “revisere,' 420.] •Species,” • phases,' a materialistic • to review,' examine the state in which word. • Motus,' also materialistic. they are in after the storm. Servius as- 421.] · Alios, dum nubila ventus agebat' serts on the authority of Pliny that rooks is to be construed parenthetically. The are apt to forget their young and not go change from low to high spirits being the near them.

point, the second alios' is logically 415.] An allusion to the Pythagorean, quam,' and does not denote a co-ordinate Platonist, and Stoic spiritualism, which difference, as in “ Numquam aliud natura, Virgil here rejects in favour of the Epicu- aliud sapientia dicit” (Juv. 14.321). Comp. rean and Lucretian materialism. In 4. 219 Plaut. Trin. 1. 11. 123, “ Alium fecisti me, &c. he mentions the “anima mundi' view alius ad te veneram. without disapprobation, 'Divinitus’ is dis- 422.] 'In agris,’‘in the country. It seems tinguished from · fato,' as Virgil is evidently scarcely the appropriate word; and it is alluding to the language of different philoso- curious that the pecudes' come between phies,—' fato’ pointing to the Stoic doc- the aves’ and the corvi.' Perhaps we may Trine. "Not, if I may judge, that Heaven render • There lies the secret of the birds' has given them any spark of wit like ours, or rural chorus, and the ecstasy of the cattle, Fate any deeper insight into things.' 'Re- and the rooks' triumphal paean.' rum prudentia'go together. “Maior,''more 424–437.] “You may get prognostics than usual '— more, for instance, than men too from observing the sun and moon. Ob. have. It seems better to follow Reiske in scurity in a new moon is a sign of rain : redpointing • Haud, equidem credo,' than to ness, of wind: but if she is clear on her keep the common punctuation · Haud equi- fourth day, there will be fine weather to the dem credo.' •Equidem credo' is thrown end of the month.' in modestly. Iuvat-nidos' will then be 424.] Rapidum :' comp. above, E. 2. 10, a kind of parenthesis, giving the reason for though here it may have its ordinary sense.

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425

430

Ordine respicies, numquam te crastina fallet
Hora, neque insidiis noctis capiere serenae.
Luna, revertentis cum primum colligit ignis,
Si nigrum obscuro conprenderit aera cornu,
Maxumus agricolis pelagoque parabitur imber;
At si virgineum suffuderit ore ruborem,
Ventus erit; vento semper rubet aurea Phoebe.
Sin ortu quarto, namque is certissimus auctor,
Pura neque obtunsis per caelum cornibus ibit,
Totus et ille dies, et qui nascentur ab illo
Exactum ad mensem, pluvia ventisque carebunt,
Votaque servati solvent in litore nautae
Glauco et Panopeae et Inoo Melicertae.

435

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Sequentis,' following each other. “Lunas' is rare, but occasionally occurs, particularly might mean either the daily or monthly in poetry (3. 439., A. 6. 187). Perhaps moons, but, looking to 'primum' and 'ortu the already double construction of suffundo' quarto,' it probably means the daily. may have suggested this further variety,

426.] Cerda comp. A. 5. 851, “Caeli which is simply an inversion of suffuderit toties deceptus fraude sereni.”'

os rubore.' Here as elsewhere (see A. 1. 427.] These lunar prognostics are selected 381) Virgil, in seeking for variety, seems from Ārat. 46 foll., where the subject is to have had more than one possible contreated much more elaborately. Virgil has struction in his mind. It seems scarcely seized the three main points, dullness as a Virgilian to suppose

ore' to be an old sign of rain, redness of wind, brightness of form of the dative. But see Key's Latin fair weather, and expressed them in lan. Grammar, 1020. guage borrowed from various parts of his 431.] •Vento’might be taken either as an original. Aratus has expressed them him- abl. instrum. (see v. 44), or as an abl. of cir. self yet more concisely, vv. 70 foll.

cumstance (comp. “ut iu tectoriis videmus Πάντη γάρ καθαρή κε μάλ' εύδια τεκμήραιο, Austro, Cic. de Div. 2. 27). It might be Πάντα δ' έρευθομένη δοκέειν ανέμοιο κελεύ- objected to the latter that the redness is a θους,

prognostic of coming wind, although we "AXdo6. d'allo pelaivouévy doréelv vero1o. might perhaps say, 'when there is wind

about.' Colligere' seems to imply the recalling of 432.] ‘Is,' ortus quartus. Aratus dwells things scattered and their formation into a on the third and fourth as the critical days,

• Revertentis,' 'returning to her.' and connects his prognostics with them. "Sparsosque recolligit ignes,” Lucan 1. 157, Virgil just gives the unfavourable prognosof the lightning. The metaphor is perhaps tics without reference to days, and then from a general rallying his forces. If this connects the favourable prognostics with seem too great a strain on the language, we one of the critical days. Auctor:' may construe colligit' simply 'gathers,' si mihi Iuppiter auctor Spondeat,” A. 5. 17. and revertentis' reappearing.'

“ What

433.] Virgil takes his general distinctime the mighty moon was gathering light,” tions from Aratus, “pura' answering to Tennyson.

καθαρή, obtunsis cornibus' to παχίων και 428.] 'Aera,' the air seen between the applaiyot kepalais, and “rubet' to épɛúons. horns of the crescent moon. We should 434.] Arat. 73 foll. seems to say that the say there is a halo round the moon.' But signs of the third and fourth days will only the words need only mean “if the air is dark hold good for half the month. and the crescent dull.'

436.] ‘Servati,' 'that have come safe to 429.] · Agricolis pelagoque,' a poetical port'—not preserved from peril as if there variety for • agris pelagoque' or • agricolis had been a storm. Comp. oóseodat. 'In nautisque.'

litore,' A. 5. 236. 430.] Ore' may be explained as an 437.] Taken almost verbally, according ablative of place; which without the prep. to Gell. 13. 26 and Macr. Sat. 5. 17, from

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440

Sol quoque et exoriens, et cum se condet in undas,
Signa dabit; solem certissima signa sequuntur,
Et quae mane refert, et quae surgentibus astris.
Ille ubi nascentem maculis variaverit ortum
Conditus in nubem, medioque refugerit orbe,
Suspecti tibi sint imbres ; namque urguet ab alto
Arboribusque satisque Notus pecorique sinister.
Aut ubi sub lucem densa inter nubila sese
Diversi rumpent radii, aut ubi pallida surget
Tithoni croceum linquens Aurora cubile,
Heu, male tum mitis defendet pampinus uvas :
Tam multa in tectis crepitans salit horrida grando.
Hoc etiam, emenso cum iam decedit Olympo,

445

450

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a line of Parthenius, who is said to have it means strictly not to hide,' but to throw taught Virgil Greek-Taúky Kai Nnpɛī together' or ' into ' (comp. 'coniicio,' con(Νηρηί ?) και Ίνώφ (Gell. gives είναλίφ) torqueo ). Μελικέρτη. The peculiarity is that the last 443.] There is the same doubt about syllable of. Glauco’is left open in the thesis, ab alto' here as about ex alto,' v. 324. a licence not indulged in by Virgil elsewhere. The sense • from the deep' is truer to Wagn. would read • Glaucoque.'

nature; “from on high' perhaps more like 438—460.] · For the sun's prognostics, Virgil. a spotted or hollow disc at rising is a sign of 445.] Aratus couples this prognostic rain : a cloudy or pale sunrise of hail. At with the concavity of the disc as portendsunset dark grey spots denote rain, fiery ing either rain or wind. “Sese diversi rumred wind, a mixture of the two rain and pent' is oxiSóuevai. "Sese rumpent' wind. But a clear rising and setting betoken erumpent,' as in A. 11. 549, “ tantus se clear weather.'

nubibus imber Ruperat.” Lucan 5. 542, 438.] The following passage is closely imi. speaking of sunset, says, “Noton altera tated from Aratus 87 foli. Condet :' Heyne Phoebi, Altera pars Borean diducta luce .condit,' but the change is unnecessary, and vocabat.” has but slender MS. authority.

446.] The only thing answering to this 439.] • Sequuntur,'' attend.'

in Aratus is v. 115-119; where however 440.] • Refert,' probably of recurrence: the phenomenon is the same, but its signisee on v. 249. Surgentibus astris,' at ficance totally opposite. sun-set.

447.] Imitated from Hom. Il. 11. 1, Od. 441.] Virgil has here mixed two, and 5. 1, and repeated A. 4. 585., 9. 460. unless . que’ in the next line is to be taken 449.] Comp. ppiooovtag öußpovs, Pind. for “ve,' three signs which are separate in Pyth. 4. 81. Sharp.' The radical notion Aratus. * Nascentem, &c. is a translation of the word seems to be that of erect points. of ποικίλλοιτο νέον βάλλοντος αρούρας 450.] If 'hoc' refers to what goes before, kúklos, and medioque refugerit orbe' of it may mean either generally the sun's sigknilos éxidóue voç TEPITéMly, which is trans- nificance, or specially the particular facts lated by Avienus. medioque recedens orbe.' just noted, that being taken as a type of the • Medioque refugerit orbe:' either recedes others, which are supposed to be yet more from the middle of his disc to the cir- significant in the evening than in the morncumference, or retires in respect of the ing. Aratus, v. 158, says, 'Eo tepiois kai middle of his disc. Lucan, 5. 544, has a păllovénitpere onuaoi TOÚTOLG. (the last similar line, speaking however of sunset: three words are otherwise read αληθέα τεκ« Orbe quoque exhaustus medio languens- μέραιο,) Εσπερόθεν γάρ όμως σημαίνεται que recessit."

As in the case of the moon, špjevès aici. This points to the latter of Virgil has picked out salient points from the two interpretations suggested, 'hoc' Aratus' lengthy enumeration.

being onuaoi rourous. If any MS. were to 442.] Condo’ is naturally constructed give 'haec' it would perhaps be an imhere, as in v. 438, as a verb of motion, as provement.

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455

Profuerit meminisse magis; nam saepe videmus
Ipsius in voltu varios errare colores :
Caeruleus pluviam denuntiat, igneus Euros;
Sin maculae incipient rutilo inmiscerier igni,
Omnia tum pariter vento nimbisque videbis
Fervere. Non illa quisquam me nocte per altum
Ire, neque a terra moneat convellere funem.
At si, cum referetque diem condetque relatum,
Lucidus orbis erit, frustra terrebere nimbis,
Et claro silvas cernes Aquilone moveri.
Denique, quid vesper serus vehat, unde serenas
Ventus agat nubes, quid cogitet humidus Auster,
Sol tibi signa dabit. Solem quis dicere falsum
Audeat ? Ille etiam caecos instare tumultus

460

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451.] Comp. Aratus 102—107. After Caesar, though in truth that was a time for nam' understand.tum,' at evening.' other portents in earth, sea, and sky-dogs 452.] Errare,' &A IT xel.

howling, owls hooting, volcanic eruptions, 453.] 'Caeruleus' (note on v. 235), arms clashing in the sky, earthquake μελανεί. “Igneus,’ έρευθος.

shocks, mysterious voices, apparitions, 454.) A translation of £i ye ulv å uø- cattle speaking like men, rivers stopping, otėpwv ã u vdis kexpwouévos tin. Maculae' images covered with moisture, inundations, must therefore relate to .caeruleus,' igni' ill-omened sacrifices, springs of blood, to 'igneus.

wolves heard within city walls, lightnings 456.] Fervěre:' Virgil also uses .ef. in a clear sky, and shooting stars —

-all

prefervo,' strido,' and `fulgo.' • Non' for lusive to a second battle of Roman against

ne' is rarely used. Quinctilian (1. 5) Roman, fought in the same country as the mentions it as a solecism.

first, and leaving a store of relics to be 457.] Wagn. and others read 'ab' from turned up in distant days by the husband. Valerius Probus 1, p. 1411, but without man.' MS. authority. Wagner's theory that 461.] Nescis, quid vesper serus vehat' • ab' is always åró seems arbitrary. •Con- was a Roman proverb, and formed the title vellere funem,' to pluck up the cable with of one of Varro's Menippean Satires. Gell. the anchor.

13. 11, Macr. Sat. 1.7. • The secrets which 458.] Aratus 126 foll. Aratus says that evening carries on his wing.' Unde serenas if the sun sets without cloud, but there are Ventus agat nubes' seems to be explained red clouds above, there is no danger of rain by the previous line. The sun gives next morning or at night. Virgil omits prognostics of fair winds producing fair half the prognostic, and extends the rest to weather. “Serenas agat nubes' is prothe morning.

bably to be explained 'agat nubes ita ut 459.] Frustra terrebere nimbis' seems serenum sit caelum. In any case.' seat first sight to mean you need not be renas' is evidently opposed to 'humidus.' frightened by clouds if there are any,' im. Probably Virgil is loosely summing up plying that there are likely to be some. the minute directions in Aratus, v. 880— But the words seem to be a rhetorical 889. translation of Arat. 1. c. oũ HáÀa 462.] • Cogitet:' Heyne χρή Aύριον ουδ' επί νυκτί περιτρομέειν 1 Od. 28. 25, “quodcunque minabitur jetoio.

Eurus.” Forb. comp. 4 Od. 14. 25, Au460.) 'Claro' marks that the fear of fidus - Diluviem meditatur agris.” “The nimbi'is vain.

hidden purpose of the rainy South.' 461-491.) 'In short, the sun is your 463.] Comp. Manilius 2. 134, “ Quod great prognosticator of weather; and not of fortuna ratum faciat, quis dicere falsum weather alone, for he gives signs of sudden Audeat ?". and secret commotions, as lately when he 464.] •Tumultus' has here its political darkened himself in grief for the death of sense of a sudden alarm of war, generally

comp. Hor.

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