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Aut cum sole novo terras inrorat Eous.
Nocte leves melius stipulae, nocte arida prata
Tondentur; noctes lentus non deficit humor.

290
Et quidam seros hiberni ad luminis ignis
Pervigilat, ferroque faces inspicat acuto;
Interea longum cantu solata laborem
Arguto coniunx percurrit pectine telas,
Aut dulcis musti Volcano decoquit humorem

295
Et foliis undam trepidi despumat aeni.

At rubicunda Ceres medio succiditur aestu, rere' than to those where it denotes com- bound together into brands (Dict. A. ‘fax'). pliance with the will of another.

293.] • Solatus ' might be taken strictly, 288.] Wakefield supposes Virgil to have as if Virgil, though meaning of course that imitated Lucr. 5. 281,"aetherius Sol Inrigat singing and weaving went on together, assidue caelum candore recenti.” But the chose to take a point from which the former primary reference of 'inrorat' evidently is might be regarded as past, the latter as beto literal dew, and it seems hardly worth ginning or continuing, but such an explanawhile to suppose a secondary one to the tion would not apply to A. 5. 708, “ Isque sprinkling of the earth with sunlight. his Aenean solatus vocibus infit,” so that we Heyne comp. 3. 305, “extremoque inrorat must say that the past participle is used Aquarius anno.

with a present force. See Madvig, § 431. 6. 289.] •Stipulae :' see on v. 85. The The domestic picture has the effect, which cutting of the stubble took place in August, doubtless was one of the objects of the within a month after the reaping. Leves' composition of the Georgics, of placing the and 'arida' seem both to be emphatic, as life of a small country proprietor in an atsuggesting what the husbandman has to tractive light. obviate. * Arida prata,' opposed to those 294.] Comp. A. 7. 14, which shows that which could be irrigated. Voss.

'pectine' goes with arguto.' Pectine, 290.] ‘Lentus' expresses the effect of kepkis, the comb, the teeth of which were the moisture on the grass rather than the inserted between the threads of the warp, nature of the moisture itself. * Noctes and thus made by a forcible impulse to drive deficit,' the are ordinary construction re- the threads of the woof close together . ferred to on v. 148. “ Hominem totum Among us the office of the comb is executed magis ac magis undique sensus Deficit,' with greater ease and effect by the reed, Lucr. 3. 546.

lay, or batten.” Dict. A. • tela.' 291.] .Quidam,' like “est qui,” Hor. 2 295.] Must' was boiled down to Ep. 2. 182, Pers. 1. 76, as if Virgil knew num,' * defrutum' (4. 269), or "sapa,' on the man, but did not choose to name him. a night when there was no moon (Dict. A. • Luminis' is generally taken of lamp or • vinum '). Volcanus,' as Cerda remarks, torch-light. Keightley refers it to fire-light, is used elsewhere of a large fire, such as comparing 2. 432., A. 7. 13, where however would be required for boiling must' (Col. there is the same doubt. It would be pos- 12. 19; so G. 4. 269, igni multo '). The sible also to refer it to the late dawn of a hypermeter here seems to be a fair instance winter sun (“lumine quarto,' A. 6. 356), so of a metrical anomaly introduced for dethat the sense should be one man sits scriptive effect. See on v. 482. through a long winter's night,' though the 296.] •Foliis,' vine leaves (Pliny 14. 9), parallel in A. 7 1. c. would point rather to as wood was apt to give a smoky taste to either of the other interpretations.

the liquor. ‘Undam aeni' like " undantis 292.] ‘Inspicat,' makes into the form of aeni,”? A. 7. 463. Col. 12. 20 says that an ear of corn, the end of the wood being the vessel should be of lead, as brass was cut into a point and split into various parts. liable to rust in boiling. For "trepidi Forb. comp. Sen. Med. 111, “Multifidam many MSS. give 'tepidi,' which could iam tempus erat succendere pinum.” This scarcely be used of boiling liquid. is probably the same as “incide faces,” E. 8. 297 – 310.] ‘Summer is the time for reap29, though a distinction has been attempted ing and threshing. Winter is the husbandbetween them by Ulitius on Gratius' Cyne. man's season for festivity ; but he still has getica, v. 484, who supposes incidere to work, stripping acorns and berries, snaring refer to the cutting of pieces of wood to be and killing game.'

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Et medio tostas aestu terit area fruges.
Nudus ara, sere nudus; hiemps ignava colono.
Frigoribus parto agricolae plerumque fruuntur, 300
Mutuaque inter se laeti convivia curant ;
Invitat genialis hiemps curasque resolvit :
Ceu pressae cum iam portum tetigere carinae,
Puppibus et laeti nautae inposuere coronas.
Sed tamen et quernas glandes tum stringere tempus 305

Et lauri bacas oleamque cruentaque myrta ; 297.] Rubicunda Ceres,' v. 96. Col. apparently in Virgil's lifetime, hearing the 2. 21 says that corn should be reaped first part of the line repeated, completed it rubicundum colorem traxerunt." Medio with the words. habebis frigora, febrem.' aestu'would most naturally mean midday, as . Colono ' seems to be intended strictly with in 3. 331., 4. 401. In that case however we reference to the labours of cultivation, as must suppose a strange piece of ignorance other works for winter follow, v. 303. So on Virgil's part, midday being precisely the perhaps • agricolae.' time which the reaper would avoid, though 300.] With the use of 'parto’ comp. it is the time for threshing. Comp. Theocr. parcere parto,” A. 8. 317. Plerumque 10. 49 foll.:

dicit, quia dicturus est aliqua, quae rusticus Σίτον αλοιώντας φεύγειν το μεσημβρινών etiam hieme possit efficere," Serv. ύπνον:

302.] · Winter is the entertainer, calling 'Ek kalápas åxupov zelébel tapósdɛ pá- out man's happier self, and unbinding his

load of care.' So December is called by λιστα "Αρχεσθαι δ' αμώντας εγειρομένω κορυ- genius' seems to be an impersonation and

Ov. F. 3. 58, " geniis acceptus.' The δαλλώ, Και λήγειν εύδοντος: ελινύσαι δε το καύμα. half deification of the happy and impulsive

part of man, so that an offering to it • Aestu' then had better be taken of summer would imply that the day was to be spent in as the hot season, as“ frigoribus mediis,” E. enjoyment. Hor. 3 Od. 17. 14, 2 Ep. 1. 10. 65, means midwinter. Wagn. objects 144, A. P. 209. We have here another dothat the information in that case would be so mestic picture: see on v. 291 above. obvious as to be needless, but Virgil is speak- 303.) Winter is to them what port is to ing of the operations proper to the various the sailor, the jovial end of a weary time.' seasons, as the next lines show, as well as of ‘Pressae,' heavy laden : virtually equivathe times when they should be performed, lent to Heinsius' conjecture, “fessae,' and and hiberni,' v. 291, prepares us for the doubtless intended to convey the notion mention of summer. Wagn.'s own view, that that the ship feels the relief. Heyne. • medio aestu means generally a summer's Tibull. 1. 3. 40, “ Presserat externa navita day as contrasted with a winter's night, with- merce ratem." out any special reference to noon, makes 304.] A. 4. 418. , Comp. Prop. 4. 24. 15,

medio' a worse than useless epithet. "Suc- “ Ecce coronatae portum tetigere carinae," ciditur' seems not to specify anything probably an imitation of this passage. about the manner of cutting, merely imply. 305.] • Glandes stringere,' E. 10. 20 ing that the thing is severed from below. note. - Stringere' like “stringunt frondes,” “ Flos succisus aratro,” A. 9. 435.

E. 9. 61 note, where Cato is quoted, using 298.]

• Tostas' not to be joined with it of the olive. • Quernas' because 'glans .aestu.'

was used of other fruits than acorns. “Glan. 299.] • Ploughing and sowing both belong dis appellatione omnis fructus continetur, to the warm months,'— spring and autumn. ut Iavolenus ait,” Gaius, Dig. 50. 16. 236. • Nudus,' without the upper garment, as 306.] Myrtle berries were used for mixing Cincinnatus was found ploughing, when the with wine, which was called 'murteus' or messenger from the Senate arrived, Livy "myrtites,' and used medicinally for pains 3. 26. Here and in the following lines in the stomach. (Cato 125 (126). Col. Virgil imitates Hes. Works 493 foll. 12. 38.) • Cruenta,' from their juice. The precept is word for word from Hes. Voss thinks the red wild myrtle is spoken Works 391, yuuvòv o'neipsiv, you vòv čè of as distinguished from the black or white : Bowteiv. Servius has a story, mentioned but the agricultural writers do not countealso by Donatus in his Life, that some one, nance this. Forb.

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310

Tum gruibus pedicas et retia ponere cervis,
Auritosque sequi lepores ; tum figere dammas,
Stuppea torquentem Balearis verbera fundae,
Cum nix alta iacet, glaciem cum flumina trudunt.

Quid tempestates autumni et sidera dicam,
Atque, ubi iam breviorque dies et mollior aestas,
Quae vigilanda viris ? vel cum ruit imbriferum ver,
Spicea iam campis cum messis inhorruit, et cum
Frumenta in viridi stipula lactentia turgent ?
Saepe ego, cum flavis messorem induceret arvis
Agricola et fragili iam stringeret hordea culmo,
Omnia ventorum concurrere proelia vidi,

315

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307.] Cerda comp. Hor. Epod. 2. 35, horrors.' Pavidumque leporem et advenam laqueo 311. ] Tempestates' seems fixed by gruem Iucunda captat praemia.” Cranes "sidera' to mean weather' rather than were a delicacy of the table: but the hus. • storms. The latter notion is not expressed, bandman might naturally snare them in but left to be inferred. The stars on which self defence : see v. 120.

the autumn storms were supposed to de308.] The epithet 'auritos' is said by pend were Arcturus, the Centaur, the Kids, Macr., Sat. 6.5, to be taken from Afranius, and the Crown. Cerda comp. Hom. Il. 16. who in one of his prologues introduces 385, ήματοπωριν, ότε λαβρότατον χέει Priapus saying, “ Nam quod volgo praedi. üdwo Zevç. cant Aurito me parente natum, non ita est. 312.] · Mollior,' less oppressive. “Quas The word itself merely means “having ears,' et mollis hiemps et frigida temperat aestas," the length of the ears being an inference Stat. S. 3. 5. 83. from the application of the epithet, just as 313.] Vigilare aliquid' is to bestow in Soph. Aj. 140, arnvñs neleias, the wakeful care on a thing. “ Vigilataque notion of fluttering is inferred from the proelia dele,” Juv. 7. 27. • Ruit imbriferum,' strict meaning, winged.' ‘Figere,' E. 2. comes down in showers,' Wagn., like 29. Here the word must mean to hit with humida caelo Praecipitat,” A 2. 8. a bullet, not with an arrow.

314.] · Messis inhorruit :' öte opiogovoiv 309.] “The sling .. was made of... hair, äpovpai, Hom. II. 23. 599. The erect and hemp, or leather (Veget. De Re Mil. 3. 14. bristling appearance of the field is intended,

. . babena,' A. 6. 579).” “The celebrity as Forb. remarks, not its agitation by the of the natives of the Balearic isles wind. slingers is said to have arisen from the 315.] Serv. says that Varro in his books circumstance that when they were children

• rerum

divinarum speaks of a god their mothers obliged them to obtain their Lactens, who made the ears of corn milky. food by striking it with a sling (Veget. 1. Comp. Dict. B.' Lactans.' 16)." Dict. A. funda.'

317.] The husbandman brings the reaper 310.] 'Glaciem .. trudunt' apparently with him into the field, and is beginning describes the process of freezing, the rivers himself to lop the ears. Stringeret,' as in driving down the ice in masses, which get v. 305, 'fragili culmo' being a descriptive stopped and joined together, so that the ablative. This explanation is as old as Serv. whole surface becomes frozen. Forb.'s 318.] 'Omnia ventorum proelia' seems explanation, when the rivers roll down to be a variety for proelia omnium venthe ice to the sea,' would be rather ap- torum.' 'I have seen all the armies of the plicable to a thaw, which, as Keightley winds meet in the shock of battle.' The reminds us, is not the time for hunting. winds are supposed to be blowing from all

311-334.] *Autumn and spring have quarters at once, as in A. 1. E5 (note)., their special perils. Just when harvest is 2. 416. Comp. Daniel 7. 2, “The four beginning, a hurricane will come and tear winds of heaven strove upon the great up the corn from the ground, or a thunder

Lucr. talks of Ventorum paces,' storm will burst on the field in all its 5. 1230, compared by Cerda.

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Quae gravidam late segetem ab radicibus imis
Sublimem expulsam eruerent; ita turbine nigro 320
Ferret hiemps culmumque levem stipulasque volantis.
Saepe etiam inmensum caelo venit agmen aquarum,
Et foedam glomerant tempestatem imbribus atris
Collectae ex alto nubes ; ruit arduus aether,
Et pluvia ingenti sata laeta boumque labores

325
Diluit ; inplentur fossae, et cava flumina crescunt
Cum sonitu, fervetque fretis spirantibus aequor.

Ipse Pater media nimborum in nocte corusca 319.] ‘Late' with 'eruerent.' * Ab radi. into foulness. This would seem to be a cibus imis,' Lucr. l. 352.

case of ύστερον πρότερον, as the brewing 320.] ‘Sublimem'is restored by Wagn. of the storm would naturally precede the from Med. and Rom., for the old reading descent of the rain. But Keightley may be “sublime.' •Expulsam eruerent' is equiva- right in taking caelo, v. 322, as the dative, lent to expellerent et eruerent.' Ita' pro- the waters marching upon the sky, though bably introduces a comparison between the Lucr. 6. 257 (« Ut picis e caelo demissum hurricane that roots up the corn ('gra- flumen') is in favour of the common view. vidam segetem') and an ordinary gust 324.] • Ex alto' may very well be taken which wbirls about stubble ( culmumque from the deep,' which would doubtless be levem stipulasque volantis'). The two the truer view of the phenomenon; but things compared are perhaps not suf- on the whole it seems more probable that ficiently distinct, but the point is the ease Virgil meant to represent clouds as muswith which the work is done. But for the tered from on high, collectae,' like 'gloopposition of the epithets, 'ita' would more merant,' keeping up the military associanaturally mean to such an extent,' tions already introduced by agmen.' furiously,' as twice in a similar passage, • Ruit aether,' like 'Aether descendit' Lucr. 1. 275, 286, “ita perfurit acri Cum 2. 325, . caeli ruina' A. 1. 129, an image fremitu, saevitque minaci murmure pon- explained by Lucr. 6. 291, “ Omnis uti tus ... ita magno turbidus imbri Molibus videatur in imbrem vertier aether.” “Down incurrens validis cum viribus amnis Dat crashes the whole dome of the firmament.' sonitu magno stragem.” Wagner's inter- 325.] ‘Sata laeta boumque labores,' pretation, making ita' a particle of transi. A. 2. 306, a translation of õpya Bowv, tion, and connecting ‘ eruerent' with “ferret,' Hes. Works 46. Homer in the parallel is rather far fetched.

passage has έργο ανθρώπων. Virgil, as 322.] The first part of the following Ursinus remarks, seems to have imitated description seems to be modelled on Lucr. Αpoll. R. 4. 1282, ήέ τιν' όμβρον"Ασπετον, 6. 253 foll., the latter on Hom. Il. 16. ÖOTE Bowv katà pupía ēkiuoev žpya. 384 foll. Venit agmen' is perhaps in- 326.] • Fossae,' v. 372, otherwise called tended to suggest the image of a column • colliciae' or colliquiae.' 'Cava :'“During marching, though the word may have à the summer months in Italy there is little more general meaning.

or no water in the beds of most of the 323.] So Lucr. l. c. of a storm, “trahit rivers, so that their channels may justly be atram Fulminibus gravidam tempestatem called hollow,' for they resemble a road runatque procellis," from which Wakefield con- ning between two high banks.” Keightley. jectured • fetam’ here. •Foedam’however 327.] • Fervet ... aequor :' “ Freta ciris supported by Lucr. 4. 169, “Tempestas cum Fervescunt graviter spirantibus incita perquam subito fit turbida foede Undique" flabris,” Lucr. 6. 427. Spirantibus,' of (which from another part of the passage it the sea, as in A. 10. 291, “Qua vada non is evident that Virg. had in his mind), spirant,” the violent heaving of the waves

tempestates foedae fuere,” Livy 25. 7, against the shore being compared to human passages which seem to show that 'tem- breathing. The sea glows again through pestatem' here is merely weather,’ ‘foedam' every panting inlet.' having the sense of ugly'or grim,'or, as we 328.] “Usque adeo, tetra nimborum should say, 'foul.' Glomerant' is perhaps nocte coorta, Inpendent atrae Formidinis to be taken with foedam,' thicken'or mass ora superne, Cum commoliri tempestas

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Fulmina molitur dextra ; quo maxuma motu
Terra tremit; fugere ferae, et mortalia corda

330
Per gentis humilis stravit pavor ; ille flagranti
Aut Athon, aut Rhodopen, aut alta Ceraunia telo
Deiicit; ingeminant austri et densissimus imber ;
Nunc nemora ingenti vento, nunc litora plangunt.
Hoc metuens, caeli menses et sidera serva ;

335 fulmina coeptat,” Lucr. 6. 253. “Ipse,' as Jast syllable of the nominative is to be in A. 5, 249., 12. 725, &c., seems to ex. made short. •Alta Ceraunia,' a half transpress not only dignity (above, v. 121), but lation of 'Akpoke pauviu, which Hor. 1 Od. personal exertion (A. 2. 321, &c.). Co- 3. 20 uses untranslated. The name Ke. rusca' with dextra' = 'coruscante.' So pavvia seems the commoner of the two. Sen. Hipp. 156, “ Vibrans corusca fulmen The fact of lightning striking the mounAetnaeum manu” (quoted by Forb.), an tains is urged by Lucr. 6. 420 as an arguimitation which shows how he understood ment against its supernatural origin, and Virgil.

explained by him physically ib. 458 foll. 329.] Molitur :' “validam in vitis mo. •Telo,' as Bédos, is used of the thunderbolt, lire bipennem,” 4. 331. The word is one Aesch. Prom. 358, and elsewhere. of rather wide application, generally imply- 333.] Dericit,' of lightning, A. 6. 581, ing effort in the agent or bulk in the Lucr. 5. 1125. “Telo deiicis,” A. 11.665. object, or both. · Quo motu,' referring to Here it is apparently intended that one of the sense rather than to the words of the the peaks is overthrown, though deiicit preceding sentence. So “ carmine quo," Athon telo' may only mean .deiicit telum 4. 348; quo gemitu," A. 2. 73. Forb. in Athon.'

Ingeminant:' it is observed comp. Sall. J. 114, Per idem tempus that the rain and wind increase after a thunadversum Gallos male pugnatum : quo metu derclap.

“ Quo de concussu (comp. 'quo Italia omnis contremuerat. Ea signa motu,' above) sequitur gravis imberet dedit,'

,” A. 2. 171; " hic nuntius esto," A. 4. uber,” Lucr. 6. 289. 237, are instances of the same principle. 334.] ‘ Plangunt,' intransitively, proSee Kritz on Sall. J. 54, ea formidine.' bably with a notion of wailing, in which

Maxuma,' a perpetual epithet, the yaia sense the participle occurs without an acTelwon of Hes. Theog. 173, &c., but cusative. “ Plangentia iungit Agmina,” acquiring force here from * tremit.'

A. 11. 145. The reflective “planguntur' 330.] Fugere' of instantaneous flight, would be more usual, even in this sense ; like . exiit,' 2. 81. The two perfects con- but the common use of 'plango' with an nected by 'et' apparently describe actions accusative of the person lamented may preconnected and simultaneous, the asyn- pare us for finding it used without an exdeton in the other clauses successive pressed object of any kind. Forb. and effects. Voss comp. Orpheus, Hymn 18. Jahn make austri' and `imber' the nomi. 13, "Ον και γαία πέφρικε θάλασσά τε native, which seems less forcible and approπαμφανόωσα, Και θήρες πτήσσουσιν, priate. • Plangit,' the reading of Rom., ötav KTÚTOS ovas doélon, Cerda Hes. adopted by Masvicius and Wakefield, Works 511, &c., where the effect on the would be awkward, whether the nominative various beasts is drawn out at length. were sought in ‘imber' or in ‘Iuppiter.'

331.] · Humilis' qualifies • stravit. Virg. Doubly loud howls the south wind, may have thought of Lucr. 5. 1218 foll. doubly thick gathers the cloud of rain, and

332.] Partly from Theocr. 7. 77, ‘H under the blast's mighty stroke forest and 'Αθω ή Ροδόπαν ή Καύκασον έσχατόεντα. shore by turns wail in agony.' • Athon' is the reading of all the MSS. 335—350.] «The precautions to be ob. The early editors introduced. Atho’ as the served are attention to times and seasons, regular form of the Greek accusative. and observance of the rural deities, especially

Athon' however occurs elsewhere, both in Ceres, who is to be worshipped duly in the verse and prose (e. g. Livy 45. 30, Val. spring of each year, with offerings of milk, Fl. 1. 164, in which latter passage the final wine, and honey, and the ceremony of leadsyllable is shortened as here). Accepting ing a victim round the young corn with a it, we must assume a form "Ados, which rustic procession.' agrees with a precept laid down by Serv. 335.] A virtual repetition of vv. 204 foll. on A. 12. 701, Prisc. 6. 13. 70, that the "Sidera' is not here to be restricted to the

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