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160

Falce premes umbram, votisque vocaveris imbrem,
Heu, magnum alterius frustra spectabis acervum,
Concussaque famem in silvis solabere quercu.

Dicendum et, quae sint duris agrestibus arma,
Quis sine nec potuere seri nec surgere messes :
Vomis et inflexi primum grave robur aratri,
Tardaque Eleusinae matris volventia plaustra,
Tribulaque, traheaeque, et iniquo pondere rastri ;
Virgea praeterea Celei vilisque supellex,
Arbuteae crates et mystica vannus Iacchi.
Omnia

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multo ante memor provisa repones, Si te digna manet divini gloria ruris.

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157.] • Umbram’ is restored by Wagn. duced like Celeus and Bacchus, to give a from Med. and Rom. for 'umbras.' religious dignity to what might otherwise • Premes,' like “premant vitem,” Hor. 1

seem trivial.

Eleusinus novavit poeta Od. 31. 9. • Votis :' vows were paid to pro vulgari 'Elevoivios," Heyne. The Jupiter Pluvius (Tibull. 1. 7. 26). There waggons apparently belong to her merely were similar invocations at Athens. M. as the goddess of husbandry, as the conAnton. 5. 7, ευχή Αθηναίων υσον, ύσον, veyances used in the Eleusinian processions ώ φίλε Ζεύ, κατά της αρούρας της Αθη- were not plaustra,' but tensae.' • Matris' ναίων και των πεδίων.

is sufficiently explained by Anuntnp, with. 158.] This line is modelled on Lucr. out referring to the appellation which the 2. 2, “ magnum alterius spectare laborem,' Italians are supposed to have given to their and is itself imitated by Hor. 2 Od. 2. 24, goddesses (Keightley, Myth. p. 451). “ingentes oculo inretorto Spectat acervos. 164.] Tribulum,’ τα τρίβολα, και The sense resembles Hes. Works 394, 6s threshing-sledge.' Fit e tabula lapidibus τοι έκαστα "Ωριάέξηται· μή πως τα aut ferro asperata, quo imposito auriga aut μεταξύ χατίζων Πτώσσης αλλοτρίους pondere grandi trahitur lumentis anctis οίκους και μηδεν ανύσσης. • Acervum,' ut discutiat e spica grana,”' Varro, R. R. I. v. 185. For • spectabis' two MSS. have 52. This writer then mentions another • expectabis,' one .sperabis.'

kind made “ex assibus dentatis cum orbi. 159.] "You will have to end where men culis, quod vocant plostellum poenicum." began, and fall back upon acorns.' Ob- One of these was perhaps the traha' (or

in silvis,' the sense of wild life im- * trahea '). The tribulum' (' trebbio,' It. ; plying a contrast to `in arvo.' The thought • trillo,' Sp.) is still used in the East, in is not unlike Lucr. 5. 206 foll.

Spain, and in the south of Italy.” Keightley. 160—175.] *The implements for 165.] 'Celeus,' Kɛlɛós, father of Tripfarmer are ploughs, waggons, thrashing tolemus and Demophon, and himself the instruments, harrows, baskets, hurdles, and first priest of Demeter at Eleusis. The fans. The plough has several parts, made 'virgea supellex ' seems to include baskets, from the wood of different trees, which colanders, &c. (E. 2. 71., 10. 71., G. 1. 266., should be well seasoned.'

2. 241), as well as the hurdles and the fan. 160.] • Duris agrestibus,' A. 7. 504. 166.] The winnowing-fan was carried in · Arma :' “Cerealiaque arma," A. 1. 177. the Eleusinian processions in honour of

161.] • Nec potuere seems equivalent to Iacchus, the son of Demeter and Zeus, have never been able.'

sometimes confounded with Bacchus (as by 162.] • Robur aratri,' like 'robur ferri,' Virgil, E. 6. 15., 7. 51), sometimes distin. A. 7. 609, Lucr. 2. 449, robur saxi,' guished from him (Dict. B.). Lucr. 1. 882. The expression seems to be 167.] Imitated from Hes. Works 457, an Ornamental one, not necessarily denoting των πρόσθεν μελέτην εχέμεν οίκήϊα θέσθαι. a heavy plough for deep ploughing, which 'Memor' seems to be a translation of uenia would not be suited to all soils. Inflexi' vnuévos, Id. ib. 422. In the whole of the is explained by vv. 169, 170.

present passage Virgil probably had that 163.] •Tarda '

qualifies 'volventia.' part of Hesiod's poem before his mind. • Eleusinae matris,' Ceres, who is intro- 168.] •If you are destined (manet') to

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170

Continuo in silvis magna vi flexa domatur
In burim et curvi formam accipit ulmus aratri.
Huic ab stirpe pedes temo protentus in octo,
Binae aures, duplici aptantur dentalia dorso.
Caeditur et tilia ante iugo levis, altaque fagus
Stivaque, quae cursus a tergo torqueat imos ;

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win and wear the honours of the divine 172.] “ Auris,' a mould-board. When country.' Digna' is explained by Serv. the plough was prepared for seed-sowing,

si te capit dignitas ruris,' in which case it the 'aures' or tabellae' (Varro 1. 29) were would mean deemed worthy by you,' like put to the vomer,' so that it then resem"nec fuit indignum superis,” v. 491 (note). bled our strike-furrow plough. Pliny (18. Keightley renders it deserved.' It might 20) would seem to speak of only one'auris,' also mean the full glory,' i. e. 'glory such but perhaps his words are not to be taken as would be worth ambition.' See on v. strictly." Keightley. " • Dentale, ēluua, 507. •Divini ’ is another attempt to revive the share beam, or share-head, a piece the sacred associations of rural life. The of wood fixed horizontally at the lower end same tone is perceptible in manet.'

of the buris,' and to which the share was 169.] Continuo’ is explained by “in fitted. In some cases the dentale’ was silvis.' The words can only mean that the itself shod with iron. It is not certain young elm while yet in the woods is bent whether it was one solid piece of timber, and made to grow in the required shape, with a space to admit the end of the buris,' whatever may be thought of the possibility or two pieces fastened on each side of it and of the thing, which Keightley denies. running to a point: the former seems the

170.] “* Buris,' also urvum,'yúns, more probable, and the duplici dorso' of the plough-beam. We have nothing in Virgil may only allude to its position as on our plough exactly answering to the 'buris.' each side of the buris,' and its support of the It was a piece of strong wood, naturally or two "aures.' The plural dentalia' is used artificially curved, to one end of which was by this poet in speaking of one plough, but affixed the pole, to the other the dentale, it is probably nothing more than a usual and into it was morticed the “stiva.' It poetic licence. Hesiod directs the .dentale' therefore formed the body of the plough, to be made of oak.” Id. According to which from its shape is termed by Lucretius Daubeny, the dentale' is a share of wood, curvum ' [as here]. ... In Virgil's plough made double by a share of iron placed over the "buris' is of elm, while in that of Hesiod it so as to realize the duplex dorsum.' it is of ilex (7 pivos).” Keightley. Dau. 173.] “ • Iugum,' Suyós, yoke. This beny (p. 101), following Seguier, identifies was a piece of wood, straight in the middle the Virgilian and Hesiodic ploughs with one and curved towards the ends, which was atstill used in the south of France under the tached to the end of the pole of the plough name of the Herault plough, where there is or cart, and went over the necks of the a 'buris' called • basse.' Seguier however oxen, which drew by means of it. It was considers Hesiod's ēl vua to be the buris,' by the neck the oxen drew." Keightley. bis yung being the dentale.'

174.] “ Stiva,' _ xétın, the plough-tail, 171.] “Temo,' puuós (in Hesiod ioto- or handle. The stiva was originally Bočúc], the pole. The • temo' was part morticed into the “buris.' but it sometimes of the plough, as well as of a cart or formed one piece with it. It had a cross carriage. The yoke was fastened to the piece named 'manicula,' by which the end of it, and by means of it the oxen ploughman held and directed the plough.” drew. Hesiod (Works 435) says it Keightley. "Stivaque’ is the reading of should be of elm or bay.” Keightley, who all the MSS., one omitting the following word remarks that protentus' had better be quae.' Martyn, followed by Forb., Voss, taken as a verb, instead of supplying “ap- and Wunderlich, conjectures • stivae,' which tatur,' as the “temo' is not fitted on like would at once clear up the sense : but the the . aures' and dentalia.' But aptantur' change, besides its want of authority, would probably refers to the shaping of the pieces not improve the metre, and the MSS. readof wood, not to fitting ihem on to the ing may be only a poetical way of saying plough. So A. 1. 552, “et silvis aptare the same thing, by the help of a hendiadys. trabes.' * Ab stirpe’ is restored by Wagn. The other alternative, keeping stivaque,' from Med. a m. sec. for a stirpe.'

is to place the comma after • fagus,' and

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175

Et suspensa focis explorat robora fumus.

Possum multa tibi veterum praecepta referre,
Ni refugis tenuisque piget cognoscere curas.
Area cum primis ingenti aequanda cylindro
Et vertenda manu et creta solidanda tenaci,
Ne subeant herbae, neu pulvere victa fatiscat,
Tum variae inludant pestes: saepe exiguus mus

180

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take 'que' in ‘altaque'as virtually equiva- mary of their results is thus given by lent to “ve'--'the light linden-tree or the Keightley. An elevated spot, to which tall beech is cut beforehand for the yoke.' the wind would have free access, was to be For .currus’ Wagn. reads .cursus' from selected, but care was to be taken that it two MSS.; "currus’ however is naturally should not be on the side from which the enough applied to a plough in motion, as wind usually blew on the house and garden, in Catull. 62 (64). 9 of a ship, as if a plough as the chaff was injurious to trees and vegewere a species of carriage, containing as it tables. It was to be circular in form, and

temo' and a iugum’ at least. elevated a little in the centre, so that the Serv. says that in Virgil's own parts wheel. rain might not lie on it. It was sometimes ploughs were used, as was the case in Pliny's flagged, but was more usually formed of time (18. 18) in Gaul, and is still in Lom- argilla,' with which chaff and 'amurga bardy.

were well mixed. It was then made solid 175.] So in Hes. Works 45, 629 the rud- and level with rammers or a rolling-stone, der is to be hung in the smoke, as in Aris- in order that it might not crack and so give toph. Ach. 279 the shield when war is over. harbour to mice, ants, or any other vermin, * Explorat' seems to combine the notions and that grass might not grow on it. Beof searching (drying) and testing. Before side the area was a building named Heins. the reading was “exploret :' but the nubilarium,' into which the corn was car. context is descriptive, not directly precep- ried when there appeared any danger of tive. On the whole subject of Virgil's rain or storm.” Sometimes the area plough see Keightley's Terms of Husbandry, covered (Varro, 1. c.), but generally it was annexed to his edition, s. v. ' Aratrum,' and in the open air. “ Cum primis dicebant Daubeny, Lect. 3.

pro eo quod est in primis,” Gell. 17. 2. 176—186.] “There are many precepts of The question entertained, if not raised, husbandry to be learnt-for instance, the by Forb. between 'cum primis' (= 'inter threshing-floor should be made thoroughly primos') and cumprimis' (= `praecipue') smooth and hard that it may not gape, and seems to be really a question as to the word leave room first for weeds and then for ani- or words with which cum primis' is to be mals of all kinds.'

connected : e. g. in the present line it might 176.] With this use of 'possum'comp. be taken with area,' or with ingenti,' or Plaut. Trin. 2. 2. 104, “ Multa ego possum with ‘aequanda.' Here it seems best to refer docta dicta et quamvis facunde loqui,' it to what has gone before, the ' multa praewhere Lindemann explains “possum ; sed cepta,' of which this that follows is the first. nolo nunc,' and see other instances in Kritz 179.] Vertenda manu, as Serv. reon Sall. C. 51. 4. • Tibi :' Maecenas is marks, really precedes aequanda cylindro,' addressed throughout as the ideal reader, as as the preparation of the floor is the first Memmius by Lucr. Keightley well comp. thing. • Creta' = 'argilla,' as in 2. 215, Lucr. 1. 400, “Multaque praeterea tibi pos- as appears from Varro, 1. c. sum commemorando Argumenta fidem dictis 180.] “ Pulvere pro siccitate,” Philarconradere nostris.” Comp. also ib. v. 410, gyrius, the effect for the cause, if pulvere' “Quod si pigraris, paulumve recesseris ab is to be taken with victa ;' but it may be a re.

sort of modal abl. with • fatiscat,' like 177.] · Refugis,' from hearing, as in A. “rimis fatiscunt," A. l. 123. •Fatisco' 2. 12 from speaking. Observe the mood seems here to have both its original sense and tense, ' I can repeat ... but I see you of breaking into chinks, and its secondary start off'

one of exhaustion. In this latter sense it 178.] The chief passages in the writers is joined with victus,' as constantly in De Re Rust. referring to the construction of Lucr. with · fessus.'

or threshing-floor are Cato 91, 181.] •Inludent' was the old reading: 129, Varro ļ. 51, Col. 2. 19 (20), A sum- but Heins. restored inludant' from the

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Sub terris posuitque domos atque horrea fecit;
Aut oculis capti fodere cubilia talpae ;
Inventusque cavis bufo, et quae plurima terrae
Monstra ferunt; populatque ingentem farris acervum 185
Curculio, atque inopi metuens formica senectae.
Contemplator item, cum se nux plurima silvis
Induet in florem et ramos curvabit olentis.
Si superant fetus, pariter frumenta sequentur,
Magnaque cum magno veniet tritura calore;

190
At si luxuria foliorum exuberat umbra,

Nequiquam pinguis palea teret area culmos., best MSS. Mock the threshing-floor and in human language.

With the dat. comp. the husbandman's labour.' So in 2.375 the “ metuisse tuis,” A. 10. 94. It is well goats are said to mock the young vine. known that the ancients were in error about Pestes,' as injuring the floor and annoying the habits of the ant, which has no storethe husbandman. Exiguus mus :' Risi. houses, and remains torpid during the mus, et merito, nuper poetam, qui dixerat greater part of the winter. Praetextam in cista mures rosere Camilli. 187—192.] “The yield of corn is progAt Vergilii miramur illud : saepe exiguus nosticated by the walnut. If the tree bears

Nam epitheton exiguus aptum, pro- largely, the harvest will be good ; if there prium effecit, ne plus exspectaremus, et casus are many leaves and little fruit, bad.' singularis magis decuit, et clausula ipsa 187.] A second precept. 'Contemplator,' unius syllabae non usitata addidit gratiam. Lucr. 2. 114., 6. 189. • Nux’ is generally Imitatus est itaque utrumque Horatius, taken of the almond after Serv., Isidorus Nascetur ridiculus mus," Quinct. 8. 3. (17. 7) and Theophylact (Nat. Q. 17).

183.) This use of talpa 'as masc., like Martyn and Keightley, however, understand that of damma,'E. 8. 28, is noted by Quinct. it of the walnut, which is the more usual 9.3. Oculis capti :' “ Hannibal .... quia sense of the word, and agrees with .olentis.' medendi nec locus nec tempus erat, altero • Plurima' with 'induet,' like “ descendet oculo capitur," Livy 22. 2. The expression plurimus,” E. 7. 60. seems to come from the use of capi,' for 188.] •Induet in florem,' like “induerat 'to be injured, as in Lucr. 5. 929, “ Nec in vultus," A. 7. 20; “In fraudem induifacile ex aestu nec frigore quod caperetur, mus,” Lucr. 4. 817. • Curvabit,' as Wagn. Nec novitate cibi, nec labi corporis ulla,” remarks, is not strictly accurate, as branches the abl. with captus' showing the point in are weighed down by fruit, not by leaves or which the injury has been sustained. blossoms.

184.) • Inventus,' who is found in holes, 189.] . Superare' of abundance, 2. 330. and who therefore is likely to creep into “If a great number of the blossoms set, as holes. • Bufo’ is said to occur no where the gardeners term it.” Keightley. else in the classics.

190.] “Aestus nimios futuros significat, 185.] • Monstra,' used of hateful crea- cum abundantia frugum," Serv. He gives tures without reference to their size, as in the picture of the tritura'- hard work and 3. 152 of the gadfly. Populatque ingentem a broiling sun: comp. v. 298., 3. 132 foll. farris acervum," A. 4. 402.

Foliorum is emphatic, opp. to " • Curculio,' the weevil. This "fetus," umbra' general. "If the luxuri• larva' is known to be very destructive to ance of the shade is merely a luxuriance of corn and flour, but only in the granary. leaves.' Emm. comp. the word pullopaEven with us corn is not left long enough veiv. on the barn-floor to be attacked by it.” 192.] • Teret area,' v. 298.

• Nequi. Keightley. Varro, 1. 63, says that when quam' with ‘teret,' pinguis’ with palea.' weevils begin to devour corn, it should be Before Heins. the common reading was carried out and placed in the sun, with ves- 'paleae.' The tritura' was performed sels of water for the weevils to drown them- sometimes by the trampling of oxen, someselves in. •Inopi senectae ' is rightly ex- times by the tribulum'

• trahea' (see plained by Keightley as a poetical expres- on v. 164), sometimes (Col. 2. 21) by sion for the winter, the ant being spoken of “fustes,' flails or sticks.

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Semina vidi equidem multos medicare serentis
Et nitro prius et nigra perfundere amurga,
Grandior ut fetus siliquis fallacibus esset,
Et, quamvis igni exiguo, properata maderent.
Vidi lecta diu et multo spectata labore
Degenerare tamen, ni vis humana quot annis
Maxima quaeque manu legeret. Sic omnia fatis
In peius ruere, ac retro sublapsa referri;
Non aliter, quam qui adverso vix flumine lembum
Remigiis subigit, si bracchia forte remisit,
Atque illum in praeceps prono rapit alveus amni.

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193—203.] Steeping seed-beans is a of being sodden Plaut. Men. 2. 2. 51, and plan often pursued, to make the produce elsewhere. • Properata' goes closely with larger and easier to be cooked. But the 'maderent,' being nearly equivalent to probest seeds will degenerate, unless you pick pere.' So “ propera atque elue," Plaut. every year. It is the tendency of every- Aul. 2. 3. 3, is propere elue;' “ properanthing in nature, and orily man's most strenu- dus et fingendus,” Pers. 3. 32, propere ous efforts can counteract it.'

fingendus. 193.] A third precept. From vv. 195, 198.] • Vis humana' is from Lucr. 5. 196, it seems that Virgil is speaking of 206, “ Quod superest arvi, tamen id Natura leguminous plants : and so the passage is sua vi Sentibus obducat, ni vis humana reexplained by Pliny, 18. 17, Col. 2. 10. But sistat,” where the pessimist feeling is the he may be thinking of corn as well, and same as here. See p. 137. choosing pulse only as one instance. See 199.] The same precept is given by Varro on v. 199.

1. 52 with regard to corn: and this may be 194.] Nitro.' “ The virpov . . of the Virgil's meaning. So Col. 2. 9. Sic-reancients was not our nitre :' it was a ferri' is not dependent on vidi' (a conmineral alkali, carbonate of soda, and was struction which would be plausible, so far therefore, used in washing.” Keightley. as regards the structure of the whole pas

" Amurga,' åpópyn, a watery fluid con- sage), but forms an independent sentence, tained in the olive, of a dark colour, and of as the force of the truth of general decay greater specific gravity than the oil, which would be greatly weakened, if it were undermust be carefully separated from it.” Id. stood as resting. on the poet's individual

.195.] Siliquis fallacibus' like “vanis observation. • So it is : all earthly things aristis v. 226. Forb. comp. Tibull. 2. I. are doomed to fall away and slip back into 19, “ Neu seges eludat messem fallacibus chaos, like a boatman who just manages to herbis," where both passages seem to be make head against the stream, if the tension imitated. Here the epithet refers to the of his arms happens to relax, and the curgeneral character of the pods of beans, rent whirls away the boat headlong, down which in this particular case are to be less the river's bed.' deceptive than usual.

200.] This line nearly coincides with A. 196.] This line was supposed by most of 2. 169, where see the note. The metaphor the old interpreters to refer to what follows, here is sufficiently explained by what`fol. as if Virgil had meant to say that even lows, the fates answering to the current, the slightly boiling seeds, as well as steeping course of nature to the bark, and human them before sowing, was not sure to be labour to the rower. The general sense is effectual. The present punctuation, which not unlike Bacon's celebrated sentence was introduced by Catrou, has been gene- (Essays 24), “If time of course alter things rally followed since Heyne's second edition, to the worse, and wisdom and counsel shall and is supported by two of the writers in not alter them to the better, what shall be the Geoponics, Didymus 2. 35, and Demo. the end ?" critus 2. 41 (referred to by Keightley), as 202.] • Subigit,' A. 6. 302. well as by Palladius, 12. 1, who recommend 203.] The traditional explanation since the steeping of beans that they may boil Gellius (9. 29) makes . atque' = statim,' more easily. Madeo' is used in the sense accordingly,' a sense which it appears to

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