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Frigida Saturni sese quo stella receptet ;
Quos ignis caeli Cyllenius erret in orbis.
In primis venerare deos, atque annua magnae
Sacra refer Cereri laetis operatus in herbis,
Extremae sub casum hiemis, iam vere sereno.
Tum pingues agni, et tum mollissima vina ;
Tum somni dulces densaeque in montibus umbrae.
Cuncta tibi Cererem pubes agrestis adoret ;
Cui tu lacte favos et miti dilue Baccho;

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signs of the Zodiac with Wagn., as the next sent force of the part. see on v. 293. two lines are evidently intended to give in. 340.] The language is not to be pressed, stances of the things to be observed. Caeli as the Ambarvalia did not take place till the menses,' like .caeli hora' 3. 327, caeli end of April. “Casum' contains that sense tempore' 4. 100.

of cadere' which is more generally ex336.] Saturn and Mercury are chosen as pressed by "occidere.' the two extremes, and the husbandman is 341.] τήμος πιόταται τ' αίγες και οίνος told to observe their course in the sky. äplotos, Hes. Works 585, speaking of sumSaturn in Capricorn, according to Serv., mer. Pingues agni' is the order of the was supposed to cause heavy rains, especially best MSS., restored by Heins. for "agni in Italy. • Frigida' from its distance from pingues.' • Tum' for 'tunc' is restored the sun. “Recepto’ is used nearly in the by Wagn. from Med. Pingues' doubtless sense of recipio :' otherwise we might say refers to fatness either for sacrifice or for that the frequentative here has a sort of in- eating, as the mention of wine immediately tensifying force, denoting the distance of the afterwards shows. “Mollissima :' so “molli retirement, as in Pers. 6.8, “multa litus se mero," Hor. 1 Od. 7. 19; “molle Calevalle receptat," it may be intended to mark num,” Juv. 1. 69. Mellow,' the Greek the depth of the bay.

μαλακός as opposed to σκληρός (« durum 337.] •Ignis' with •Cyllenius.' 'Caelo' Bacchi saporem,” 4. 102). the reading of Med., is preferred by several 342.] The second clause explains the of the later editors. That'caeli orbis' (A. 8. first. Hesiod l. c. wishes for a seat under 97) might be used for the orbit of a planet the shadow of a rock. See p. 125. no less than for that of the sun, appears from 344.] Libations of honey, milk, and wine 2. 477, “ caeli vias ;' Lucr. 5. 648, “Qui are to be made to Ceres. Macr. Sat. 3. minus illa queant per magnos aetheris orbis 11, explaining this passage, says that the Aestibus inter se diversis sidera ferri ?" mixture was called mulsum.' He also • Caelo' on the other hand is slightly sup. comp. 4. 102, and explains miti' here of ported by Catull. 62 (60). 20, Hespere, the wine as corrected by the honey ; but qui caelo fertur crudelior ignis ?” Ignis' this is obviously needless after 6 mollissima' here is probably emphatic, contrasted with preceding. Cato 134 directs that wine be 'frigida Saturni stella.' The Greeks called offered to Ceres before harvest, along with Mercury ο στίλβων.

the entrails of the sacrifice, but says nothing 338.] Ceres is distinguished from the of any other liquid. Milk, wine, and honey other gods to show that she in particular is formed part of the Grecian offerings to the to be worshipped. • Magnae,' an ordinary dead (Æsch. Pers. 611 foll.); and we know epithet of the gods, applied not only to that the Greek Demeter was connected with Jupiter but to Apollo, Hercules, Juno, Pales, the lower world. (Müller's Dissertations on &c. • Annua sacra are the Ambarvalia, the Eumenides, $$ 80 foll.) Daphnis at mentioned before, E. 5. 70 (note), and de- the Ambarvalia is to have milk and oil (the scribed at length Tibull. 2. i. (See Dict. latter part of the funeral libations, and occaA. • Arvales fratres.')

sionally offered to Demeter, Müller, § 89), 339.] Refer’ seems to express recur- and also wine (E. 5. 67 foll.). Theocr. 5. rence; see on v. 249, and comp. A. 5. 605, 53 foll. makes milk and oil offered to the “tumulo referunt sollennia ludis :" but nymphs, milk and honey to Pan: and Macr. it might denote the payment of a due. 1. c. says that on December 21 'mulsum' • Operatus,' sacrificing,' like facio,' piśw, was offered to the Panes. Serv. mentions &c. “Tunc operata Deo pubes discumbet an interpretation which coupled • Baccho in herba,” Tibull. 2. 5. 95. For the pre- with cui ;' but 'miti' is strongly against

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Terque novas circum felis eat hostia fruges,

345
Omnis
quam

chorus et socii comitentur ovantes,
Et Cererem clamore vocent in tecta ; neque ante
Falcem maturis quisquam supponat aristis,
Quam Cereri torta redimitus tempora quercu
Det motus inconpositos et carmina dicat.

350
Atque haec ut certis possemus discere signis,
Aestusque, pluviasque, et agentis frigora ventos,
Ipse Pater statuit, quid menstrua Luna moneret;
Quo signo caderent austri; quid saepe videntes
Agricolae propius stabulis armenta tenerent.

355 this, though Bacchus and Ceres are invoked Comp. E. 5. 73, 74, Tibull. 2. 1. 5) foll., together at the beginning of Tibullus' de Hor. 3 Od. 18. 15. scription (2. 1. 3), and associated, perhaps 349.] Quercu,' in memory of man's in connexion with the Ambarvalia, by Virgil first food. Serv. himself E. 5. 79.

350.] ‘Det motus :' “ haud indecoros 345.] “Tunc vitula innumeros lustrabat motus more Tusco dabant," Livy 7. 2, caesa iuvencos : Nunc agna exigui est hostia speaking of the origin of dramatic enterparva soli. Agna cadet vobis, quam circum tainments. “Inconpositos :' “inconposito rustica pubes Clamet: Io messis et bona pede,” Hor. 1 S. 10. 1, of rough verses. vina date,” Tibull. 1. 1. 21 foll., from 351—392.] ‘Besides, Jupiter has given which it appears that the victim varied ac- the husbandman prognostics of the weather. cording to the circumstances of the wor- Thus wind is foretold by noises on the sea, shipper. Cato 134 speaks of a sow. In in the mountains, and in the woods, by the the Suovetaurilia' the sacrifices were car- habits of birds, by shooting stars, and by ried three times round the assembled multi. down on the ater. Rain is preceded by tude, and so in the lustration of the fleet thunder and lightning, by the descent of (Dict. A. lustratio '). "Felix ' is doubtless cranes, cattle snuffing the air, swallows auspicious,' not, as Serv. thinks, fruitful,' flying low, frogs croaking, ants carrying there being no instance quoted where it is out their eggs, the rainbow drinking, rooks applied in that sense to an animal.

flying in company, sea-birds dipping in the 346.] ‘Chorus et socii:' chorus socio- water, ravens croaking by the water, and rum.'

lamps sputtering.' 347.] So Hor. 1 Od. 30. 3, “vocantis 351.] Possemus,’ Med. (first reading) Ture te multo Glycerae decoram Transfer in Rom. restored by Wagn. • Possimus' (Pal.) aedem,” though the goddess is invited there was the old reading. Moneret ’ supports to a chapel, not to a house. “Neque ante :' possemus.' 'Haec' is aestus, pluvias, it is a question whether this is merely an agentis frigora ventos.' For discere auditional warning to the husbandman to Canon. and a variant in Med. have ‘noscelebrate the Ambarvalia, as an indispensa- cere,' Rom. .dicere.' ble preliminary to the harvest, or an injunc- 352.] In 'agentis frigora ventos,' 'frition to perform a second set of rites in sum- gora’ is the important word; contrasted mer time (Cato 134). The language is with aestus' and pluvias.' Ov. M. 1.56 rather in favour of the latter, as otherwise, has “facientis frigora ventos," an obvious taken strictly, it would seem to imply that imitation. the Ambarvalia might be celebrated any 353.] There is a slight similarity in these time before the harvest : still it would have lines to Aratus, Diosemeia 10–13. “Menthe awkwardness of an apparent after- strua :' in her monthly course. thought, the mention of the second festival 354.] What should betoken the fall of being almost entirely overshadowed by the the wind.' Signum,' oisua. 'Quid saepe first. Comp. however Tibull. 2. 1. 21, videntes :' saepe videntes' is explained by where harvest rejoicings are briefly alluded vv. 365 foll. to mean not observation of the to in the middle of the description of the same thing on different occasions, which Ambarvalia. The observances here speci- seems to be its force in v. 451, but obserfied, dancing and singing, are too common vation of a thing frequently repeated on to be fixed to either festival in particular. the same occasion, and thus proved not

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Continuo, ventis surgentibus, aut freta ponti
Incipiunt agitata tumescere et aridus altis
Montibus audiri fragor, aut resonantia longe
Litora misceri et nemorum increbescere murmur.
Iam sibi tum curvis male temperat unda carinis, 360
Cum medio celeres revolant ex aequore mergi primerca
Clamoremque ferunt ad litora, cumque marinae
In sicco ludunt fulicae, notasque paludis
Deserit atque altam supra volat ardea nubem.
Saepe etiam stellas, vento inpendente, videbis 365
Praecipitis caelo labi, noctisque per umbram
Flammarum longos a tergo albescere tractus ;
Saepe levem paleam et frondes volitare caducas,

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to be accidental. Natural observation is to be cormorants, but their flying from the grounded by Virg. on divine warning. sea before a storm leads Keightley to iden

356.] The important words are ventis tify them with sea-gulls, though he admits surgentibus.' These are prognostics of that this does not suit Ovid's description wind. Almost all of them are closely (M. 11.794) of the mergus,' as long-necked. copied from Arat. Dios. 177—200, while Fulicae,' Keightley thinks, are cormorants, many of them in turn are reproduced by not coots, as Pliny 11. 37 speaks of them as Lucan 5. 551-567, an ingenious passage, crested. On the other hand Cic. de Div. 1. which is worth comparing.

8, translating Aratus, gives •fulix' for 357.] Connect ' agitata tumescere.' pwdiós, the heron. The confusion is

358.] · Aridus fragor :' kappaléov, aŭov further increased by the want of corres. and Enpóv are used for sounds. The two pondence between Virgil and Aratus. What first occur in the Iliad of metal pierced by Virgil says of the mergus' is said by Araa spear (13. 409, 441). It will then mean tus of the heron : what Virgil says of the

harsh,' opposed to liquidus,' as avos, &c. "fulicae' is said by Aratus of the aibviai, are to υγρός : Ο δίερον μέλος. The two which appear from Pliny 10. 32 to have contrasted notions seem to be those of been the Greek equivalent to mergi.' fluency and abruptness. " Aridus unde 362.] Marinae' is opp. to “in sicco.' auris terget sonus," Lucr. 6. 119, of Lucan (ö. 553) agrees with Aratus, “Aut certain varieties of thunder. • Resonantia siccum quod mergus amat.' longe:' μακρόν επ' αιγιαλοί βοόωντες 364.] Keightley says that Virgil is more Ακταί τ' εινάλιοι, οπότ' εύδιοι ηχήεσσαι accurate here than Aratus, who makes the riyvovrat, Arat. 1. c. Virgil has passed heron fly from the sea. Aratus however Over εύδιοι.

had been preceded by Theophrastus (De 359.] • Misceri’ is explained by reso- Sign. Vent. p. 420), épwdiós á Oaláoons nantia, which acts instead of an abl., πετόμενος και βοών πνεύματος σημεϊόν like .murmure' A. l. 124, tumultu' A. Šoti. 2. 486. For the sound of the woods as a 365.] Vento inpendente :' emphatic, sign of wind, comp. A. 10. 97 foll.

like .ventis surgentibus.' Aratus l. c. says 360.] "A curvis' was read by Heins., that the wind comes from the same quarter and is recalled by Wagn.; but the prep. as the shooting stars. In Geopon. 1. ll, is omitted by the best MSS. Probably on the contrary, the wind is said to come • sibi temperat’ should be taken as one from the quarter towards which the stars

parcit,' and `curvis carinis’ as shoot. the dat. There seems to be no conclusive 367.] ‘Flammarum :' toi d'őrreDev övuoi instance of temperare'followed by the abl. Útolevkaivwvtai, Aratus l. c. But the without a preposition. "Male:' scarcely.' words are from Lucr. 2. 206 foll., “NocturThe storm is close at hand.'

nasque faces caeli sublime volantis Nonne 361.] There is some difficulty in identi- vides longos flammarum ducere tractus ? .. fying two out of the three birds here men- Non cadere in terram stellas et sidera certioned. • Mergi' are commonly supposed nis?" as Macr. Sat. 6. 1 points out.

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370

Aut summa nantis in aqua colludere plumas.
At Boreae de parte trucis cum fulminat, et cum
Eurique Zephyrique tonat domus : omnia plenis
Rura natant fossis, atque omnis navita ponto
Humida vela legit. Numquam inprudentibus imber
Obfuit: aut illum surgentem vallibus imis
Aeriae fugere grues, aut bucula caelum
Suspiciens patulis captavit naribus auras,
Aut arguta lacus circumvolitavit hirundo,
Et veterem in limo ranae cecinere querelam.
Saepius et tectis penetralibus extulit ova
Angustum formica terens iter; et bibit ingens

375

380

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369.] Aratus (Dios. 189) makes this the “Tum liceat pelagi volucris tardaeque paludis down playing on the water a sign of wind. Cernere inexplete studio certare lavandi, . Colludere: they stick together and drive Et velut insolitum pennis infundere rorem ; the same way.

Aut arguta lacus circumvolitavit hirundo, 370.] These are the signs of rain, also Et bos suspiciens caelum (mirabile visu) taken with few variations from Aratus 201 Naribus aerium patulis decerpsit odorem, foll. • Boreae :' the meaning is, when Nec tenuis formica cavis non evehit ova.' there are thunders and lightnings from all 377.] “The swallow is always observed parts of the sky, three winds being put for to fly low before rain, because the Aies and all, as Arat. I. c. shows.

other insects on which she feeds keep at 371.] • Domus,' as if each of the winds that time near the surface of the ground and had a home in the quarter of the heavens the water.” Keightley. • Arguta,' not a from which it blows, a different conception, perpetual epithet, but denoting that she as Voss remarks, from the cave of Aeolus twitters as she flies. in A. 1.

378.] Vetus querela ' has no reference to 372.] ‘Plenis fossis :' comp. “implentur legend or fable, as Serv. supposes. Keightley fossae," v. 326.

quotes the Schol. on Hor. Epod. 2. 26, 373.] Humida,' with the rain. • In who says that the ancients used · querela' prudentibus' = 'ex improviso,' unwarned. of the note of all animals but man. Some Obfuit,' comes upon them, in a bad sense. MSS. have 'aut' for et ;' but the .et'

374.] The perfects seem to be used on couples the two sounds. account of numquam obfuit.' • Rain has 379.] Saepius' denotes repetition (v. never been known to take men by surprise : 354), which agrees with • terens. Whether there have always been these and those it is to be extended to · bibit' and 'increprognostics. Vallibus imis' with “fugere ;' puit’ is not clear. •Tectis penetralibus,' comp. Tacit. Hist. 3. 85, “Si diem latebra like “ adytis penetralibus,” A. 2. 297, and vitavisset,” though‘latebra' in this passage “ caeli penetralia templa,” Lucr. 1. 1105, if may be the abl. instrum., while • vallibus the reading is certain. Keightley remarks imis' must be the abl. loci. For the fact that on the contrary the ant is observed of cranes descending before rain see Aristot. to carry in her eggs on the approach of Hist. A. 9. 10.

rain. 375.] ‘Aeriae,' a translation, and if Butt- 380.] It has been supposed from coins mann is right, a mistranslation of néptal oxis, Aratus 224, that “terens angustum yépavou. Virgil's epithet applies to the iter' means “ boring a narrow passage. But usual mode of the cranes' flight, and is con- ‘tectis penetralibus' is the translation of trasted with vallibus imis.' • Bucula :' the Koilns óxñs, and angustum iter ’ is to be whole passage from this place to v. 387 is explained like “calle angusto,” A. 4. 405, closely imitated and partly borrowed from terens' (“terere viam') being illustrated the Navales Libri' (if Wernsdorf's con- by saepius. · Arcus :''Aratus has drõóun jecture is right) of Varro Atacinus (quoted 'lois. Plaut. Curc. 1. 2. 41, “Ecce autem by Servius), who has himself translated bibit arcus! pluet, Credo, hercle bodie." Aratus,

The rainbow was supposed to draw up mois.

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385

Arcus ; et e pastu decedens agmine magno
Corvorum increpuit densis exercitus alis.
Iam varias pelagi volucris, et quae Asia circum
Dulcibus in stagnis rimantur prata Caystri,
Certatim largos humeris infundere rores,
Nunc caput obiectare fretis, nunc currere in undas,
Et studio incassum videas gestire lavandi.
Tum cornix plena pluviam vocat inproba voce
Et sola in sicca secum spatiatur arena.
Ne nocturna quidem carpentes pensa puellae
Nescivere hiemem, testa cum ardente viderent
Scintillare oleum et putris concrescere fungos.

Nec minus ex imbri soles et aperta serena

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ture from the sea, rivers, &c., with its horns, say, 'good-for-nothing,' because the raven inand to discharge it in rain. Hence Tibull. vites the rain. Ladewig gives the spirit of 1.4. 44 and Stat. Theb. 9. 405 talk of “im- it in the words. die Hexe,' the witch, which brifer arcus." Sen. N. Q. 1. 6, who refers may be illustrated by Hor. 2 S. 5. 84, to Virgil, says that a rainbow in the south anus inproba.” • Pluviam vocat' is from brings heavy rain, in the west slight showers Lucr. 5. 1084 foll., “ cornicum ut saecla and dew, in the east fair weather. Virgil of vetusta, Corvorumque greges, ubi aquam course can only mean that the appearance dicuntur et imbris Poscere, et interdum of the rainbow is a sign of rain, drawing up ventos aurasque vocare.' the water being assumed to be its constant 389.] •Spatiatur' expresses the pace of function.

the stately raven. The alliteration, as in 382.] ‘Densis alis ' looks like a mistrans- the previous verse, gives the effect of mono-lation of Tivačájevou atépa a UK in Ara. tony. Some MSS. insert a line after or tus 237. It here means however with before this verse, “At (or 'aut') caput crowded wings.'

obiectat querulum venientibus undis," which 383.] Aratus 210 foll. The best MSS. is doubtless manufactured from v. 384, have variae :' but it is difficult to see why though it would agree with Aratus. the construction should be changed before 390.] The stress is rather on“ nocturna.'

nunc caput. The acc. too is supported Not even those who are shut up doors at by the passage from Varro. “Variae volu- night are without prognostic. “Nisi herile cres’ is common in Lucr., where some mavis Carpere pensum,” Hor. 3 Od. 27. suppose it to = 'pictae' (see on G. 3. 243). 63, 64. Here at any rate it has its more ordinary 391, 392.] From Aratus 302 and 307. meaning. • Circum,' adverbial.

Aratus makes the spattering a prognostic of 384.] * Rimantur Asia prata :' ósearch,' bad weather generally, and the fungi a *try in every chink ;' " rimaturque epu- prognostic of snow. "Testa,' the earthen lis," A. 6. 599. • Asia prata :' Hom. lamp. ΙΙ. 2. 461, 'Ασίφ εν λειμώνι Καυστρίου 393-423.] · When the rain is over, you αμφί ρέεθρα. Caystri' with stagnis.' can tell whether the weather is going to be The whole clause quae- Caystri' is a fine, by such marks as these : the moon and literary amplification of Aratus' epithet stars are bright, the sky free from fleecy λιμναίαι.

clouds, kingfishers leave off sunning them385.] • Rores ’ implies that they make it selves, and pigs tossing straw, mists float

low, owls hoot at sunset, larger birds 387.] Incassum,” wantonly;' nearly chase smaller, rooks caw joyously in their the same notion as Aratus' ändnotov, nests, as if they felt the pleasure, not, howVarro's 'inexpleto studio.'

ever, from real foresight, but from sympathy 388.] •Inproba :' comp. “inprobus an- with the atmosphere.' ser," v. 119. If it means 'ceaselessly' here 393.] • Soles,' fine days. Ovid. Trist. it should be taken with vocat. But we 5. 8. 31, “ Si numeres anno soles et nubila may render it villanous,'or, as we should toto, Invenies nitidum saepius isse diem."

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