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205

Praeterea tam sunt Arcturi sidera nobis
Haedorumque dies servandi et lucidus Anguis,
Quam quibus in patriam ventosa per aequora vectis
Pontus et ostriferi fauces temptantur Abydi.
Libra die somnique pares ubi fecerit horas,

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have had occasionally in an apodosis, as in Vetches, kidney-beans, and lentiles may be the XII Tables, “Si in jus vocat, atque eat," sown from the setting of Arcturus till midthough the instances of similar use in winter.' later Latin are not clearly made out. But 204.] ‘Arcturi,' v. 68. ÚTÒ Gwvp dè oi the usage of Virgil in similes of this sort (as (βοώτη) αυτός Έξ άλλων άρκτούρος ελίσa friend has remarked to me) is in favour of gerai aupaõòv áotńg, Arat. Ph. 94. Both connecting' atque' with remisit.' He does the rising and setting of Arcturus are atnot expressly introduce an apodosis on such tended with storms, so that Arcturus says occasions, but makes his whole sentence de- of himself (Plaut. Rud. Prol. 71, referred to pend on the quam' or 'si' which follows by Forb.) “ Vehemens sum exoriens, cum the .non aliter' or ' haud secus' following occido, vehementior.” the simile. Comp. A. 4. 669, “ Non aliter 205.] The Kids are two stars in the arm quam si ... ruat :: Karthago . . , flam- of the Charioteer (Nentà pasivovrai ēpipou maeque volvantur;" 8. 243, “Haud secus kapròv Karà xelpós, Arat. Ph. 166), ac si ... terra ... reseret ... et ... reclu- which rise April 25th and Sept. 27th-29th,

superque. pandatur, trepident- and bring storms. “ Pluvialibus Haedis" que.” This is also Wunderlich's view. A. 9. 668. (Serv.) Anguis,' v. 244, near • Retro sublapsus refertur' is of course un- the North Pole. derstood after • Non aliter, quam' to com- 206.] “As useful to the husbandman as plete the sentence grammatically, the sub- to the sailor,' who first gave attention to ject of it being the rower, 'qui ... subigit.' the stars, v. 137. With the language comp. • Illum' is doubtless the lembus' which A. 6. 335. · Vectis' raises a difficulty, as is distinguished from the rower. So in the sailors have not returned home: but Catull. 63 (65). 23, the original of the pre- the words may mean whose way home lies sent line (quoted by Keightley, who how- over stormy waters,' the stress being laid ever mistakes atque,' which couples on ventosa per aequora,' and the participle agitur' with “excutitur,' or perhaps with perhaps implying that they have sailed 'procurrit), “Atque illud prono praeceps home ere now, and so that sailing is their agitur decursu," illud ' is contrasted with calling. Or it may be simpler to say that "huic. Wagn. accounts for atque' by 'vectis' virtually * euntibus,' which might supplying • retro sublapsus refertur ' before be substituted for it in A. 6, 1. c. it, and making the whole into an apodosis ; 207.] •Ostriferi

Aspra but he quotes no similar instance. Several ostrea plurima Abydi,”. Enn. Hedyph. 2. other views have been or might be sug- Ora.Hellespontia, ceteris ostreosior oris," gested, with more or less plausibility: none Catull. 18. 4. of them, however, seems to have any real 208.] · Libra :' see on v. 33. Die,' the likelihood as against that adopted above. reading of almost all the MSS., is acAlveus' the channel of the river, from knowledged by Priscian, Donatus, and which it is easy to infer the notion of the Probus as an old form of the genitive, current. Otherwise it might be proposed found also in Sall. Jug. 21 (where see to understand it of the vessel, 'illum’ being Kritz), 52, 97, die extremum erat,' die referred to the rower, though the imitations vesper erat,' parte die reliqua. Chain Sen. Ag. 497, Hipp. 182, Thy. 438 risius defends dii,' a form introduced by (quoted by Cerda), look the other way. some editors in A. J. 636 (note). Gellius

204—230.] “The husbandman has as (9. 14) says in a copy reputed to be much need to know the stars as the sailor. Virgil's own the reading was dies,' a third Sowing

barley may begin when the sun is form, which he parallels from Ennius (Ann. in the Balance, and go on till mid-winter: 401), “ Postremae longinqua dies conflax and poppies too. The rising of the fecerat aetas." Wagn. inclines to this, Bull is the time for sowing beans, lucerne, regarding dies' however as the acc. pl. and millet. Wheat must not be sown till Pares,' referring to the autumnal equinox. the Pleiades and the Crown are set : to at- So Lucan 8. 467, Tempus erat quo tempt it earlier only leads to failure. Libra pares examinat horas."

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210

Et medium luci atque umbris iam dividit orbem,
Exercete, viri, tauros, serite hordea campis,
Usque sub extremum brumae intractabilis imbrem ;
Nec non et lini segetem et Cereale papaver
Tempus humo tegere, et iamdudum incumbere aratris,
Dum sicca tellure licet, dum nubila pendent.
Vere fabis satio ; tum te quoque, Medica, putres

215

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210.] · Exercete,' plough for seed. can be at once resolved into a noun, and

211.] · Extremum imbrem’ can hardly we know that it was formerly so regarded be the end of the rainy season, as this pre- in Greek, from

the custom of prefixing the cept is apparently meant to be parallel to article to it. Every solution that has been v. 214; so that Keightley seems right in attempted of the expressions in question supposing it to refer to the winter, regarded in fact involves this substantival use of the as the end of the year, unless we could take infinitive. It would seem to follow then it of the beginning of the rainy season, 'the that the construction of the infinitive-in very verge. Intractabilis' like .non trac- other words, the case of the noun-must be tabile caelum,' A. 4. 53, that cannot be determined in each instance by the structure dealt with,' or, as we should say, 'imprac- of the particular passage. In the expresticable,' i. e. when no work can be done. sion.mos est gestare,' it seems simplest to

212.] • Lini ... papaver.' See vv. 77, regard "gestare' as a nominative; in «mo78. "Segetem,' proleptic. “Cereale :' Ceres dus inserere,'.inserere seems as plainly to was represented with poppies in her hands. be a genitive. The present passage and She was said to have introduced the poppy, A. 2. 10 are more doubtful. On the whole consoling herself with its seeds in her grief however the genitive seems the more profor Proserpine, and to have fed Triptolemus bable construction in each. But it is dif

ficult to say what is absolutely true where, 213.] ‘Humo tegere,' of sowing, as in as in all these passages, both alternatives 3. 558 of burying. A question has been are equally sanctioned by the usages of lanraised whether tempus tegere' is to be guage, while it might be plausibly argued explained tempus est tegendi' or “tegere that the framers of the expression, so far (satio) tempus (tempestivum est).' The as we can conceive them to have gone to same difference of opinion exists with work consciously, may have had both soluregard to other expressions of the same tions in their mind, and taken advantage of kind, some asserting, others denying, the the ambiguity. "Iamdudum' is explained gerundial construction. Thus modus in- by the next line, which implies that the serere' (2. 73) is resolved by some into time is short, and ploughing should take modus inserendi,' while others make it a place without delay. “Iamdudum sumite construction .ad sensum,' as if Virgil. had poenas,” A. 2. 103. For aratris' the Rom. said, 'nec solemus inserere uno tantum and the first reading of Med. give . rastris ;' modo.' “Mos est. . . gestare,' A. 1. 336, but the context shows that ploughing is may be similarly explained mos est ges- meant. • Incumbere,' like curvus arator,' tandi' or 'gestare (gestatio) mos est.' So E. 3. 42. " The flax was sown all through in A. 2. 10 amor cognoscere,' opinions October and November, the poppy in Sepwaver between taking cognoscere' as tember and October. We sow flas only cognoscendi,' amor est cognoscere'as in the spring on account of the severity

amas cognoscere,' and 'cognoscere'as of our winter.” Keightley. a nom., 'amor' meaning 'a thing loved.' 214.] ‘Pendent,' because they do not Other instances containing some specific yet come down, 'ruunt.' differences might be collected from Virgil, 215.] · Vere:' Virgil was thinking of but perhaps these will suffice. The first the custom of the Mantuan district (Pliny thing to remark seems to be that there is 18. 12). In the warmer parts of Italy nothing unaccountable in the supposition beans were sown in autumn, as Varro

infinitive may be used gerundially, (1. 34) and others direct. • Medica,' i. e., in these instances, stand for a noun Mnderý (Tróu), 'lucerne,' said to have in the genitive. The infinitive is really been introduced into Greece in the invaequivalent to a noun for almost every sion of Darius (Pliny 18. 16), sown in purpose; even where it follows a verb it April or May. Putres' seems to be em

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Accipiunt sulci, et milio venit annua cura :
Candidus auratis aperit cum cornibus annum
Taurus, et adverso cedens Canis occidit astro.
At si triticeam in messem robustaque farra
Exercebis humum solisque instabis aristis,

220
Ante tibi Eoae Atlantides abscondantur
Gnosiaque ardentis decedat stella Coronae,
Debita quam sulcis committas semina, quamque
Invitae properes anni spem credere terrae.
Multi ante occasum Maiae

coepere ;
sed illos

225 Exspectata seges vanis elusit aristis. phatic, as Col. (2. 11) says that the land the Dog does not really turn from the Bull, where it is to be sown should be ploughed but continues to confront him even when up in October, and lie fallow (“putrescere') retiring. On the whole “adverso' seems through the winter.

preferable, as giving the more consistent 216.] •Milio,' millet. • Annua cura,' image, at the same time that the weight of to distinguish it from lucerne, which lasted MSS. is in its favour. ten years in the ground. Sen., Ep. 86, 219.] ‘Robusta,' Theophr., Caus. Pl. charges Virgil with inaccuracy, saying that 4. 6, mentions at upòs û kpion among tà he had himself seen beans reaped and io xupórara, and Pliny says (13. 8), "ex millet sown on the same day towards the omni [frumentorum] genere durissimum end of June, the fact being that the time far et contra hiemes firmissimum.” of sowing varied according to the climate, 220.] “Solis,' as opposed to the produce and that Virgil here again is speaking of a just mentioned, v. 215 foll. • Instabis colder latitude.

aristis,' like “instans operi regnisque fu217.] · Candidus ... astro,' a periphrasis turis,” A. 1. 504. • Press on with an arfor 'vere.' • In spring time, when the dour which only corn can satisfy.' sun with Taurus rides.' The allusion, as 221.] 'Atlantides,'the Pleiades, daughters Keightley points out, is to the milk white of Atlas. These set. Eoae,' in the morning, bulls with gilded horns which appeared in about November 11 according to Pliny 2. the triumphal processions at Rome, though 47, about October 20 according to Col. 2. they did not strictly speaking lead the way 8., 11. 2. (see on 2. 148). Whether auratis cor- 222.] Gnosia-stella Coronae :' oré. nibus' is meant to be taken descriptively φανος, τον αγανός έθηκε Σήμ' έμεναι with “taurus,' or instrumentally with Διόνυσος, απoιχομένης 'Αριάδνης, Arat.

aperit' is not clear. The former is main- Phaen. 71. Virgil follows Democritus in tained by Serv., who observes that the bull Geop. 2. 14 and Ptolemy in placing the rises with his back, not with his horns, and setting of the Crown between November 15 seems more reasonable, as there would be and December 19. Others (Col. 11. 2, &c.) no natural propriety in the image of a bull placed its rising about the same time, though using his horns to open a gate. Aperit' earlier (about October 8), and Serv. accordis illustrated by the etymology of Aprilis.' ingly would understand decedat’of retiring

218.] The MSS. are divided between from the Sun. Its sense however is fixed • adverso' and 6 averso.' The latter was by such passages as v. 450, E. 2. 67. restored by Heins. : but the former is found Stella, perhaps because one star in the in Rom. and Med., and has been preferred Crown is brighter, and rises earlier than the by Heyne and subsequent editors. If ad- rest: but the distinction between stella' is read,

• astro’ is probably the and sidus’ was sometimes overlooked. dative, signifying the Bull, from whose me- 223.] • Ere you charge the furrows with nacing front the Dog is supposed to retire, the seed which they have begun to want, or though as the reference is to the heliacal force the care of a whole year's hopes on a setting of Sirius, i.e. his obscuration by the reluctant soil.'

astro has been taken of the sun. 224.] •Invitae,' like 'properes,' refers in • Averso' would be the abl., perhaps the thought, though not grammatically, to the abl. abs., expressing the flight of the Dog, earth before the proper sowing time. whose tail and feet disappear before his head

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225.] Maia'

was one of the Pleiades. and shoulders." Voss however objects that 226.] The old reading was 'avenis :'

sun,

230

Si vero viciamque seres vilemque phaselum
Nec Pelusiacae curam aspernabere lentis,
Haud obscura cadens mittet tibi signa Bootes :
Incipe, et ad medias sementem extende pruinas.

Idcirco certis dimensum partibus orbem
Per duodena regit mundi Sol aureus astra.
Quinque tenent caelum zonae ; quarum una corusco
Semper sole rubens et torrida semper ab igni;

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Heins. restored • aristis' from Med., Rom., A. 6. 350 ; “ Nulla viam fortuna regit,” and others, and a quotation in Nonius. See 12. 405. “Mundi' with “astra,' like “ sinote on v. 195. · Avenis ’ is supported by dera mundi,” Lucr. 1. 788., 2. 328., 5. 514. the belief already alluded to on E. 5. 37, “Sol aureus :' “simul aureus exoritur Sol," that corn had a tendency to degenerate into Enn. A. 95. wild oats if it lay too long in the ground. 233.] This passage down to v. 251 seems Col. (11. 2) mentions an old saying among to be thrown in to give a notion of the magfarmers, “ Maturam sationem saepe deci- nitude and fixity of the mundane system. pere solere: seram nunquam quin mala The description of the zones is taken from sit."

a passage in the Hermes of Eratosthenes, 227.] The spelling of phaselus' has preserved by Achilles Tatius, and in part been restored from Med. and others of the by Heraclides of Pontus. It may be worth older MSS.

while to quote it in extenso : 228.] “ Accipe Niliacam, Pelusia munera, lentem : Vilior est alica, carior illa faba,'

πέντε δε οι ζώναι περιειλάδες έσπείρηντο, Mart. 13. 9.

αι δύο μέν γλαυκολο κελαινότεραι κυάνοιο,229.] ‘Bootes,' v. 204, otherwise called pia Yapapń te kai és tupòs olov. Arctophylax, sets acronychally from October

ερυθρή. 29 to November 2. Kidney-beans ('pha

η μεν έήν μεσάτη, εκέκαυτο δε πάσα περιseli') were sown a month earlier when they

προ were intended for eating, not for seed. Coi. τυπτομένη φλoγμοίσιν, επεί ρα 8 μοίραν 1l. 2, § 72. Vetches from Col. 2. 10 ap

υπ' αυτήν pear to have been sown twice a year, in κεκλιμένην ακτίνες αειθερέες πυρόωσιν, January and in the autumnal equinox.

αι δε δύω εκάτερθε πόλoις περιπεπτηυΐαι 231-251.] “It is to ensure this regular αιεί κρυμαλέαι, αιεί δ' ύδασιν μογέουσαι: succession of the various seasons that the ου μεν ύδωρ, αλλ' αυτός απ' ουρανόθεν sun makes bis yearly way along the zodiac.

κρύσταλλος There are five Zones, one torrid, two frigid, κειται αναμπέσχε περίψυκτος δε τέone at each extreme, and two temperate

τυκτο. (κείτ', αίαν τ' αμπέσχε ?). between them and the torrid. Through the αλλά τα μεν χερσαία, και άμβατά ανθρώtemperate zones passes the zodiac. There are two poles, one rising over our heads, δοιαι δ' άλλαι έασιν εναντίαι αλλήλησι the other extending below us into the μεσσηγύς θέρεός τε και υετίου κρυστάλλου, depths. In the former are placed the Ser- άμφω εύκρητοί τε και όμπνιον άλδίσκουσαι pent and the Bears : the latter is either in καρπόν 'Ελευσίνης Δημητέρος: έν δέ μιν perpetual darkness, or visited by the sun

άνδρες while he is away from us.'

αντίποδες ναίoυσι. 231.] Virgil's meaning is that these Comp. also Ov. M. 1. 45 foll., Tibull. 4. 1. various seasons depend in fact on the sun's 151.' An unimportant fragment on the yearly course in the heavens. Certis par- zones from a poem by Varro Atacinus is

seem to be the twelve divisions of preserved by Isidorus Hispalensis and Bede the zodiac. Orbem :' “Annuus exactis (Wernsdorf's Poet. Lat. Min. vol. 5, p. completur mensibus orbis,” A. 5. 46. 1403). •Caelum,' because the zones of

232.] ‘Duodena' may be intended, as heaven answer to the zones of earth, and Forb. thinks, to refer to the annual course determine their character. Macrobius disof the sun, which as it were sees twelve cusses the subject Somn. S. 2. 7. signs in each circuit : but it seems simpler 234.] 'Ab igni’ is a translation of įk to make it = duodecim.' Regit,' of Tupós in Eratosth. Ordinarily we should directing a way. Cursusque regebam,” have expected the abl. instr. Madvig, $ 254,

ποισι.

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Quam circum extremae dextra laevaque trahuntur, 235
Caerulea glacie concretae atque imbribus atris ;
Has inter mediamque duae mortalibus aegris
Munere concessae divom, et via secta per ambas,
Obliquus qua se signorum verteret ordo.
Mundus, ut ad Scythiam Rhipaeasque arduus arces

240
Consurgit, premitur Libyae devexus in austros.
Hic vertex nobis semper sublimis; at illum
Sub pedibus Styx atra videt Manesque profundi.

Maxumus hic flexu sinuoso elabitur Anguis obs. 2, quotes “sidere siccata ab aestu,” tical usage attaches an adjective or partiOv. M. 6, 341.

ciple to a noun as its absolute property : 235.] • Trahuntur' expresses extent, like here the adjective or participle belongs to 'tractus,' and is meant to translate nepio the noun only contingently on the relation πεπτηνίαι.

of the noun to the verb. Thus in the pre236.] Caeruleus' is used somewhat sent line the order of the signs is oblique widely to express various colours of a dull not in itself but in reference to its revolublue or green sort, being to a certain extent, tion. The principle is the same as in cases as Dr. Arnold remarked, the antipodes of of prolepsis. The language here is not purpureus' (E. 5. 38, note). So in A. 3. strictly accurate, as it was not the zodiac 194., 5. 10, it is used of a black storm- but the sun that was supposed to move. cloud (answering to atris' here), in G. 4. 240.] Virgil goes on to describe the 482., A. 7. 346, of a serpent. The mention Poles, North and South, speaking of the of ice seems

more appropriate to the one as elevated and visible, the other as de. earthly than to the heavenly zones, as pressed and invisible. Scythia' is used Keightley observes : but Virgil was doubt- for the North generally, as in 3. 349. less thinking of the sky as the parent of ice. The “Rhipaeae (pian) arces' (' arces

237.] • Mortalibus aegris,' Lucr. 6. ). of mountains, “Rhodopeiae arces,' 4. 461) Homer's deiloioi Bporcio. Comp. also A. were supposed to separate the land of the 2. 268, where there is a similar juxtaposition Hyperboreans from the rest of the world. of man's weakness and heaven's indulgence. Comp. 3. 381., 4. 517. Here these counThe ancients supposed only the temperate tries are made to stand for the northernzones to be habitable : consequently, as dis- most point, not only of earth, but of the covery advanced, the area occupied by those mundane system, as Libya for the southernzones was extended, so that instead of five most. parts or thirty degrees (from 24° to 54°), 242.] ‘Vertex' is a translation of polus.' the space originally allotted to them, they “Extremusque adeo duplici de cardine verwere made to contain seven parts, to 66o. tex Dicitur esse polus,” Cic. N. D. 2. 41

238.] • Et’ is added by Wagn. before (translating Aratus). via secta' from Med. and other MSS. 243.] The infernal regions were supposed The position of the zodiac is thus referred to be in the centre of the earth (comp. 2. to the divine clemency. “Per' is rightly 292): so here they are said to be over the explained by Macr. Somn. S. 2. 8, as equi. south pole. • Sub pedibus' is to be convalent to .inter,' as the sun never enters nected with videt,' the first being those of the temperate zones. That which goes be- Styx and the Manes : but 'videt' of course tween two connected objects goes through is not to be pressed, as if it were meant the pair. So v. 245, per duas Arctos." that the south pole were actually visible Comp. Ov. M. 2. 130, “Sectus in obliquum from the shades. Arat. Phaen. 25, says of est lato curvamine limes, Zonarumque the poles, al' ó pèy oux riontoc, ò 8° trium contentus fine, polumque Effugit aus- αντίος εκ βορέαο, Υψόθεν ωκεανοίο. tralem, junctamque Aquilonibus Arcton.” 244-246.] Imitated again from Arat.

239.] Obliquus with "se verteret. Phaen. 45 : So “sese tulit obvia," A. 1. 314; “ Infert se septus nebula,” Ib. 439. The use of the Tάς δε δι' αμφοτέρας, οίη ποταμοίο απορparticiple in such expressions as

"" sensit

ρώξ, medios delapsus in hostes,” A. 2. 377, is Ειλείται, μέγα θαύμα, δράκων, περί τ' αμφί of the same kind. The ordinary gramma- τ' εαγώς,

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